Luces de bohemia

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Luces de bohemia is a national satire of politics, society, religion, etc;

is an indictment of the Spanish situation. With this work, puts his mirrors Valley

deforming to the most varied aspects of Spanish reality. Aspects of the Spanish reality criticizing Valley through the grotesque are:

• references to the imperial past (Philip II, El Escorial ...).

• reference to the Spanish colonies in America, the Tragic Week (1909), the

Russian Revolution (1917) and the events following the Spanish crisis of


Criticism of various real political sign, "Maura Death!"

• Strike against bad government, corruption of the Minister, capitalism and

bourgeois conformism.

• protest against police repression. He criticizes the torture carried out by

police, illegal detention.

• Appearance of street revolts s through workers revolution.

caricature of the bourgeois: the bookseller Zarathustra, the landlord Pica Lagartos

Some defenders of the order of the stage XI, etc.

• a critique of traditional religion and empty.

• Criticizes figures, schools and literary institutions. (For example: Galdós)

also ridicules the bohemian life and a world defines it as useless.


Modernism is a movement that seeks to reconcile different influences, their

common feature is to fund everything, cover everything. Combining the contributions of Parnassianism, symbolism, impressionism, aestheticism and mysticism. Want to join the traditionalism of exoticism and simplicity of expression.

Modernism is, in Spain, a critical attitude, which is to go against

patterns of the bourgeois system. Intellectuals and artists adopt an attitude of rebellion against society.

In parallel to modernism emerges a group of writers, essayists and poets

which is called the Generation of '98.

• Your biggest concern is the identity of Spanish: Spain distinguish between real and false official miserable and aparante.

• They feel great interest and love for Castilla.

• Breaking the mold literary classics crando new forms (such as the grotesque


• Use a language close to the street, but simple, and retrieve words


• Pessimism is the most common attitude among them, and are in favor of

regeneracionismo Joaquin Costa.

3.AUTOR: Ramon del Valle-Inclan

Valle-Inclan was always interested in political and social problems of his time.

Participate in the controversies of his time. In 1923 protest against the forced exile of Unamuno. In 1929 he was arrested for two weeks for his writings during the dictatorship. It prohibits the representation of its absurdity "The Captain's Daughter."

As for his work, we can see his literary career, which is divided into five periods:

1. Modernist Cycle

2. Mythical cycle, in which all his works stem from his native Galicia.

3. Cycle of farce, this cycle works combine the sentimental to the grotesque, and the characters as puppets, announce the call of absurdity.

4. Grotesque cycle. The absurdity, rather than a literary genre, is a new way of seeing the world as it deforms and distorts reality to present the real picture is hidden behind it. It uses parody, humanizes the animals and objects and objectifies animalizes or humans.

5. Final cycle. In this last stage Valle-Inclán carried to its proposals

Previous dramatic: the presence of the irrational and instinctive, characters

dehumanized ...

In his works we see a constant critique of the bourgeois class, the innovative zeal as it is updated constantly to European trends and perfection of language both enprosa and verse.


-Issues: Spain appeared in the magazine in 1920 in weekly installments in 1924 was published as a book, with important variations and additions, among which three new scenes: II,

VI, and XI, which intensifies the caricature and critical features of the first version.

"Argument: Max receives news that his chronicles not be published in a magazine and therefore not receive the sum of its publication. Will Zaratrusta library, but gets no money for books. In the tavern of Pica Lagartos, Max sold his cloak to buy a lottery ticket to the prostitute known as the Pisa Good. In the street there has been an expression of the proletariat. Max lies with the modernists in the street, there, police arrested Max makes a very subtle joke that made him a guard and take him to the ministry. It led to prison; is when Max and Don Latino separated for the first time. Then there are two parallel scenes:

Max-speaking and Catalan pariah on the bad situation of the worker, capitalism. The solution is revolution.

-Modernist poets in the newspaper El Popular, the press trying to criticize the arbitrary and ill-treatment he has received police Max. Max goes to the minister, let him free and promised a monthly salary for its literary merits.

At Café Colon, middle-class background, Max meets Dario who recommends that you leave the bohemian life. Later, Max is walking with D. Latin and are with two prostitutes.

Max did not come home because he is sick (it is lying on the porch of his house.) Latino Don abandons him, but before he steals your wallet.

In the wake of Max at home there is a confrontation between Don Claudinita and Latino. At the cemetery, Rubén Darío and the Marquis de Bradomin dialogue about death. Finally, in the tavern Pica Lagartos. Latino Don says very lucky to have had with the lottery ticket bought by Max Estrella to Pisa Well, while he learns, without emotion, that Max's wife and daughter just suicide.


It is valuable ironic. The lights of bohemian life which they project their ephemeral glow in the dark panorama of Spanish life.

Also related to the representation of the work: the light is the main scenic element, the lights of the original bohemian coffee belong to Columbus, trembling and dying, plus lights, Valle-Inclan stresses in the shadows, present in all scenarios.

5.TEMA (and subtopics)

? The most sordid of bohemian (through the account of the death of Max Estrella) and bohemian lifestyle, bohemian roots, a dedication to the letters is poverty, social marginalization ...

? Criticism of the Spanish society of the time: Spain's complaint, lack of

patriotism, black legend since Philip II.

• The grotesque suicide, blindness ...

• The death present throughout the work.

• social marginality: Max haunts the world of social marginality relations with prostitutes (The Moon) and criminals (The Chicken of the Pay-Pay).


It is structured in 15 scenes and no runs in the same place as

above. It was serialized in the magazine Spain and was reworked in book form in 1924 by adding the scenes II, VI and XI.

The annotations are notes that refer to non-verbal aspects to be

be considered for representation. His language is denotative and lacks literary intent, however, Luces de Bohemia found numerous literary figures and therefore have not only literary function and pragmatic.


a) Presentation (I): exposure of the human context, economic and social


b) Development (II - XI): the protagonist's journey through the streets of Madrid.

c) Outcome (XII): back home and death of Max, theory of absurdity.

d) Epilogue (XIII-XV): closes the work with the structural motif of circularity.


As already mentioned, there are many areas in which action takes place.

Only develop in the same place the third and final scenes (Pica-Lizard Tavern) and the scenes first and thirteenth (Max's attic). Are real spaces (the ordinary and everyday corners of Madrid at the time) turned into dramas. The play takes place in a Madrid nonsense, brilliant and hungry in the street takes on particular importance.


a) The time of action takes just over 24 hours, from dusk the first day to the next night. During this time events and accumulate historical and literary references of different periods (loss of American colonies in 1898 and the Russian Revolution of 1917 and strikes, for example).

b) The work covers the period beginning in 1913-1920:

? in 1917 was a revolutionary general strike, which seems to refer the work.

? The reasons why it is locked Catalan (refusing to leave

factories to go to war in Morocco).

10.The Esperpento (FEATURES)

• The grotesque as a means of expression: real-world mix and nightmare.

• The systematic distortion of reality: to highlight the contradiction between the behavior of a given society and what his values he preaches.

• Double Code: ridicule and caricature of reality that is deeper meaning moral lesson without being boring, violent contrasts which lead to the absurd nonsense.

• Presentation of the extraordinary as normal and plausible: the characters are individuals out of the ordinary.

• Presence of death as a fundamental character.

• Equalization pomposity: animalisation and objectification.

• Muñequización: degradation of the human, human-looking characters as objects but insensitive.

• Language violent, tear linguistic pointedly sarcastic.

• formal Freedom.

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