Linguistic applied

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Behaviorism
Is a psychological theory of learning which was very influential in teh 1940s and 1950s, especially in the United States. Traditional behaviourists believed that language learning is the result of imitation, practice, feedback on success, and habit formation. Children imitate the sounds and patterns which they hear around them and receive positive reinforcement for doing so. Thus encouraged by their environment, they continue to imitate and practice these sounds and patterns until they form 'habits' of correct language use. According to this view, the quality and quantity of the language which the child hears, as well as the consistency of reinforcement offered by others in the environment, should have an effect on the child's success in language learning.

The behaviourist view of how language is learned has an intuitive appeal. And there is no doubt that it can offer a partial explanation of some aspects of children's early language learning. However, it is useful to examine actual language data to see how well this view accounts for the development of some more complex aspects of their language
INNATISM  
Noham chomsky .An American Linguistic, philosopher ( 1960s).Chomsky is well known in the academic and scientific community as one of the fathers of modern linguistics.Chomsky began developing his theory of "generative grammar"

Syntactic structures-Transfomational grammar.Inadequate of describing the more complex aspects of the language acquisition-Grammar and sintax

Chomsky critique.Three main points :
Poverty of the stimulus-The logical problem of language acquisition-Ungramatical  and incomplete input-Grammatically acceptable output
1.- Poverty of the stimulus
Children hear only a finite number of senteces 
Abstract the rules and priciples of the language
Produce and infinite number of possible senteces 

2.- Constraints and principles cannot be learned
Primary language = L1
Children very young when learning L1
Single words around age 1
Basic grammar around age 6.At that age, no one has cognitive ability to understand the principles of grammar as a system.Because of innate capacity, is capable of using it.

3.- Patterns of development are universal
Children learn the various aspects of the language in a very similar order.
If children only learn what they were taught , the order of what they learned would vary in different learning enviroments 
 
Generative Grammar 
His approach to the study of language emphasizes "an innate set of linguistic principles shared by all humans" known as universal grammar, "the initial state of the language learner".
Universal grammar is a theory in linguistics that suggests that there are properties that all possible natural human languages have. Usually credited to Noam Chomsky, the theory suggests that some rules of grammar are hard-wired into the brain, and manifest without being taught. There is still much argument whether there is such a thing and what it would be. 
Innativism 
Innatism is a philosophical doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a 'blank slate' at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed. It asserts therefore that not all knowledge is obtained from experience and the senses. 
Psychology
In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are 'native' or hard wired into the brain at birth. This is in contrast to empiricism, the 'blank slate' or tabula rasa view.
Opposing views
The manner in which a child acquires language is a matter long debated by linguists and child psychologists alike.
Investigations has always been under dispute and it consequentlydivided linguists into adherents of two contradictory hypotheses: behaviorism on one side and innatism on the other 
Behaviourism
Language learning is a habit formation resembling the formation of other habits. That s, a language is learned in the way in which other habits are learned.
Free will is illusory, and all behaviour is determined by the environment either through association or reinforcement.
Only human beings have the capacity for language learning. They acquire a language as discrete units of habits, independently trained, not as an integrated system. 
Innatism
Every human child possesses innate knowledge of language structure to detect and reproduce language.This  mechanism called Language Acquisition Device or LAD. The LAD is supplied to humanchildren with birth. .
Language learning is distinct from other cognitive capacities.
Young children learn and apply grammatical rules and vocabulary as they are exposed to them and do not require initial formal teaching. 
Differences
Several differences arise between the behaviourist and the innatist theories of language acquisition :
1)According to behaviourism language is learnt in the way other habits are learnt. On theother hand, according to innatism language develops in the same way as other biologicalfunctions.
2)The behaviourist theory maintains a focus on the change in observable behaviours as themanifestations of learning. Innatism, on the contrary, focuses on an unobservable change in mental knowledge.
3)In behaviourism situational stimuli are considered as an essential prerequisite for learning.innatism, on the other hand, exposure to language in situations is a mere precondition for the activation of the language acquisition device, and is irrelevant to the actual course learning takes (Barman, Sultana, and Basu 31). 
4)The behaviourist view holds that children need formal teaching and guidance to learn in acorrect way. Quite the opposite, the innatist view maintains that young children learn andapply grammatical rules and vocabulary as they are exposed to them and do not requirepreliminary formal instruction.
5)The Behaviourist theory ignores completely the creativity of human beings, whereas the innatist theory views language acquisition as a creative process.
6)Behaviourism stresses on correction and considers it as an essential part in language acquisition. On the contrary, the innatist view holds that correction is useless in language acquisition 


Behaviorism
Is a psychological theory of learning which was very influential in teh 1940s and 1950s, especially in the United States. Traditional behaviourists believed that language learning is the result of imitation, practice, feedback on success, and habit formation. Children imitate the sounds and patterns which they hear around them and receive positive reinforcement for doing so. Thus encouraged by their environment, they continue to imitate and practice these sounds and patterns until they form 'habits' of correct language use. According to this view, the quality and quantity of the language which the child hears, as well as the consistency of reinforcement offered by others in the environment, should have an effect on the child's success in language learning.

The behaviourist view of how language is learned has an intuitive appeal. And there is no doubt that it can offer a partial explanation of some aspects of children's early language learning. However, it is useful to examine actual language data to see how well this view accounts for the development of some more complex aspects of their language
INNATISM  
Noham chomsky .An American Linguistic, philosopher ( 1960s).Chomsky is well known in the academic and scientific community as one of the fathers of modern linguistics.Chomsky began developing his theory of "generative grammar"

Syntactic structures-Transfomational grammar.Inadequate of describing the more complex aspects of the language acquisition-Grammar and sintax

Chomsky critique.Three main points :
Poverty of the stimulus-The logical problem of language acquisition-Ungramatical  and incomplete input-Grammatically acceptable output
1.- Poverty of the stimulus
Children hear only a finite number of senteces 
Abstract the rules and priciples of the language
Produce and infinite number of possible senteces 

2.- Constraints and principles cannot be learned
Primary language = L1
Children very young when learning L1
Single words around age 1
Basic grammar around age 6.At that age, no one has cognitive ability to understand the principles of grammar as a system.Because of innate capacity, is capable of using it.

3.- Patterns of development are universal
Children learn the various aspects of the language in a very similar order.
If children only learn what they were taught , the order of what they learned would vary in different learning enviroments 
 
Generative Grammar 
His approach to the study of language emphasizes "an innate set of linguistic principles shared by all humans" known as universal grammar, "the initial state of the language learner".
Universal grammar is a theory in linguistics that suggests that there are properties that all possible natural human languages have. Usually credited to Noam Chomsky, the theory suggests that some rules of grammar are hard-wired into the brain, and manifest without being taught. There is still much argument whether there is such a thing and what it would be. 
Innativism 
Innatism is a philosophical doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a 'blank slate' at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed. It asserts therefore that not all knowledge is obtained from experience and the senses. 
Psychology
In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are 'native' or hard wired into the brain at birth. This is in contrast to empiricism, the 'blank slate' or tabula rasa view.
Opposing views
The manner in which a child acquires language is a matter long debated by linguists and child psychologists alike.
Investigations has always been under dispute and it consequentlydivided linguists into adherents of two contradictory hypotheses: behaviorism on one side and innatism on the other 
Behaviourism
Language learning is a habit formation resembling the formation of other habits. That s, a language is learned in the way in which other habits are learned.
Free will is illusory, and all behaviour is determined by the environment either through association or reinforcement.
Only human beings have the capacity for language learning. They acquire a language as discrete units of habits, independently trained, not as an integrated system. 
Innatism
Every human child possesses innate knowledge of language structure to detect and reproduce language.This  mechanism called Language Acquisition Device or LAD. The LAD is supplied to humanchildren with birth. .
Language learning is distinct from other cognitive capacities.
Young children learn and apply grammatical rules and vocabulary as they are exposed to them and do not require initial formal teaching. 
Differences
Several differences arise between the behaviourist and the innatist theories of language acquisition :
1)According to behaviourism language is learnt in the way other habits are learnt. On theother hand, according to innatism language develops in the same way as other biologicalfunctions.
2)The behaviourist theory maintains a focus on the change in observable behaviours as themanifestations of learning. Innatism, on the contrary, focuses on an unobservable change in mental knowledge.
3)In behaviourism situational stimuli are considered as an essential prerequisite for learning.innatism, on the other hand, exposure to language in situations is a mere precondition for the activation of the language acquisition device, and is irrelevant to the actual course learning takes (Barman, Sultana, and Basu 31). 
4)The behaviourist view holds that children need formal teaching and guidance to learn in acorrect way. Quite the opposite, the innatist view maintains that young children learn andapply grammatical rules and vocabulary as they are exposed to them and do not requirepreliminary formal instruction.
5)The Behaviourist theory ignores completely the creativity of human beings, whereas the innatist theory views language acquisition as a creative process.

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