TYPES OF CROPS: From the smallest to the tallest, they are herbaceous crops (cereals or leafy greens), shrubs (grapevine) and trees (olive and fruit trees).
MONOCULTURE: It is used when fields are used to grow just one crop.
POLYCULTURE: It is used when fields are used to grow more than one type of crops.
DRYLAND AGRICULTURE: Crops are irrigated only with rainwater.
IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE: Irrigation applied to the land, soil or crops is artificial.
INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE: Here the land is used to its full potential, in order to have the highest output and profit as possible.
EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE: Here the land is not used to its full potential, and the output will depend on the capital and technology invested.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE: It is typical of regions with low level of development (Africa, South East Asia, Latin America). It has a low level of technology and requires a high level of labour workers. The output produced is for self-consumption.
SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE: It's a traditional type of agriculture characteristic of migratory populations in areas with equatorial and tropical climate. The soil is cultivated continuously in irregular plots and it's exhausted in 2 or 3 years. Different crops, such as cereals and tubers, are cultivated. 1) Cut trees. 2) Burn trees & undergrowth. Ashes fertilize the soil. 3) Cultivate continuously until soil is exhausted. Repeat process somewhere else. Ej: sorghum, cassava, maize, yams, sweet potatoes.
SEDENTARY DRYLAND AGRICULTURE: It's a traditional type of agriculture found in tropical areas. Plots are located close to villages and they use crop rotation, mixing cereals, tubers and fallow land. Using this technique soil is not exhausted.
IRRIGATED MONSOON AGRICULTURE: This type of agriculture can be found in South and South East Asia. Paddy fields are located in alluvial plains and river deltas. This system produces two or three harvests annually. 1) Before the rainy season, the fields are ploughed & rice is planted in fertilised nurseries. 2) During the monsoon season, once the plants are grown, they are transferred to the paddy fields (arrozales). 3) After the monsoon, when the crops begin to ripen, water is removed & rice is harvested & threshed.
TYPES OF AGRARIAN ECONOMIES: There are two types: subsistence economies which are the ones that produce what they need; and market economies that sell what they produce.
SOCIAL ORGANISATION OF AGRARIAN ACTIVITIES: It refers to property and exploitation. In terms of property, land can be private or collective. In terms of exploitation, it can be direct if landowners or their employees work the land themselves, or indirect if the owner allows a tenant or partner to work the land.
AGRARIAN SETTLEMENTS: It is how the agrarian population is distributed. They can be dispersed (farmers' dwellings are separated from one another and surrounded by the land they farm), concentrated (farmers' dwellings are grouped in a village) and interspersed (some farmers' dwellings are grouped and others are isolated).
TYPES OF SPANISH AGRARIAN DWELLINGS: There are four main types: barraca (it is a dwelling found in Valencia, we can distinguish it by its pointed roof), caserío (a dwelling typical of Basque Country, we can distinguish it because one side of the roof is longer than the other one), cortijo (a dwelling found in the Andalusia, we can distinguish it because it has white walls and usually it's surrounded by olives trees) and masía (typically found in Catalonia).
TYPES OF FARMLAND: Farm fields are distinguished from one another on the basis of size (they can be small, medium and large), shape (they can be regular as the townships in the US or irregular as in mountainous terrains), location (they can be open or closed) and use (they can be used for agriculture, livestock farming or silviculture)