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NEOCLASSICISM. From a literary standpoint S. XVIII is usually designated as the age of neoclassicism, as this better reflects the spirit of the embargo momento.Sin must indicate the existence of two other trends, that within the neoclassical frame the S XVIII: The Post baroque, which continues the characteristics formal mid-century Baroque, and pre-Romanticism, a current sensitive and melancholy that emerges in the last third of S XVII.Las major characteristics of Neoclassicism are: * The work must have universal coverage and air of verisimilitude. * Must maintain the unity of style and gender separation, avoiding mixing in the same work, the tragic and the comic, verse and prose and with the familiar high-pitched. * The work must have a moral and educational purpose. * The informative prose and essays, will be the favorite genres. PROSE The literature of the first half-century baroque tendencies come from, as withLife of Diego de Torres y Villaroel. A half century of history belongs to the famous preacher Fray Gerundio Campazas, alias Dolts, José Francisco de Isla, humorous satire against the oratory of the era filled with the most appropriate devices culteranos.Muchos mood of the era, didactic prose and essays get unusual splendor with names like Feijoo, Gallows and Jovellanos. The most important work of Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo is contained in eight volumes of Critical Universal Theater, consists of essays or lectures on various subjects whose intention was to inform the public on cultural developments elsewhere in Europe and destroy the superstitions which still apply. It uses a simple, natural and without artifice retóricos.La most important workJose Vazquez Gallows are the Moroccan Letters (1789), where by means of the epistolary genre, presents a broad overview of the cultural, social and economic life, justifying the failure of Spain to the ruin caused by war, the scientific backwardness, superstitions and bad habits. Pre-Romantic work is lugubrious night dyes, which has shaped the history of character dialogue that tries to dig his beloved dead. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, represented better than anyone the synthesis of current thinking at the time. Its production focuses on concern for the problems of Spain and her cousin, the didactic intention, but with a sober and elegant prose of remarkable literary qualities: Report in the file of the agrarian law, and general plan of public institution. POETRYThe poetry of the 1st half of the century was a continuation of baroque poetry and not until the 2nd half after the triumph of art neoclásico.La confluence of time thinking and literature, gender is perceived in a very characteristic of the period: fábula.Entre its practitioners emphasize the Samariego Felix Morales who wrote his Fables, in order to ridicule human failings such as greed, hypocrisy and pride. And Tomas de Iriarte, whose literary fable reflecting concerns aesthetic of neoclassicism, the usefulness of the rules, desirability of studying the classics, the importance of joining the useful and the aesthetic, etc.The Extremadura Meléndez Valdés, perhaps the lyrical poet most important of the century. It represents the synthesis of the two streams of poetictime Anacreontic poetry and poetry and moral philosophy. Poetry Anacreontic comprises compositions theme of love in bucolic settings, where women are exalted and the pleasures of life. Poetry cheerful rhythm sensory light and graceful and refined environment in which nature is the key. In its moral and philosophical poetry expresses the ideas of enlightenment and philanthropic issues become agriculture, education, work, etc.. TEATRO As in the prose and poetry, theater of the 1st half of the century accentuates the features of the previous century, baroque language and search for beautiful scenery. From Neoclassicism in the plays will prevail didactic intent. T he work must serve to propagate reformist ideas and educate viewers. The main rules to be satisfied the works are: * Respect the rule of the 3 units (action, space, time) * Providing plausible: invented events but could have happened in reality. * Maintain the decorum in the characters, who must act according to their social status. * Abide clearly a genre and not mix tragedy with comedy. The most important playwrightLeandro Fernandez de Moratin (1760-1828) whose production is exclusively comedies. His works have clear moral and didactic intent and respond prior to the neoclassical code. The themes developed in them are two: the freedom of choice in marriage, equality of spouses. Both age and social position. This is the theme he developed in The Old Man and the girl (1790) and the girls themselves. In the structure follows them faithfully to the rules of neoclassicism and content include ideas of enlightened thought, although perceived emotional features of pre-Romanticism. Another important issue in a work is the new comedy or drama satirizes contemporary coffee characterized by excessive tone melodramático.El Madrid Ramon de la Cruz is the traditional line of the theater. His sketches collect folk customs and flavor of Madrid at the time. The sketches were of public taste, to the chagrin of neoclassic critics who consider a genre worthy of being represented and among them is the farce entitledManolo critique of neoclassical tragedy.

Romanticism Romanticism against the values imposed by the bourgeois world and its commercial and rational society, defends the creative power of spirit. The "I" art becomes the main thrust of creation and freedom the only absolute rule to cumplir.De include and the exaltation of self and the ideal of freedom are derived the main characteristics of this movement: * Rejection of a reality that is opposed to the ideals of the writer and subsequent escape or evasion. * Through the imagination: the exotic countries, the past (the Middle Ages in particular) become shelters idealized by romantic writers. * Analysis of privacy: The expression of feelings is an obsessive concern. And the writer is, to explore inside, despair, melancholy, loneliness, anxiety or sadness. * The importance of landscapes or environments: description of the nature that serves to externalize the internal landscapes of the artist. Ruins, sunsets, storms, abandoned gardens, dungeons, cemeteries, etc.. * In terms of technique or structure, of literary, creative freedom is manifested in the mixture and confusion of different genres, even within the same work. The characters are literary types, without too much psychological complexities. The usually dominant rhetorical style and tries to achieve a sound and brilliance at times excessive. "Romantic prose early nineteenth century begins a highly successful genre, the historical novel, which follows the fashion and puts their case in the past . In this genre masterpieces were not even prominent authors, except perhapsThe Lord of Bembibre (1844) by Enrique Gil y Carrasco. Therefore, the greatest interest in folklore articles (characterized by the description of types and social customs or popular with a didactic purpose: improving society), and the ideological and cultural debate that took place in newspapers and magazines. The maximum figure of romantic prose is Mariano José de Larra. Larra cultivated all genres, but most important literary works of the author lies in his newspaper articles. The most important of which are, above all, the articles of customs. Critical attitude. Ironic and acerbic when dealing with the Spanish life, their defects, because their desire is the progress of a society stuck in the laziness and backwardness. Come back tomorrow andThe old Castilian. His articles on literary criticism, focused mainly on the stage. He wrote reviews of new releases and wove them positions of dramatic theory. His literary aesthetic is epitomized (meet) in the article titled Literature. The political articles belong to the later years of his life, and in them the Larra combative defender of their liberal ideals of Larra gives way to disillusionment and despair, and next suicide. The Day of the Dead, 1836. The structure with which the articles is variable up. Often found as a witness of the facts, at times described as a short and sometimes as having been a dream. Are common moral or philosophical digressions which set out their language teorías.Elis coupled with his keen observation and vivid reality, which has assured the validity literary language is a natural, clear and precise, away from rhetoricity. poetry-romantic lyric did not win in Spain until the late 30 period of its fullness and lasted 20 years. However, one can speak of a post-Romanticism or second Romantic generation that developed during the second half of the century. And where there are two romantic poets characterized by intimate, that became bridges to the modern lyric. Gustavo Adolfo Becquer and Rosalia de Castro. The contribution of Romanticism renewal is seen in all aspects of poetry .* The lexicon: is peopled with terms that reflect the spirit of the times: the dissatisfaction, illusions, melancholy, passion, ideals, frustration, etc. ...*Images: are filled with exotic, or mysterious twilight landscape, treated with a very careful .* sensoriality Metrics: they use all kinds of stanzas and verses, although they tend to use the most popular forms. The romance becomes a favorite compositions. In the poem blend verses of varying length and different stanza forms, which produces a feeling of greater freedom and dynamism * Themes: love looms large. It is a passionate, almost always impossible to achieve what motivates the profound misfortune of the poet. Next to love is the concern of religion, the fear of death and also the social and political reasons: the appearance of characters by rebels (the pirate, the prisoner, etc ...) The poet presents her desire for freedom and obstacles is to achieve .*Trends: Poetry narrative whose most common reasons are the legends and historical issues as in Legends in Verse Zorrilla or historical romances of the Duke of Rivas. The most representative poets of the 1st generation of Romantics: Jose Zorrilla in poetry, José de Espronceda El Estudiante de Salamanca and the Duke of Rivas Historical Romances. In the second generation, the post-Romanticism belong: with Rimas Gustavo Adolfo Becher and Rosalia de Castro On the Banks of the Sar.Becquer largely makes modern poetry since romanticism evolved to achieve a new poetic sensibility and a glossary far from the rhetoric and worn lexicon of their predecessors. No less important is in this sense the poetry of Rosalia de Castro at the prevailing melancholy, loneliness, pain and authenticity of his poetic voice. TEATRO The introduction of Romantic drama in Spain delayed for survival neoclassical theater in the early decades Siglo.Ambas lived trends in the scenarios, leading discussions on mandatory and theatrical aesthetics. The main features are: * are broken with the mandatory rules of Aristotelian drama had imposed so strictly neoclassical dramatists. * Freedom of creation, Which governs the supreme value theater. They mix comic and tragic genres are used interchangeably and verse and prose in the same work, but you end up succeeding verse. * Structure: works can be divided into 3, 4 or 5 acts and the text includes numerous dimensions to describe situations decorated characters. * Gender: the most cultivated, Historical drama. * Ages: favorite historical time, although the medieval world is only framework for addressing social problems of the nineteenth century. The scenarios represent cemeteries, dungeons, abandoned places, dark forests, etc.. * Actors: a man and woman who are faced with the impossibility of their love. The hero is usually surrounded by a mysterious origin that usually prove to be the end of noble origin, whether related to the antagonist. She unites all psychic and intellectual virtues, but the love she turns leads to destruction. The other characters are only spectators of the tragic love or act as opponents to the achievement of that love. * Themajor theme is love and passion that fateful opposed to social norms and drags the sufferer to death. Another issue is the freedom, the desire to achieve absolute freedom (political, social or human) that is prevented by the environment or fate. The tragic denouement, the final death that haunts the protagonist is not a moral lesson, in which there is a punishment for her illicit love but a cry of pain and rebellion against a world that supports the achievement of the ideals. / / The authors and major works of the romantic drama are: The combination of Venice by Francisco Martínez de la Rosa, Don Alvaro and strength of the Sino Duque de Rivas, Antonio Garcia Gutierrez troubadour, Lovers of Teruel Juan Eugenio Hartzenbuschand Don Juan de José Zorrilla.

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