Normative vs. Descriptive public relations theory: A normative theory is especially important if Public relations is to be the management function primarily responsible for Introducing moral values and social responsibility into organizational Decisions. Descriptive studies, however, tell us how well public relations Professionals actually are serving that normative role at the organizational level and the extent to which their individual behaviors as practitioners meet Ethical guidelines.
Low-touch vs. High-touch cultures:
- Low-touch cultures: North Americans, British, China, Japan, German Ex: Londoners traveling in a crowded subway are likely to assume a rigid Posture, avoiding eye contact and refuse to even acknowledge the presence of The others.
- High-touch cultures: Italians, French, Russians, Arab, Latin Americans
Ex: The French on the other hand, have no problem leaning And pressing against each other in a crowded subway
Convergence vs. Divergence theory
- Convergence is a Strategy by which we adapt our communication behavior in such a way as to Become more similar to another person. Different cultures become similar or come Together. As world integrates, societies become similar
- Divergence is accentuating the verbal and nonverbal Differences between speakers. Natural resistance to foreign influences
High vs. Low context
- High - much of the message is in the context or internalized By the communicators - implicit messages, indirectness, rely more on Nonverbals, higher tolerance for ambiguity.
- Low - direct or explicit messages are common; rely more on Verbal, role of speaker emphasized