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GEN 98. Cont


Members of the Generation of 98 trials shown in their common concern for the present and the future Spain, from an initial critical radicalism regeneracionista to become more moderate after predominating in order to exalt the native landscape, especially the de Castilla.

Angel Ganivet

It is considered a precursor of the group. In the Spanish Idearium claims that Spain has always wasted their energies in companies outside their borders, so that regeneration requires that the forces are concentrated in the interior. Go to the apathy, individualism and undisciplined spirit causes of Spain's cultural backwardness.

Ramiro de Maeztu evolves from the socialism of his youth to the conservatism of his maturity: Toward the regeneration of another Spain - sloth and laziness are the causes of national disaster, and Don Quixote, Don Juan and Celestina - for their selfishness, are symbols of national decline, "is replaced by the excitement of the traditional principles, identifying as Hispanic with Catholicism, in Defense of Hispanidad.

José Martínez Ruiz 'Azorín "

His work is a collection of articles on the landscape of Spain, literary criticism and political reflection. In the villages, the route of Don Quixote and Castille, Spanish attempts to capture the soul of the landscape and the small details of life. In his political and literary articles evolved from the initial Anarchism (Anarchist literature) to the measured tone of his maturity (classic and modern, the margin of the classics).

Pío Baroja

Essays and memoirs are the platform of Harlequin Harlequin new table, and Youth, egotism, in which sets out its political and social, describes itself as a radical liberal, individualist and anarchist, rejects any political dogma and skeptical manifests the democratic system, believing that the reason is not the most, if not the smartest. In lonely hours, Notes of a trainee psychologist about his aesthetic: empty rhetoric rejects and defends the spontaneity and creative freedom before the shackles of the precepts.


And Miguel de Unamuno, perhaps the best essayist of the generation, addressed in his writings two obsessive themes: the problem of Spain and existential angst.

The first theme is present in their essays: Around the false purism purism crippling attacks and defends the need of Europeanization. But these ideas came quickly in crisis and Life of Don Quixote and Sancho, Cervantes' work plays in defending the quixotic attitude toward life and upholds the need for more Spanish Europe. On the land of Portugal and Spain and Spanish visions Wanderings show the essence of Spain in the landscape.

Of his existential and religious conflict trials dealing Tragic Sense of Lifein which there is the struggle between reason and faith and The Agony of Christianity, which holds that true religion is discussed in doubt, then, the word agony is taken in its etymological sense of struggle.

Poetry: poetry coexist concerned about aesthetics and that includes social and existential concerns. Unamuno

His poetry meant rejection of the preciousness modernité. It is characterized by the strength of their ideas and depth of their feelings. Try existential themes: God, time, death, pain, nostalgia for Spain from exile, the landscape of Castilla .... Among his books of poems Highlights: Poems, lyric sonnet Rosario, El Cristo de Velázquez, Ballads and Song of exile.

Antonio Machado (1875-1939).

Born in Seville and studied in Madrid in the Free Institution of Education. Rubén Darío met in Paris. He was professor of French in Soria, a city where he met Eleanor, sixteen years whom he married in 1909. Three years later, he died Leonor Machado moved to Andalusia. With the advent of the Civil War, he sided with Republican Alliance and in 1939 was exiled. He died at Collioure (France)

His first book of poems, Solitudes (1903), may fall into Modernism. Some features of this site are: -

Issues such as the anguish of the passage of time, death, sleep and memory.

"Symbols, like the road, which represents life and the passage of time, dreams, expressing the depths of consciousness, the running water, represented by the source, which illustrates the monotony of life. Symbolizes life when it springs, ephemeral, when running, and death when it is quiet.

- The poet's dialogue with itself and with the landscape, talking to the other (splitting of his own personality), or dialogues with the source, spring afternoon, with night ...

Poetic language and metrics-modernist (verse heroic verse and heptasílabos, silva arromanzada (lines 5 and 7 comfortable rhyming poet)

Solitudes, Galleries and Other Poems (1907) refers to the earlier book but incorporates innovations. In "Loneliness" has removed the formal aspects of Modernism. The poems included in "Galleries" are known for their symbolism, including the poet himself and explores his feelings and "Other Poems" is already beginning to look to the outside world. Descriptive poem appears: "On the banks of the Duero," which represents the starting point of a new stage in his poetry.

Campos de Castilla (1912-1917), is the work in which the author comes closest to the concerns noventayochistas. Land dominated poems Castilian and Andalusian. Many of them relate to Soria, where he had been professor of the Institute and where he lived with his wife, Eleanor (A José María Palacio). The songs are patriotic, referring to Spain's glorious past, present or future miserable encouraging (A young Spain). Another important issue is the landscape, Machado shows a strikingly realistic objectivity, but also a subjective component and projecting their own feelings about the landscape (melancholy, loneliness, death .. .) Through the Spanish landscape represents the soul and very specifically the soul that symbolizes Spain Castilla. The third major theme of his work are the enigmas of man's faith, God, death, afterlife.

A Campos de Castilla also belong to the "Praise". poems of homage to various authors have proposed a way forward (Francisco Giner, Ortega y Gasset, Unamuno ...) and "Proverbs and Songs", in which more presents reflections philosophical about man, life, love, God, time or Spain. The work also includes extensive romance "The land of Alvargonzález" on the subject of envy. Later published New Songs, Songs to Guiomar, Poetry of war - in which stands the crime was in Granada, heartbreaking elegy for Lorca, and Juan deMairena, a series of discussions and dialogues between two characters on different issues (literature, education, philosophy ...)


During the first decades of the century XX is grown in Spain:

"The verse drama, linked to modernism and to be held in two forms: the rural drama and historical drama. This kind of theater, it ignores the social and political reality of the country and looking at the last national ideals. Their representatives are Eduardo Marquina, author of The Daughters of El Cid and in Flanders has been the sun Villaespesa Francisco, with his work Doña María de Padilla and the Machado brothers, Juan de Manara, and La Lola is going to ports.

"The Theatre of humor continue to successfully represent the farces of Charles Arniches (Flower district) and the brothers Alvarez Quintero (The Genius darling and happy), which idealize the Madrid and Andalusian society respectively. The characters are types and reflect the strengths and weaknesses typical of both regions. Arniches start after a theater that mixes the tragic and the comic. (Miss Trevelez, Los caciques) line that will continue later Jardiel Poncela with intellectual humor (Heloise is under an almond tree, four hearts with brake and gear back) and Miguel Mihura, precursor of the theater of the absurd (Three hats)

- The "high comedy" means the initial stage of Jacinto Benavente (outside the nest, Madam Ama o malquerida) part of the renovation break with the modernist tradition of melodramatic S. XIX, but soon gives way to success and will be the most prominent representative of "high comedy." Its purpose is to entertain the public and make a soft satire of the bourgeoisie (known People, Roses Fall, Butterfly flying over the sea). In his masterpiece, The vested interests, introduces characters from the Italian commedia dell'arte (Colombina , Harlequin, Punchinello), true love faces economic interests.

Among the 98 authors of the Modernist innovators include:

Miguel de Unamuno: His dramas as well as his novels and poems, dealing symbolically existential conflict and lack of ornamentation scenic and precise dimensions in order to deepen the characterization of the figures. The word acts devoid of any ornament expression. In production include: Phaedra, The other brother John, Shadows of sleep.

José Martínez Ruiz, Azorín: Show off your obsession with the passage of time, It gives great importance to the word. Among his plays highlights: The invisible, Angelita.

Jacinto Grau, wants to renovate the theater of his time, which it accuses of commercial (Lord of Pygmalion). Later still expressionist and symbolic techniques (Knight Woman, The beautiful lady, La casa del diablo).

And, above all, Ramón María del Valle-Inclán, great innovator of the Spanish theater, rejected the previous theater bourgeois realism.

Francisco Ruiz Ramón divides his legendary production cycle, cycle and cycle grotesque farce.

The cycle consists of Comedy mythical barbarian, The Haunted and divine words. Comedies barbaric flag-Eagle, Wolf and Cara Romance Silver-Galicia are located in archaic and superstitious, with characters lacking in moral and sacrilegious.

The cycle consists of farce farce child of the head of the dragon, La Marquesa Rosalinda, Italian Farce in love with the king and Farce and Queen castiza license. At this stage demystifies traditional society with ever more grotesque language .

Esperpento Cycle: The absurdity is the Spanish tradition represented by Quevedo and Goya. Is an aesthetic that emphasizes the grotesque deforming. Through the absurdity, the author makes a critical acidic Spain at the time and its institutions. It uses the grotesque distortion of reality and the characters, which are treated as puppets by animalization procedures and reification, mixing the refined form and even pedantic with vulgar expressions or dark and pure jargon, speech of the tavern, of the crime or the brothel. It is also masterful use of irony and satire. In this cycle belong Bohemian Lights, which theorizes about this new genre and makes a social and political criticism of Spain at the time. After Mardi Gras type, composed of Don Friolera horns, Galas deceased and The Captain's Daughter.

Conclusion: The generation of 98 retains aspects such as the renewal of modernist language, impressionistic description, evoking nostalgic idealization of the landscape, reacted against the "vulgar style" Realism and includes, in some cases, the thematic and ideological legacy Naturalism (Baroja), in others, the enormous intellectual and existential burden of German thought (Unamuno), and in other forms of a new sensitivity based on linguistic accuracy or nostalgic recollections of Romanticism (Azorín).

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