• The economic transition to the capitalist system Initially brought: A fall in production A rise in inflation and unemployment A Drop in the standard of living Greater social inequality. • The situation has Improved since the beginning of the 21st, due to the export of oil and Gas.• This has helped Russia to: ¡ recover part of its international influence ¡ Have closer relations with China, India, the EU and Iran.
5.2. POST- ORDER COMMUNIST COUNTRIES
• The states that seceded from the USSR are in different situations, according to: ¡ Geographic al factors ¡ Cultural factors ¡ Their history with Russia. Ukraine And Belarus Political tensions between the Russophiles and the prowestern Groups. Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan Ethnic tensions and disputes over the Borders. Central Asia, such as Kazakhstan Under authoritarian Regimes.
• Chechnya 1. • Tried to gain its independence from Russia in 1991 2. • The Russian army suppressed the revolt after a violent confrontation 3. • Since Then, pro-independence guerrillas have tried to undermine Russia control with Terrorist attacks.
•Countries In Central and Eastern Europe. East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Romania, the Czech Republic and Slovakia Adopted democracy and a capitalism Economies not as Strong as other Western countries Some of them have joined the EU and NATO Tension with Russia, due to its loss of influence in the area.
• Geopolitical Conflicts in Yugoslavia ORDER . 1. • Dissolution of the communist regime in 1980 2. • Ethnic and religious confrontations in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia, Yugoslav wars. 3. • The Dayton Treaty (1995) divided the territory into five Independent states and Bosnia-Herzegovina into two federations. 4. • There are Still points of friction and in 2006 Montenegro proclaimed its independence from The Serbia 5. • Kosovo took the same path (2008)
6.1. CHINA: THE BIRTH OF A GREAT POWER
• After Mao Zedong, the Popular Republic of China was ruled by Deng Xiaoping (1978-1997) ¡ He promoted economic reforms “market socialism”, which combined Communism with some elements of capitalism. 1. • He dismantled the communes 2. • He distributed the land among the peasants 3. • He allowed the peasant to sell Their own products. 4. • He encouraged the export of cheap products to foreign Countries 5. • He opened China to foreign trade and investments.
• Xiaoping’s successors, Jiang Zeming and Hu Jintao, have followed the same Policy. •The result has been the spectacular growth of the Chinese GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and its exports. • Despite China is one of the greatest powers In the world…• Social inequality has grown ¡ Its political system is Undemocratic. • Geopolitically, its main conflicts concern: ¡ Taiwan, which China considers part of its territory ¡ Tibet, conquered by China in 1951, had Fought for independence led by Dalai Lama.
6.2. THE NEW INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES
• South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan as the Asian tigers because they have achieved Industrial development. • Since the 70s: They produced and exported electronic Products with competitive prices due to their reduced production costs. • 1997-98: they have suffered from financial instability and competition from Other countries in the region.
6.3. THE EMERGENT ASIAN POWERS
• There are still serious internal and external conflicts due to ethnic and Religious tensions in the province of Kashmir: India enjoyed sustained growth From 1980, due to: The service industry,T,Car manufacturing, Pharmaceutical Industries.
Leaders Were Hindu and the majority of the population were Muslim. After WW2 and the Liberation from the British they could choose to join Pakistan or India. The Leaders chose India and the conflicts with Pakistan began. Other Asian Countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam Are Undergoing a process of modernization which has been helped by the economic Profits of their exports