Civilizations: why clash? Why now? Hungtinton argues that Cold War was like a curtain that did not let us see what was underneath. He gives different reasons for a clash of civilizations in near future (happening now):
- The first reason is that conflicts are important and real. Why didn’t they take place before? Differences between civilizations do not mean conflict right away but they mean conflict at some point
- Globalization: it has happened, it has changed the world. In the last 20 years it has become more intense and affects parts of the world that were not affected before. We are interconnected (people travel much more, people migrate in large numbers); the IT revolution; we live in the information society and all this information increases civilization consciousness: we have more information so we are more aware of other civilizations. One of the consequences of globalization is homogeneity, we are becoming more similar (same music, same clothes…).
- Globalization will weaken global identity. It is happening, national identities are declining. Some states are becoming weak become some companies are stronger and bigger than some states, they employ more people than states so they challenge state’s authority. Global identities are changing, it’s called shifting loyalties. Before we used to identify ourselves with the state now we don’t know what to attach our loyalty to and this provokes things like the Catalonian Referendum or radical religion where people actually feel they are part of something bigger.
- The role of the west will change. It’s changing it’s not longer what it used to be: before the non-Western elites were westernize and the masses anti-Western and after the XXI century elites became anti-Western and masses westernize. “The decline of the West and the arise of the rest”.