When memory is reclaimed from a virtual machine using vmmemctl, what is the maximum amount that can be reclaimed by default?

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  1. Describe the components and purpose of a client server computing environment. Client/server is a program relationship in which one program (the client) requests a service or resource from another program (the server). Windows NT established a new file system called NTFS. What were the two major versions of Windows NT? Server and Workstation. How did they differ in function? Server acted as a server in networks. Workstation was for stand-alone or client workstations. What made Windows 2000 such a security risk (name 2)? Default settings and new features that can be exploited. How did Code Red and Nimba attack Windows 2000? Buffer overflow What did Server 2003 and Server 2008 change to lower the security threat (name 2)? Disabled some default settings. Improved AD and features. Which Server 2012 edition limits the amount of VMs which can be deployed? Foundation. Which Server 2012 edition is suited to support a cloud environment? Essentials. What are the three major Server 2012 Role categories? Name 2 roles per category. Application: IIS and COM+. Infrastructure: DNS and DHCP. Directory: ADCS and ADDS. Server 2012 edition without a GUI. Server Core. What are the benefits of the Server 2012 edition mentioned in the previous question? Greater stability, simplified management, reduced maintenance, reduced memory and disk requirements, reduced attach surface. It is possible to change a Server 2012 non GUI edition but not vice versa. False Draw a diagram of the architecture of Hyper-V. Hardware>Hypervisor>VMs. What are three benefits of working with virtual machines? High availability, Scalability, and backup with fast recovery. Name 4 things you can configure in a virtual machine. Domain, integration services, data exchange services, dynamic RAM. How does Hyper-V differ from virtualization programs such as VMware Workstation, Virtual Box, and Virtual PC? Hyper-V can support more logical processors. It can also address more RAM. Runs on bare metal. Guest Integration Services supports the enhance management and operation of operating systems in a virtual machine. What is the benefit of configuring dynamic memory? Use physical memory more efficiently. Which dynamic memory setting would be used to determine the maximum amount of VMs which could be run at a moment? Minimum RAM Besides the above setting name and describe two other dynamic memory settings. Max RAM specifies the max RAM. Memory Buffer provides a VM with greater memory capacity. A feature can be installed and can be used to support a role or smaller function on a server. Which Operating System can be upgraded directly to Server 2012 R2? Server 2008 R2. NIC Teamingcan be configured to support connectivity in the event of a Network Card failure. What are the two major purposes of a Directory Service? Central administration and single sign on. The forest is the core component of Active Directory. The schema defines the layout of Active Directory. What does the answer to the previous question define? Classes of objects and their attributes. Name 4 objects which exist or can be managed in Active Directory. Users, Groups, Printers, Policies, Shared Folders, Computers. The name of the Active Directory database is ntds.Dit. A Domain Controllercontains the Active Directory Database and performs logon authentication for the domain. An Organizational Unit is a container within Active Directory which can be used to organize Active Directory objects. A tree is defined as a collection of domains which share a common schema, common namespace, and a transitive trust relationship. A forest is a collection of domains which share a transitive trust relationship and a common schema. Active Directory cannot be installed without the domain networking service. What is the big difference between a member server and a domain controller? DC stores all the information and objects of a domain. DCs cannot be used to deploy all roles. Domain users can login on member servers while no domain user can login on a domain controller without set permissions. Describe the process a domain computer goes thru when it boots. Queries DC, authenticates, login. Describe the two services which DNS provides for Active Directory. Name space resolution and service location. Can a domain user still logon to a domain computer when a domain controller cannot be contacted (explain)? Yes, cached files enable this. PowerShell provides a robust environment for scripting commands for Active Directory management. Referring to the previous question cmdlets are single function commands for this environment. CSVDE can be used to import users from a CSV file. DSADDcan be used to create users from a command line. The domain admin global group has administrative rights to all computers within a domain. When a user is created in AD that user is placed into the Domain Users group and can logon to all computers (except domain controllers) within a domain. A local user exists in a Kerberos file and is authenticated by the local computer. ADUC is a utility which can be used to manage Active Directory domain accounts. RSAT is the service needed for remote management of Server 2012. MSTSC can be used to remotely create a new logon session on a Server 2012 computer and does not require the remote computer to be part of the domain. A server groupcan be created which can be used to remotely manage multiple Server 2012 computers simultaneously. A MMC can be used to allow GUI management of a server core computer. A dynamically expanding virtual disk format will expand according to usage. A fixed virtual disk format is fixed and will reserve a certain amount of disk space. A checkpoint can be created which will allow a VM to revert to a previous state. Describe three best practices for backups. Use external hard disks, monitor network backup information, use multiple hard disks. What are the two choices for Windows Backup? Manual and scheduled. What are the server and storage devices called in ISCSI configuration? Initiator and Target. Why is backup considered important for security (list 2 reasons)? To protect data loss from a virus. Also, to protect data loss from updates. A snapshot is a copy of the settings and files of a place in time of a VM. Describe when you would use the technology listed in the previous question. In testing environments and when updating. Draw a layout of a SAN. Describe all the components. LAN>Host>SAN>Storage Array. Switch, storage device, server. Describe the three technologies which can run a SAN. Fiber Channel, ISCSI – SCSI, FOE (Fiber Channel Over Ethernet). Describe how you would configure the partitions in a server for optimal backup, and fault tolerance planning. Boot partition, system partition, and system state data. What are the new plans or mantra for Server 2012 deployment? The power of many servers, the simplicity of one. What was different about Windows NT as compared to the other Windows OS family (name 4 things)? Windows NT is based on the NT 3.1 kernel, 64 Bit OS, NTFS, Advanced networking capabilities. What was the mantra of Windows 2000 – What were the major security concerns for Windows 2000? The easiest Windows yet. Code Red and Nimba attacks. What was the focus of Windows Server 2003? Security. Describe the functionality of the two major Server 2012 editions. Server 2012: Security improvements and VDI. Server 2012 R2: Group Policy, security, AD DS, DNS, PowerShell Core variation for both. What is the focus and key features of Windows Server 2012? Server manager, Command line first GUI second mentality, Hyper-V Replication. Describe the 3 major Server Roles categories (give examples). DNS Server allows you to become a domain server to the rest of your domain. AD CS allows you to make, issue, and manage certificates like a CA. AD DS allows you to manage a domain. What is a Server Core? When would you deploy a Server Core? Non GUI version of Windows Server. Used for low overhead. How do you convert between the GUI and Core? Remove Graphical Management Tools and Infrastructure feature and Server Graphical Shell feature. Describe the architecture of Hyper-V. Hyper-V Sits on top of the Physical Hardware, it manages system resources for virtualization. Describe the functionality of Hyper-V. Let’s you create a virtualized server computing environment where you can create and manage virtual machines. What is a virtual machine? An emulation of a computer system. What is the purpose of guest integration services? Optimize the performance of a VM. What is the purpose of dynamic memory? To allow the memory to be shared between multiple VMs. Describe 5 settings of dynamic memory. Max RAM specifies the max RAM (32GB for a VM). Memory Buffer provides a VM with greater memory capacity. Memory Weight provides a way to determine how to distribute memory. Memory Priority allows you to indicate which VMs should receive memory first. Startup RAM specifies the amount of memory required to start a VM. What is the difference between a role and a feature? Which utility would you use to install either? A role is a generic function that a server hosts. DNS server or web server. A feature is a specific piece of software that adds a very granular piece of functionality to a server. Virtual Switchcan be used to provide increased network bandwidth. Name and describe the two major files of a VM. VM file stores all VM settings. VHDX file is the virtual hard drive of the system. It stores the OS and other programs. What is Active Directory? A database that keeps track of all the user accounts and passwords in your organization. What is the core component of AD? Why is this called a security boundary? Forest is considered a security boundary because it establishes user accounts and permissions from a centralized server via Kerberos (KDC).How do you create a domain? Add DNS and Active Directory Domain Services roles. Connect the VMs to the domain. Point the DNS to the DC. What is the schema? A set of rules that define the classes of objects and their attributes. What is a domain controller? A server that responds to security authentication requests within a Windows domain. Why would you install two DC for a domain? Load balancing. What is the benefit of a RODC? Security, manageability, and scalability. What is an organizational unit and what is it used for? A logical subgroup within a domain. To assign Group Policy settings or account permissions. What is a forest? A group of domain trees that do not share a contiguous namespace. What is a tree? A group of domains that share a contiguous namespace. What is the difference between adding a server to a domain and adding a server to be a domain controller in an existing domain? Adding a server to a domain does not change its role in the domain. What service does AD need to operate? DNS. What is the functionality of PowerShell? Used to manage remote computers. Can run scripts. What is a cmdlet? A lightweight command that is used in the Windows PowerShell environment. What is CSVDE used for? To load CSV data in PowerShell. What is DSADD used for? Command line tool to add objects to the directory. What is the difference between a local user and a domain user? Domain user has access to domain resources. Local user has access to local resources. What is the scope of a global group? Give two examples of global groups. The global group accounts are from the same domain as the parent and scope can be converted to universal, default groups, admin groups. What is the scope of the domain admins, domain users, and administrator groups? Global. What is the scope of a domain local group (give two examples)? These groups can include users, computers, and groups from any domain in the forest. They are most often utilized to grant permissions for resources and can be used to provide access to any resource in the domain in which they are located. It is thus logical for a domain local group to include global groups that contain all users with a common need for a given resource. Cert publishers and DNS admins. Where can you manage the above two groups? AD Users and Computers. RSAT is the service needed for remote management of a server 2012. VPN can be used to remotely manage a server and not have to be in the same domain as the remote server. MSTSC (Remote Desktop) creates a new remote session on a Server 2012. MMC can be used to remotely manage Server Core with a GUI. PowerShell can be used to remotely manage multiple Server 2012 computers from a single utility. Describe 3 virtual disk formats. VHD – Supports virtual hard drives up to 2040 GB. Shared VHDX – Shares with Hyper-V cluster users. VHDX – Supports up to 64 TB. What is a checkpoint\snap-shot and when would you use it? Checkpoints are used to capture the state, data, and configuration of a VM. To restore. What are the differences in deployment of a backup and a snapshot? A VM restored from a backup has to be started. A VM reverted from a check point can be off.

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