The main stages of cold war.

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New global geopolitics the World divide into blocs

The formation of the blocs: as of 1947, the United States and the USSR became adversaires because they adapted radically political and economic system. They formed into two blocs of countries.

Capitalist bloc ( U. S. A):included the countries of western europe and japan, common features like: parliamentary democracy, capitalist economy. Strengthened North Atlantic Treaty Organization (N. A. T. O)

Communist bloc (USSR)

Included the countries of central and eastern europe ( occupied after the first World war), this countries subordinated freedoms and individual rights to the interés and a planned economy, bloc was reinforced by a military alliance (THE WARSAW PACT)

*each bloc spread to other countries in Latín, América, etc.

Relations between the blocs. Cold war

Between 1945 and 1991 - > Cold war; situation of permanent military, ideológica and diplomatic tensión. Several stages:

1 a time of great tension (1947-1956): Truman doctrine, which denounced the creation, under pressure, of Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. Zhdanov doctrine, which denounced U. S imperialism.

2 peaceful coexistence (1956/1976): marked by the desire for dialogue between the blocs. Favoured by the increase of nuclear power leaders (by kenedy and Nixon/ krushchev Brezhnev)

3 the resurgence of the Cold war (1977/1985): USSR tried to achieve the military supremacy, missiles with nuclear warheads foreign interventions. U. S. A increase military spending (Reagan) and undertook the strategic defense initiative (Star wars)

4 the end of the Cold war ( 1985/1991)

The USSR eased tensions with Gorbachev dialogue, disarmament…

In usa, the public deficit hampered the maintenance of nuclear arms.

*both super powers signed Several disarmament and arms reduction agreements. Fall of Berlin+Disappearance of the USSR= the Cold war ended

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-Decolonisation: process that began in 1945 and Led to the dismantlement of the colonial empires and the independence of their colonies. It affected over half of the world's surface and 1500 million People.

-causes:

1 the first World War: the colonies became aware of their own importance and the prestige was reduced.

2 the nationalist movements: after the WW1, nationalist ideas fuelle liberalism or marxism spread through the colonies. They defender the right of the people to govern themselves.

3 emergence of charismatic leaders: the élites of many colonised nations had studied in European universities, when they returned they formed political parties and took the lead in the independence process some examples are Gandhi, Ho Chi Mink, Sukarno, Lumumba

4 international support: from groups of intelectuales, Christian churches, international humanitarian movements and the united nations.

-stages

1 began in Asia (1945-1955/bandung conference)

2(1956-1975) certain north africa countries, especial y Sub-Saharan countries.

3(1975→) remaining colonies (Arabian peninsula, West índices, Oceanía)

-different ways

1 pacts( for examples most of the British colonies) ( they created British Commonwealth)

2 By force (colonial wars; Algeria Angola Mozambique)

3 Mixed process (mixture of war and diplomacy-> India



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