Livestock

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5-livestock activity. The traditional farming based on the coexistence of different livestock species in the same area, made ​​up of indigenous breeds with a high degree of wildness, and used backward techniques and systems that caused extensive livestock rendimientos.La low current experienced major changes in the structure and production, which have led to increased yields. the density structure and its recent changes. a) the production tends to specialize in the production of meat or milk. This involved the replacement of a race other selected foreign nationals and the near disappearance of dual purpose breeds (milk, meat). However, we are seeing some recovery of indigenous breeds, thanks to subsidies for this purpose. B) increases progressively expanding technology, with the use of mechanical models and the scientific study of animal feed. This fact, coupled with increased farm size and number of animals per farm has increased yields, although the size of many farms is still inadequate. C) Intensive livestock weight gains compared to the extensive: 1) livestock widely depending on the physical environment and fed a tooth in the natural grassland moist Spain (northern peninsular and mountainous areas) or in the pastures of the peneplain and stubble dry Spain. Generally, it is associated with native breeds and traditional working techniques. While maintaining its importance in certain areas, moving towards a mixed or intensive farming. 2) intensive livestock production is linked the physical environment, to be stabled and fed with feed in whole or in part. It is located in the vicinity of urban consumption centers in the northeast and mainland Mediterranean coast, especially pigs and poultry. This type of farming is associated with selected foreign breeds, uses modern techniques and has a high dependence on imported fodder and compound feed, whose prices have shown sharp increases. The livestock production and its recent changes. Livestock production has increased its stake in Spanish agricultural production since the 1960's, to around 35%. However, some communities are much higher than this percentage, such as Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria and Catalonia. Causes of increased livestock have been the mechanization of field, which frees up time for other activities, soil conservation through the cultivation of fodder, and increasing living standards, which requires improving diet incorporating meat proteins, of milk and eggs. The changes experienced by the different types of livestock are due to the need to compete in the market to the requirements of the CAP, which imposes quotas on some productions, decouples subsidies from production in certain sectors and conditional upon compliance food safety, animal welfare and environmental care, which increase production costs. A) the cattle are engaged in the production of meat and milk. The location depends on the ability and the system of cattle. The beef cattle (dairy cows) predominates in the north of Spain, the mountain areas of western rangelands, and in an intensive regime near urban centers and fodder-producing areas, as in Aragon, Castilla y Leon Catalonia. The dairy type cattle found in extensive or mixed, in northern Spain, where natural grasses, and on large farms in Andalusia, taking advantage of irrigated fodder and in intensive regimen, in environment of large cities, where market proximity offset by higher production costs. S beef production faces competition from cheaper pig meat and poultry. Milk production suffers

competition from other EU countries cheaper. The PAC maintains 100% of the aid linked to production in dairy cows and slaughter calves and dissociated by 60% for the slaughter of adult animals. In contrast, milk surpluses have led to impose quotas, encourage cessation of activity and 100% decoupling of aid for milk production. As a result, the industry has been converted into beef cattle, resulting in reduced milk production. B) the sheep is intended mainly for the production of meat and milk, and very secondary to the production of wool. Its preferred location is inside the dry peninsular, where is exploited in two regimes. The extensive regime, predominant, including transhumance, or seasonal movement of livestock between winter pastures d summer, are in decline due to the scarcity of shepherds and cattle grazing on stubble and fallow land or areas organized for this purpose. The intensive system of sheep and milking bait is increasing, although it still has little significación.La meat production is based on indigenous breeds of high roughness. In contrast, production of milk with 1 much greater introduction of foreign breeds and is favored by high prices and high demand which is enough to make cheese. The PAC has given substantial grants to extensive sheep to prevent the abandonment of this activity. After the last renovation, 50% of aid is linked to production. C) pig farming is dedicated in part to fresh consumption and in part to the production of sausages or sausage meat. Its location depends on the livestock system. The extensive pig based on quality breeds (Iberian pig) is located in the meadows of Extremadura, Zamora, Salamanca and Andalucia. The intensive pig predominates in Catalonia and Murcia, which usually takes the system integration, ie conjuncio0n of 1 company, which provides the raw materials (pigs) and feed and livestock, which provides the stable and work . The pork production has grown due to increased demand, but faces the problem of surplus global and European meat. The PAC does not give this sector minimum prices or direct payments, export subsidies only if necessary. D) poultry farming is intended to produce meat and eggs. Its location in an intensive regime and under the system integration is based in Catalonia, Castile and Leon and Aragon. The extensive system houses with access to fresh air and less density of birds is still very reducido.La chicken meat production is lower than consumption, requiring instead import hueveos production can export. The PAC provides support only for the export of meat and eggs and chicken meat removed from the market to avoid price fall

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