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Baroque Mentality
Its essential feature -> distrust in itself, fear of falling socially. Issues like the disillusionment and life as a dream. Obsession. Society while loving the holidays (especially theater) and luxury. Another topic: honor.
It was a period of conservatism and caution in freedom of expression -> consequence of the counter-spirit.
Feature artifice, concealment of reality in order to admire, surprise, deceive ..
The Discreet -> Baltasar Gracian: Work that reflects the most baroque model of behavior.
A new aesthetic
In literature, Renaissance and Baroque as opposed to the conception of literary and language gap that lies between Garcilaso and Gongora and between Lazarillo and the gadfly.
The Spanish acquired much of the features of current pronunciation and vocabulary.
-Nebrija (1492) Gramática castellana. Assuming that Castilian had reached a degree of perfection. I thought someday would disappear and that speakers of other universal league could rebuild.
Caste -> Language romance more important.
Treasury of the Castilian or Spanish Sebastian de Covarrubias (1611) -> provides definitions of words including lax ideas and opinions of the author.
The maturity of the Spanish was instrumental along with the press which helped in setting the voices more communes.
1.POESIA XVI CENTURY. Stages and Flows
"It was divided into two major stages:
* From 1511 to 1543 -> Themes, genres and verses of poetry cancionero. Main theme: courtly love.
* From 1543 until 1580 -> begin Lope de Vega and Luis de Gongora. The works of some of Boscan and Garcilaso de la Vega. Dissemination of the new Renaissance poetry. Versification, genres and themes of the new trends in Italy.
Topics procedientes of the Petrarchan and classical tradition. The songs of Petrarch (love story of the poet to Laura) model of the Golden Age poetry.
The classical tradition also recovered Coom literary forms the ode and the elegy of love, and poets such as Virgil, Ovid and Horace -> literary models.
Except the song and the lyre, used only hendecasyllable.
"The Sonnet: two fixed-cuaertetos rhyming ABBA ABBA-and two-variable tercietos rhyming DCD CDC CDE CDE .. --
More Frequent Item -> loving but there mythological pangerírico, funereal, satirical ..
-Song Petrarchan: several stanzas Mennecke stays, and consisting of seven syllables hendecasyllables. Different combinations. Ex: a stay of the composition II de Garcilaso.
Trio-chained-ABA BCB CDC ..- elegies, epistles, and satires. Ex: Elegy I Garcilaso.
-Eighth Real-ABABABCC-verse epic and narrative par excellence. Almost all compounds in p.épicos octaves.
"The lira and ectasílabos hendecasyllables, aBabB scheme aims to imitate Horatian ode. Garcilaso -> Ode to the flower of Knidos.
His work involves the final accommodation of the Italian forms of poetry in Spanish. It combines exquisite musicianship and a perfect structural equilibrium, the highest points of the Spanish lyric.
From 1543 - Boscan and Garcilaso's poetry scene is wide españool. Highlights three great poets: Fernando de Herrera, Fray Luis de Leon, and John of the Cross.
Sevilla (1534-1597) and excellent liberal education as the best poet after Garcilaso. Published collection of poems in 1582 - Some works - by constitruida sonnets, songs, elegies and pastorals, petriarquismo and classical tradition. Annotations aesthetic ideas outlined in Garcilaso de la Vega (1580)
Juan de Yepes (1542-1591) studied philosophy and theology at Salamanca. He belonged to the Carmelite order and served on its reform. One of the greatest lyric poets of the Castilian.
Garcilaso tradition established by his writing with originality but because of its content: mystical experience, union of soul and divinity, compared with the union of lovers. Three great poems: Dark Night of the Soul, Spiritual Canticle and Living Flame of Love.
Baroque Poetry -> great development. Any material could be poetic: a historic occasion, a mythological figure, a party .. etc-the brevity of life, the disappointment--a ruin, a pink-and desdeluego love. Poetry of contrasts. World prespective difficult and time burlesque. Period zenith of satiric poetry.
Two major aesthetic trends of poetry and prose of the time.
9.1 Culteranismo
also called Gongorism, resources used by the Polifermo gongora and the Solitudes. Beautification of reality through metaphor and imagery, hyperbaton continued use or alteration, numerous references classical mythology ..
Seirve literary trend is the concept. Gracian defined as an expression of the correspondence is between the objects. puns, the paronomasias, the writer Quevedo dilogías .. more representative of this trend.
aware of the culto, derogatory term of his detractors. In contrast concept is centered on the plantation. culto such concepts as their enemies.
Major schools:
School-Seville: Herrera as a model. Main representatives: John of Arguijo, Francisco de Rioja and Andres Fernandez de Andrada.
Antequera-Granada-School: Pedro Espinosa and especially Luis de Gongora.
School-Aragonese: Brothers and Bartholomew Luprecio Argensola Leonoardo. Classical poetry.
School-Madrid: numerous poets, including Lope de Vega and Quevedo.
In all, the most prominent Gongora, Lope y Quevedo.
Garcilaso de la Vega (toledo, 1501, Nice - 1536)
Renaissance ideal of man: Good lineage, virtuous, good soldier and courtier exquisite fine poet.
Pamphlet, practically all genres and topics of later tradition.
sonnets and songs
Process of a fated love, which causes pain and sadness in the lover. Two groups:
-Prior to 1533 - Death of Elizabeth Freyere (Beloved of the poet) and cancionero loving rhetoric, approaches Ausias March.
-Post-1533. Soft sentimentality and melancholy. Cancion III. Even the last sonnets, mythological theme.
Eclogues, composed 3:
"Eclogue second: first to be written and the most extensive. Part representable, unhappy loves the shepherdess Camila and Albania, who Salicio and Nemoroso console.
-First Eclogue: Written in rooms, divided into two parts: First Salicio recounts his love for Galatea that has left him to marry another pastor, second pastor Nemoroso mourning the death of Elisa. Salicio and poetic Nemoroso are unfoldings of the author. and Galatea and Elisa are Isabel Freyre, beloved of the poet. Cancionero Petrarchan in synthesis. Renaissance New sentimentality.
-Third Eclogue: Composed in octaves. quare nymphs of the Tagus are directed to a meadow on the bank to weave four stories.
Fray Luis de Leon (Belmonte, 1527 - High Madirgal towers, 1591) Augustinian monk and professor at the University of Salamanca.
"Prisoner of defendant from 1572 to 1576 translated into the vernacular the Song of Songs and to make comments in class against the Vulgate and in favor of the original Hebrew text.
Odes composed of a composition of matter varied, and indefinite number of short stanzas of verse.
-Metrics: Following the example of Garcilaso, used primarily lira. even that Aliran also used other verses of four, six and seven verses
-Themes: Miscellaneous.: Exaltation of virtue, mastery of the passions, contemplation of universal harmony created by a musician or architect God ..
-Style: new poetic language, cultured and refined, but also Garcilaso near Horace, from whom multiple resources and cultism.
Topic of the Beatus Ille
His collection opens with an imitation of one of the most famous works of Horace. Beatus Ille. Praise ciutadana withdrawing life who took refuge in his locus amoenus. (Which rests Life ..)
The Great Odes
The most interesting is the group that directs your friends salamantines: Felipe Ruiz, Grail, Loarte, Salinas, Portocarrero.
"In the ode to Francisco Salinas relates the harmony of music with the harmony esiritual.
"In the ode to Loarte (calm night) is a song of universal harmony that manifests itself in the contemplation of the starry sky.
Prose work
main works:
"In the name of Christ very complex theological treatise on the various names given to Christ Bible. Written in dialogue form.
"The Perfect Wife: Literature of the time of marriage. moral commentary about proverbs of Solomon on married women and their virtues.
Luis de Gongora y Argote (Cordoba, 1561-1627)
Folk poetry (Romances and letrilla) and learned poems (songs, sonnets and three great poems: Fable of Polyphemus and Galatea, the Solitudes and the Panegyric of the Duke of Lerma.
Two styles of Gongora
Polifermo and The Lonely -> 1612 and 1614 broadcast attracted controversy over its tough new style contcentración procedures constitutes poetic style and revolutionary stylist and away from the masses. despite allegations of darkness spread, and came to constitute a stream: culteranismo or Gongora.

Fable of Polyphemus and Galatea
Mythological poem consisting of 63 octaves. Based on Ovid's Metamorphoses. (read argument p64)
surprised Gongora's contemporaries for his innovations. Prescencia of mythological allusions and language entrevesado.
The Solitudes
Four poems, the poet only wrote two, the second was left unfinished. argumentative thread reveals narrative project akin to Byzantine or adventure novel:
-loneliness first: spring, young and beautiful castaway reaches shore of an imposing cliff. anochezer reaches the top. arrives at a hut some goatherds and is welcomed with great affection.
-loneliness second: the pilgrim knows fishermen. hunters out of a palace nearby and stops the poem.
Romance and letrillas
octosyllabic poetry. composed a hundred romances and many letrillas. Romance talks about all issues, some seriously and others in a mocking tone. most famous romances: <> and <> or <> in letrillas highlight <<let me go hot>> or <>
1.Regional of prose in the sixteenth s
Renaissance aesthetic ideas emerged in the dialogue didactic prose, historiography, mysticism and asceticism-and later in prose fiction -> Novel -> Medieval currents with the currents become renovating
2.1 Dialogues
Dialogue: Great acceptance s XVI. Essential for the development of the novel.
Dialogues in Renaissance Spain + appreciated:
"Juan de Valdes (Dialogue of the tongue).
-Alfonso Valdes (Dialogue of Mercury and Charon).
Doctrinal 2.2 deals. Santa Teresa de Jesus
Teresa de Cepeda (Ávila, 1515 - Alba de Tormes, 1582).
Funddó many combentos and reformed Caramel. Magnificent prose, classical and popular at a time. Autobiography "Book of Life" mystical experiences "The Interior Castle or the purple-and history of its work to establish combentos, most important doctrinal treatise (The Foundations) -> the Carmelite monasteries difficult to train.
3. Prose fiction
XVII includes s pastoral novel, Moorish and Byzantine periods. Stresses Lazarillo de Tormes.
3.1 Pastoral Novel
1559: The seven books of Diana (Jorge de Montemayor) Portuguese who wrote in Castilian. Opened genre <Diana, cnstituido framework for the loves of Diana and Sirena, a pastor in the absence of this is going to marry another pastor. Interleaved with three beautiful girls that tell their love stories.
Feature Highlights: idealization of nature and love (Character of rebirth) and quiet, melancholic language.
His numerous descendants tube: The target in love, from Gil Polo and La Galatea, Cervantes.
3.2 The Moorish novel (how Romance)
Moors grenade situation about to explode in rebellion, literature and fraternized Moor idealized Muslim and Christian cultures. disseminated it in the text "Abencerrage. Anonymous, also known as Hisdtoria of Jarifa Abindarraez and beautiful. 2 characters (a boy and girl) (a Christian and a Moor) Border -> so moorish.
3.3 The Byzantine romance -> From pilgrimage. Amorosa. Great adventure, great space travel. shipwreck, separation and final reunion of lovers. marriage.
First Farmer: Alfonso Nunez de Reinoso (History of the loves of thinning and Floriseaa) mid XVI century.
XVII Ciomienzos s most important Byzantine two novels: The pilgrim ens or homeland (Lope) and Los trabajos de Persiles and Sigsimunda (Cervantes)
4. Trends in prose in the seventeenth s
Novelistic genres during s booming XVI Byzantine novel highly appreciated and romance of chivalry and pastoral desaparecioeron.
Consolidated with the picaresque novel Guzman (Matt German)
In prose fiction develops a novelistic genre called satire Meripea (joke), Quevedo makes achieving all its glory.
Short Novel highly appreciated throughout the entire century and cultivated by authors such as Cervantes (novels copies) and Maria de Zayas (broken heart)
"A masterpiece of storytelling in this period: Quixote (Cervantes).
5. Picaresque. The Guzman
A rogue. Autobiographical form. Excuse for being naughty. Moral Element
Lazarillo was widely read but failed to create a genre until Matt German (1547-1616) published in 1599 the first part of Guzman Icarus, watchtower of human life, completed in 1604 with the second part.
Lazarillo, German Formula takes autobiographical -> exp vital player in the Société hard marginalized. excursuses on various topics of social criticism to the salvation of the soul. story as a confession, which aims to lead by example.
important works is the Buscón (Francisco de Quevedo).
6. Baltasar Gracian (1601-1658) -> pen at the service of moral and political. Works to form human beings capable of defending themselves in the difficult task of knowing how to live and move with caution in society.
6.1 prudence Manuals
Parts of Gracian's writings are of type aphoristic. The hero, Don Fernando plítico the oracle manual and discreet. highly condensed and elliptical prose <>.
6.2 Sharpness of wit and Art (play)
Art <> verbal acuity. act of the intellect that expresses the correspondence between bojetos alla. Style quiet. brief in form and content-dense.
6.3 The Criticón
Gracian's most important work. Byzantine allegorical novel -> exposes problems of human life from birth to death. Personalities and Andrenio Critilo symbolize reason and nature. Contrast that was already in works like Guzman. Typically Baroque. Contrast between aparenza and reality, reason Baroque.
Vida de Lazarillo de Tormes and his fortunes and adversities 1554.
There were at least 2 previous losses.
Modern novel -> story credible realist tone.
Autobiographical form. Response letter to unknown person. Children of Lazaro de Tormes.
Realistic Fiction
Fiction aims to bring narrative carried such verisimilitude that has not signed the site (anonymously).
Lazarus, marginalized lives alone in a cruel society, the educational process will mark the character of a mature man.
Seven chapters (treaties) and a prologue. three treaties, more extensive pattern of folk tale, full of hunger, wire. From the treaty fourth story in string (no matter the order episodes).
Posterity's guide
Limited success. From the Guzman. considered the 1st guide picaresque protagonist yet in reality is not clearly a rogue.
Miguel de Cervantes, Alcala de Henares 1547. Madrid, 1616
Figure summit of world literature. Masterpiece Don Quixote, translated in all languages.
Its production covers various genres, Narrative and dramatic highlights.
-Comedies: comedies of captives, The treatment of Algiers Algiers or baths, and customs and mess o Pedro de Urdemalas entertaining.
-Starters: comic character pieces, works represented intermissions. Multiplicity of meanings.
-La Numancia: dramatizes the siege of the city Iberian conducting the Romans and the heroic defense of their people. Collective ownership.
Cervantes, novelist
-pastoral novel. The Galatea divided into six books: love story, theoretical disquisitions on love, poetry anthology, discussion of poetry ..
-Novel adventures or Byzantine. Persiles dedicated to Count lemos 1617. The work of Persiles and Sigismund. Greek Model structure. Model of the continuous changes of fortune and place.
"Novelas ejemplares. 1613 twelve novels short: the gypsy girl, the lover liberal Rinconetey Cortadillo, The English-Spanish, The Licentiate, the force of blood, jealous of Extremadura, the illustrious kitchen maid, two daughters, Mrs. Cornelia, marriage and misleading The Dialogue of the Dogs.
Expensive novelty, characterization of the figures and moralizing purpose.
-El quijote (most famous) 2 parts. the ingenious hidalgo dqdlm and ingenious gentleman dqdlm

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