The main stages of cold war.

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ENGLAND: 1. Political crisis until the middle 16th century 2. Henry VIII major control over England and Wales

ITALIAN PENINSULA: Divided in numerous states with a weak influence

PORTUGAL: 1. Small and poorly populated state 2. Becomes a part of the Habsburg Empire in 1581

NORTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPE: 1. Poland (elective Monarchy (Jagiellonian)) 2.Denmark (Northern First power) 3. Sweden (independence Process) 4. Russian area (Process of Unification and consolidation of State)

FRANCE: 1. The most modern monarchy in Europe 2. Rivalry with the Habsburgs: they Continued fighting for the geographical location and special interest in Italy

OTTOMAN EMPIRE: 1. Main rival of the Habsburgs in the 16th century 2. Great expansion: Constantinople 1453, Balkans and Eastern Mediterranean, Advances Borders (North: steppe-nomadic, East: Persia, South: all North Africa), Constant Threat (South :Italian Peninsula and Iberian, Venice and Italian Peninsula) 3. Permanent confrontation with the Habsburgs

HABSBURG EMPIRE: 1. Features of the Empire: Too many territories, too remote, too different and heterogeneous, and with Very different problems. 2. The Empire was neither a state nor a centralized monarchy 3. Charles I (Heir of the Catholic King/Queen Relations (maternal Grandparents) and the Habsburgs, Elected emperor: it will end up abdicating in Ferdinand, Charles I aims to create an imperial state: Catholic unity) 4. Philip II (1556-1598) (The most Powerful monarch in Christendom , It Incorporates Portugal and its huge overseas empire, New and legacy problems: wars with the ottomans, wars with France, wars with England (emerging power) and religious wars in the Netherland).àTurks -Dangerous expansionism: Big threat à Flanders -Main problem for Philip II -Intransigence of Philip II, he opposes freedom of worship. “Tercios of Flanders” à England -Relations diverse sign: Phase 1 Good relations, Philip II marry Mary Tudor, Queen of England (1554-1558). Phase 2 Coronation E.I: clashes, Commercial Rivalry (Spanish monopoly in its colonial empire), Conflict in Flanders, Philip II meddling in British affairs (case of Mary Stuart). Phase 3 Open War (1585), Long and with high and low conflict, Invincible army, Fighting until the death Of Philip II, without major successes or failures. à France -Stepped in religious wars -Edict of Nantes (1598): freedom of Conscience and worship limited to the Calvinists. End wars. àPortugal -Philip II inherited the Portuguese crown in 1580 (death of Don Sebastian) -Great importance: Peninsular territorial unit And, Union of American and African domains both powers.

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