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  • "Detached clouds in the form of white, delicate filaments or white or mostly white patches or narrow bands. These clouds have fibrous (hair-like) appearance, or a silky sheen, or both." CIRRUS
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    8/8 stratus base 200 FT/AGL is observed at sunrise at an aerodrome in the north of France; the QNH is 1028 hPa and there is a variable wind of 3 kt. What change in these clouds is likely at 1200 UTC in summer and winter? WINTER: OVC. BASE 500 FT/AGL; SUMMER: SCT, BASE 3000 FT/AGL
    ·A blocking anticyclone in the northern hemisphere is: A WARM ANTICYCLONE/QUASI STATIONARY/SITUATED BETWEEN 50°N AND 70°N
    ·A Cb with thunderstorm has reached the mature stage. Which statement is correct? IN TEMPERATURES LOWER THAN -23°C ICING IS STILL POSSIBLE
    ·A cold air pool can be best identified by means of: THE ISOHYPSES ON AN UPPER AIR CHART
    ·A cold air pool: IS USUALLY MOST EVIDENT IN THE CIRCULATION AND TEMPERATURE FIELDS OF THE MIDDLE TROPOSPHERE AND MAY SHOW LITTLE OR NO SIGN ON A SURFACE CHART
    ·A conditionally unstable air mass is forced to ascend a mountain slope. What type of clouds can be expected? CLOUDS WITH CONSIDERABLE VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT AND ASSOCIATED TURBULENCE
    ·A convergence line is indicated by: NUMBER 1
    ·A cumulonimbus cloud at mid-latitudes in summer contains: ICE CRYSTALS, WATER ROPLETS AND SUPERCOOLED WATER DROPLETS
    ·A cumulus congestus is: A CUMULUS THAT IS OF GREAT VERTICAL EXTENT
    ·A dry, sand- and dust-laden North Easterly wind that blows in winter over large parts of North West Africa is known as a: HARMATTAN
    ·A flight is to depart from an airport with runways 09 and 27. Surface wind is 270/05; an inversion is reported at 300 feet with turbulence and wind shear. The wind just above the inversion is 090/30. What is the safest departure procedure ? DEPART ON RUNWAY 09 WITH A TAILWIND
    ·A flight with a jet aeroplane from Munich to London is planned with a departure time of 2250 local time. Which type of satellite imagery available with observation time close to ETD is best to locate the clouds and the exact position of a cold front forecast for this night over Western Europe? INFRARED (IR), POLAR ORBITING
    ·A Foehn wind occurs on the: LEEWARD SIDE OF A MOUNTAIN RANGE AND IS CAUSED BY SIGNIFICANT MOISTURE LOSS BY PRECIPITATION FROM CLOUD
    ·A given mass of air is saturated with water vapour (no condensed water). If temperature increases: THE AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOUR REMAINS CONSTANT
    ·A gust front is: FORMED BY THE COLD AIR OUTFLOW FROM A THUNDERSTORM
    ·A high pressure area (slack pressure gradient) covers part of the Mediterranean Sea and coastal region during the summer. What surface wind direction is likely at an airport at the coast on a sunny afternoon? SEA TO LAND
    ·A katabatic wind blows: DOWN THE SLOPE DURING THE NIGHT
    ·A layer can be: STABLE FOR UNSATURATED AIR AND UNSTABLE FOR SATURATED AIR
    ·A layer in which the temperature decreases with 1°C per 100m increasing altitude is: NEUTRAL FOR DRY AIR
    ·A layer in which the temperature increases with height is: ABSOLUTELY STABLE
    ·A layer in which the temperature remains constant with height is: ABSOLUTELY STABLE
    ·A layer is absolutely unstable if the temperature decrease with height is: MORE THAN 1°C PER 100M
    ·A layer is conditionally unstable if the air: IS UNSTABLE FOR SATURATED AIR AND STABLE FOR DRY AIR
    ·A layer of stratus is most likely to be dispersed by: INSOLATION RESULTING IN THE LIFTING OF THE MIXING CONDENSATION LEVEL
    ·A METAR message is valid: AT THE TIME OF THE OBSERVATION
    ·A microburst phenomenon can arise in the: DOWNDRAUGHT OF A CUMULONIMBUS AT THE MATURE STAGE
    ·A microburst with its damaging winds at the surface: HAS A DIAMETER UP TO 4 KM
    ·A moist but unsaturated parcel of air becomes saturated by: LIFTING THE PARCEL TO A HIGHER LEVEL
    ·A moist, stable layer of air is forced to rise against a mountain range and the stability does not change. Which of the following phenomena may develop? STRATIFIED CLOUDS
    ·A night in January has been cold and clear. In the forenoon of the next day an airfield is in IMC due to fog which extends to a height of 700 ft. A heavily laden aircraft departs and, when breaking through the top of the fog, experiences temporary bumpiness and a sudden decrease in climb rate.; Mark the answer that states the most probable reason for the altered aircraft performance: THE AIRCRAFT SUFFERS REDUCED LIFT AND THRUST DUE TO A TEMPERATURE INVERSION AT THE TOP OF THE FOG
    ·A non-occluded frontal wave passes the airport. What form of precipitation do you expect ? CONTINUOUS RAIN OR SNOW DURING SEVERAL HOURS UNTIL THE WARM FRONT ARRIVES. THE PRECIPITATION STOPS FOR SEVERAL HOURS OR BECOMES INTERMITTENT LIGHT WITHIN THE WARM SECTOR. ON THE ARRIVAL OF THE COLD FRONT, SHOWERS WILL OCCUR.
    ·A parcel of rising air stays unsaturated. Which of the following statements is correct? RELATIVE HUMIDITY INCREASES, TEMPERATURE DECREASES
    ·A parcel of unsaturated air is forced to rise through an isothermal layer. So long as it remains unsaturated, the temperature of the parcel: DECREASES 1°C PER 100M
    ·A parcel of unsaturated air is lifted to just below the condensation level and then returned to its original level. What is the final temperature of the parcel of air? THE SAME AS THE STARTING TEMPERATURE
    ·A pilot is warned of severe icing at certain flight levels by information supplied in: SWC AND SIGMET
    ·A plain in Western Europe with an average elevation of 500 m (1600 FT) above sea level is covered with a uniform AC layer of cloud during the summer months. At what height above the ground is the base of this cloud to be expected? 7000-15000 FT ABOVE THE TERRAIN
    ·A plain in Western Europe with an average height of 500 m (1600 FT) above sea level is covered with a uniform CC layer of cloud during the summer months. At what height above the ground is the base of this cloud to be expected? 15000-35000 FT ABOVE THE TERRAIN
    ·A plain in Western Europe with an average height of 500 m (1600 FT) above sea level is covered with a uniform SC layer of cloud during the summer months. At what height above the ground is the base of this cloud to be expected? 1500-7000 FT ABOVE THE GROUND
    ·A sample of moist but unsaturated air may become saturated by: EXPANDING IT ADIABATICALLY
    ·A small supercooled cloud droplet that collides with an airfoil will most likely: FREEZE INMEDIATELY AND CREATE RIME ICE
    ·A SPECI is: AN AVIATION SPECIAL WEATHER REPORT
    ·A special air-report: MAY TRIGGER A SIGMET MESSAGE
    ·A stationary front is a front in which: THERE IS NO HORIZONTAL MOTION PERPENDICULAR TO THE FRONT
    ·A stationary observer in the northern hemisphere is situated in front of a depression. The centre of the depression passes from west to east and south of the observer. For this observer the wind: BACKS
    ·A strong, dry and warm downslope wind, produced by prior enforced ascent of air over hills or mountains is known as a: FOEHN
    ·A super-cooled droplet is: A DROPLET STILL IN LIQUID STATE AT A TEMPERATURE BELOW 0°C
    ·A surface based inversion is a characteristic of: NOCTURNAL RADIATION DURING CLEAR NIGHTS
    ·A temperature inversion indicates a state of the atmosphere which is: ABSOLUTELY STABLE
    ·A temperature of +15°C is recorded at an altitude of 500 metres above sea level. If the vertical temperature gradient is that of a standard atmosphere, what will the temperature be at the summit of a mountain, 2500 metres above sea level? +2°C
    ·A trough near the surface is an area of: CONVERGENCE AND WIDESPREAD ASCENT
    ·A vertical spacing of 1000 FT is the standard required separation between two FL. Under conditions of cold air advection (ISA -15°C), what would the true vertical separation be? LESS THAN 1000 FT
    ·A vertical temperature profile indicates the possibility of severe icing when the temperature profile: INTERSECTS THE 0°C ISOTHERM TWICE
    ·A wide body takes off on a clear night in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Shortly after take off the aircraft's rate of climb drops to zero. This can be due to: A VERY STRONG TEMPERATURE INVERSION
    ·A wind of 20 knots corresponds to an approximate speed of: 10 M/SEC
    ·A wind sounding in the region of a polar front jet stream gives the following windprofile (Northern hemisphere).; 900hPa 220/20kt ; 800hPa 220/25kt ; 700hPa 230/35kt ; 500hPa 260/60kt ; 400hPa 280/85kt; 300hPa 300/100kt; 250hPa 310/120kt ; 200hPa 310/80kt; Which system is the jet stream associated with? WITH A WARM FRONT
    ·A wind speed of 350 kt within a jet stream core should be world-wide regarded as: POSSIBLE BUT A VERY RARE PHENOMENON
    ·A winter day in northern Europe with a thick layer of stratocumulus clouds and temperature close to zero degrees C at ground level, you can expect: A HIGHT PROBABILITY FOR ICING IN CLOUDS. SEVERE ICING MAY OCCUR IN THE UPPER PART DUE TO ACCUMULATION OF LARGE DROPLETS
    ·A zone of strong convection currents is encountered during a flight. In spite of moderate gust you decide to continue the flight. What are your precautionary measures? DECREASE THE SPEED/TRY TO CLIMB ABOVE THE ZONE OF CONVECTIVE CURRENTS IF AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS ALLOW
    ·About ten identical clouds are in the sky, well isolated from one another, dense, with well defined contours, developping vertically in a cauliflower shape. The side of these clouds lit by the sun is bright white. Their base, relatively dark, is essentially horizontal and at FL 30, and their tops at FL 150. These clouds are: TOWERING CUMULUS
    ·Above and below a low level inversion the wind is likely to: CHANGE SIGNIFICANTLY IN SPEED AND DIRECTION
    ·Absolute instability in the atmosphere will occur when the environmental lapse rate is: GREATER THAN BOTH SATURATED ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE AND DRY ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE
    ·Absolute instability is said to exist whenever the environmental lapse rate: EXCEEDS THE DRY ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE
    ·According to ICAO, which symbol indicates a severe line squall ? SYMBOL A)
    ·According to ICAO, which symbol indicates a tropical revolving storm? SYMBOL C)
    ·According to ICAO, which symbol indicates danger to an aircraft flying according to instrument flight rules (IFR) ? SYMBOL 3
    ·According to ICAO, which symbol indicates danger to an aircraft flying according to instrument flight rules (IFR)? SYMBOL 2
    ·According to ICAO, which symbol indicates severe icing ? SYMBOL D
    ·According to ICAO, which symbol indicates widespread haze ? SYMBOL B)
    ·According to ISA the temperature in the lower part of the stratosphere: IS CONSTANT WITH ALTITUDE
    ·According to the extract of the surface isobar map, the surface wind direction over the sea is approximately: 140°
    ·Advection fog can be formed when: WARM MOIST AIR FLOWS OVER A COLDER SURFACE
    ·Advection fog is most likely to form when: A MILD MOIST AIRSTREAM FLOWS OVER SNOW COVERED GROUND AND THE WIND SPEED IS LESS THAN 10 KT
    ·Advection is: HORIZONTAL MOTION OF AIR
    ·Advection of very cold air over a warm sea current can cause: STEAMING FOG
    ·After a clear night cumuliform clouds are formed in the morning. Why can the base of these clouds become higher during the day? BECAUSE THE SURFACE TEMPERATURE INCREASES
    ·After a prolonged VMC descent in very cold air, you penetrate a humid air mass. What type of icing will you encounter? HOAR FROST
    ·After a sunny day, followed by a long clear night, you take-off from an airfield at mid-latitudes an hour before sunrise. The field is not situated close to the coast. Though the pressure gradient is rather large, the easterly surface wind is weak and makes: A SUDDEN STRONG INCREASE IN WIND SPEED AND STRONG VEERING OF THE WIND A SHORT TIME AFTER TAKE-OFF
    ·After landing at an aerodrome (aerodrome elevation 1715 FT), the altimeter indicates an altitude of 1310 FT. The altimeter is set to the pressure value of 1013 hPa. What is the QNH at this aerodrome? 1028 HPA
    ·After landing at an aerodrome (QNH 993 hPa) it is noticed that the altimeter is still set to 1013,2 hPa and that it reads 1200 feet. What is the elevation of the aerodrome above mean sea level ? 660 FEET
    ·After passing at right angles through a very active cold front in the direction towards the cold air, what will you encounter at FL 50, in the northern hemisphere immediately after a marked change in temperature? A VEERING IN THE WIND DIRECTION
    ·Ahead of a warm front (northern hemisphere) the wind direction changes from the surface up to the tropopause. The effect of this change is that the wind: VEERS IN THE FRICTION LAYER AND VEERS ABOVE THE FRICTION LAYER
    ·Air masses which are being cooled from below are often characterized by: FOG, POOR VISIBILITY AND LAYERED COUDS
    ·All pilots encountering Clear Air Turbulence are requested to report it. You experience CAT which causes passengers and crew to feel definite strain against their seat belt or shoulders straps. Unsecured objects are dislodged. Food service and walking are difficult. This should be reported as: MODERATE
    ·Along the West coast of India the prevailing winds are the: SW MONSOON IN KULY AND A NE MONSOON IN JANUARY
    ·Altostratus clouds are classified as: MEDIUM LEVEL CLOUDS
    ·An aerodrome warning message gives information, among other things, about: TS; SN INCLUDING THE EXPECTED OR OBSERVED SNOW ACCUMULATION; HOAR FROST
    ·An aeroplane flies at flight level 40. Elevation of the aerodrome: 990 ft; QNH 976 hPa. The tower clears the pilot to fly at 3000 ft QNH. Which of the following statements is correct? ONLY A SMALL CHANGE OF ALTITUDE IS NECESSARY.
    ·An air mass acquires its basic properties: BY STAGNITION OF THE AIR FOG A LONG PERIOD OF TIME OVER AREAS HAVING PARTICULAR CHARACTERISTICS
    ·An air mass is called stable when: THE VERTICAL MOTION OF RISING AIR TENDS TO BECOME WEAKER AND DISAPPEARS
    ·An air mass is stable when: LIFTED AIR RETURNS TO ITS ORIGINAL LEVEL
    ·An air mass is unstable when: AN ASCENDING PARCEL OF AIR CONTINUES TO RISE TO A CONSIDERABLE HEIGHT
    ·An air mass is: AN EXTENSIVE BODY OF AIR WITHIN WHICH THE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY IN HORIZONTAL PLANES ARE PRACTICALLY UNIFORM
    ·An air mass which originates over the North Atlantic between 50 and 70 degrees north and is moving in over Scandinavia is called: MARITIME POLAR AIR
    ·An air temperature of -15°C at the 700 hPa level over central Europe in summer is: LOW
    ·An air temperature of -30°C at the 300 hPa level over central Europe in summer is: HIGH
    ·An air temperature of -55°C at the 200 hPa level over central Europe in summer is: WITHIN +/-5°C OF ISA
    ·An airborne weather radar installation makes it possible to detect the location of: ZONES OF PRECIPITATION, PARTICULARY LIQUID-STATE PRECIPITATIOM, AND ALSO THEIR INTENSITY
    ·An aircraft descends in layered clouds; the freezing level is situated at FL 60. At what levels is the probability for airframe icing the highest? BETWEEN FL 120 AND FL 60
    ·An aircraft descents in layered clouds; the freezing level is situated at FL 60. At what levels is the probability for airframe icing the highest? BETWEEN FL 120 AND FL 60
    ·An aircraft encounters atmospheric conditions in which abrupt changes of attitude and altitude of the aircraft occur. Changes in accelerometer readings go up to 1.2 g measured at the aircraft's centre of gravity. Lose objects inside the aircraft are tossed about. ; Which report, if any, is required? SPECIAL AIR-REPORT
    ·An aircraft flies at flight level 40. Elevation of the aerodrome: 990 ft; QNH 976 hPa. The tower clears the pilot to fly at 3000 ft QNH. Which of the following statements is correct? ONLY A SMALL CHANGE OF ALTITUDE IS NECESSARY
    ·An aircraft flies into freezing rain in an area with a temperature below 0°C. The type of icing it will most likely encounter is: CLEAR ICE
    ·An aircraft flying at FL 100 from Marseille (QNH 1012 hPa) to Palma de Mallorca (QNH 1006 hPa) experiences no change to true altitude. The reason for this is that: THE AIR AT PALMA DE MALLORCA IS WARMER THAN AT MARSELLE
    ·An aircraft flying at FL 45 (OAT 6°C) obtains a reading of 1860 ft on its radio altimeter (ground elevation 3090 ft). What is the value of the QNH, to the nearest hPa, at that point? 1030
    ·An aircraft flying in the southern hemisphere at 2000 feet, has to turn to the right in order to allow for drift. In which direction, relative to the aircraft, is the centre of low pressure ? IN FRONT
    ·An aircraft is approaching a cold front from the warm air mass side at FL 270 and experiencing moderate to severe turbulence. A jet stream is forecast to be at FL 310. The shortest way to get out of this turbulence is by: DESCENDING
    ·An aircraft is approaching under visual flight rules an airfield (northern hemisphere) whose runway is parallel to the coast. When downwind over the sea, the airfield is on the left. What wind effect should be anticipated on final approach and landing during a sunny afternoon ? CROSSWIND FROM THE LEFT
    ·An aircraft is approaching under visual flight rules an airfield whose runway is parallel to the coast. When downwind over the sea, the airfield is on the right. What wind effect should be anticipated on final approach and landing during a sunny afternoon? CROSSWIND FROM THE RIGHT
    ·An aircraft is descending to land under IFR. If the local QNH is 1009 hPa, what will happen to the altitude reading when the altimeter is reset at the transition level ? IT WILL DECREASE
    ·An aircraft is flying at FL 180 in the northern hemisphere with a crosswind from the left. Which of the following is correct concerning its true altitude ? IT DECREASES
    ·An aircraft is flying at FL 80. The local QNH is 1000 hPa. After the second altimeter has been adjusted to the local QNH, the reading will be approximately: 7650 FT
    ·An aircraft is flying from Point A to Point B at the flight level corresponding to the pressure surface of the constant pressure chart. Which of the following statements is correct? WIND SPEED OVER A IS HIGHER THAN OVER B
    ·An aircraft is flying from Point A to Point B at the flight level corresponding to the pressure surface of the constant pressure chart. Which of the following statements is correct? WIND SPEED OVER B IS HIGHER THAN OVER A
    ·An aircraft is flying from Point A to Point B at the flight level corresponding to the pressure surface of the constant pressure chart. Which of the following statements is correct? WIND SPEED OVER A IS HIGUER THAN OVER B
    ·An aircraft is flying from Point A to Point B at the flight level corresponding to the pressure surface of the constant pressure chart. Which of the following statements is correct? Wind speed over b is higuer than over paris
    ·An aircraft is flying from Point A to Point B on the upper level contour chart. The altimeter setting is 1013,2 hPa. Which of these statements is correct? THE TRUE ALTITUDE WILL BE HIGHER AT A THAN AT B
    ·An aircraft is flying from Point A to Point B on the upper level contour chart. The altimeter setting is 1013,2 hPa. Which of these statements is correct? THE TRUE ALTITUDE WILL BE HIGHER AT B THAN AT A
    ·An aircraft is flying from south to north, above the polar front jet stream, at FL 400 in the southern hemisphere. What change, if any, in temperature will be experienced ? IT DECREASES
    ·An aircraft is flying in the southern hemisphere at low altitude (less than 2000 feet) and going directly away from a centre of low pressure. What direction, relative to the aircraft, does the wind come from ? FROM THE LEFT AND SLIGHTLY ON THE NOSE
    ·An aircraft is flying over the sea at FL 100, with a true altitude of 10000 feet; local QNH is 1003 hPa. What assumption, if any, can be made about the air mass in which the aircraft is flying ? IT IS WARMER THAN ISA
    ·An aircraft is flying over the sea at FL 120, with a true altitude of 12000 feet; local QNH is 1013 hPa. What assumption, if any, can be made about the air mass in which the aircraft is flying ? ITS AVERAGE TEMPERATURE IS THE SAME AS ISA
    ·An aircraft is flying over the sea at FL 90; the true altitude is 9100 feet; local QNH is unknown. What assumption, if any, can be made about the air mass in which the aircraft is flying ? THERE IS INSUFFICIENT INFORMATION TO MAKE ANY ASSUMPTION
    ·An aircraft is flying through the Alps on a very cold winter's day. The regional QNH is 1013 hPa. During the flight, you circle around a mountain at an altitude of its summit. What reading will the aneroid altimeter give, compared to the elevation of the summit? A HIGHER ALTITUDE THAN THE ELEVATION OF THE SUMMIT
    ·An aircraft is flying through the Alps on a warm summer''s day. The weather is fine, and there is a high pressure system in the area. During the flight, a mountain is passed at an altitude of its summit. What reading will the aneroid altimeter give, compared to the summit's elevation? A LOWER ALTITUDE THAN THE ELEVATION OF THE SUMMIT
    ·An aircraft is flying through the polar front jet stream from south to north, beneath the core. How would the OAT change, in the northern hemisphere, during this portion of the flight? IT DECREASES
    ·An aircraft lands at an airport (airport elevation 1240 FT, QNH 1008 hPa). The altimeter is set to 1013 hPa. The altimeter will indicate: 1375 FT
    ·An aircraft lands at an airport (airport elevation 540 FT, QNH 993 hPa) with the altimeter set to 1013 hPa. What will it indicate ? 1080 FT
    ·An aircraft maintains a constant indicated altitude of 4500 FT from A (360 FT/AMSL - QNH 986 hPa) to B (690 FT/AMSL - QNH 1011 hPa). Assuming that the altimeter sub-scale setting remains unchanged at 986 hPa, the actual height of the aircraft above the surface at B will be: 4485 FT
    ·An aircraft maintains a constant indicated altitude of 5500 FT from A (1050 FT/AMSL - QNH 968 hPa) to B (650 FT/AMSL - QNH 1016 hPa). Assuming that the altimeter subscale setting remains unchanged at 968 hPa, the actual height of the aircraft above the surface at B will be: 6146 FT
    ·An aircraft maintains a constant indicated altitude of 6500 FT from A (600 FT/AMSL - QNH 1012 hPa) to B (930 FT/AMSL - QNH 977 hPa). Assuming that the altimeter subscale setting remains unchanged at 1012 hPa, the actual height of the aircraft above the surface at B will be: 4625 FT
    ·An aircraft maintains a constant indicated altitude of 7500 FT from A (270 FT/AMSL - QNH 1021 hPa) to B (1650 FT/AMSL - QNH 983 hPa). Assuming that the altimeter sub-scale setting remains unchanged at 1021 hPa, the actual height of the aircraft above the surface at B will be: 4824 FT
    ·An aircraft over Western Europe is crossing a jet stream 2500 FT below its core at right angles. While crossing, the outside temperature is increasing. The prevailing wind is: FROM THE RIGHT
    ·An altimeter adjusted to 1013 hPa indicates an altitude of 3600 FT. Should this altimeter be adjusted to the local QNH value of 991 hPa, the altitude indicated would be: 3006 FT
    ·An easterly wave is a: WAVE IN A TRADE WIND BELT, MOVING FROM EAST TO WEST, WITH SEVERE CONVECTIVE ACTIVITY IN REAR OF ITS TROGH
    ·An inversion is a layer of air in which the temperature: INCREASES WITH HEIGHT
    ·An inversion is a layer of air which is: ABSOLUTELY STABLE
    ·An inversion is: AN ABSOLUTELY STABLE LAYER
    ·An inversion is: AN INCREASE OF TEMPERATURE WITH HEIGHT
    ·An isohypse (contour): INDICATES THE TRUE ALTITUDE OF A PRESSURE LEVEL
  • An isohypse of the 500 hPa pressure surface is labelled with the number 552. This means that for all points on the isohypse the: TOPOGRAPHY IS 552 DECAMETERS ABOVE MSL
    ·An isothermal layer is a layer of air in which the temperature: REMAINS CONSTANT WITH HEIGHT
    ·An observer on the northern hemisphere is under influence of the wind system of a depression, which is moving from West to East. The centre of the depression passes to the South of the observer. For this observer the wind direction is: CONTINUOSLY BACKING
    ·An occlusion has the characteristics of a warm front when: THE COLD AIR BEHIND IS WARMER THAN THE COLD AIR AHEAD
    ·An occlusion is called a warm occlusion when the cold air: AT THE REAR OF THE OCCLUSION IS LESS COLD THAN THE COLD AIR AHEAD, WITH THE WARM AIR AT A HIGHER ALTITUDE
    ·An outside air temperature of -35°C is measured while cruising at FL 200. What is the temperature deviation from the ISA at this level? 10°C COLDER THAN ISA
    ·An unstable air mass is forced to ascend a mountain slope. What type of clouds can be expected? CLOUDS WITH CONSIDERABLE VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT AND ASSOCIATED TURBULENCE
    ·An unstable air mass will normally be characterised by: CUMULIFORM CLOUD AND GOOD VISIBILITY EXCEPT IN PRECIPITATION
    ·Areas of sinking air are generally cloudless because as air sinks it: IS HEATED BY COMPRESSION
    ·Around Paris on January 3rd at 1800 UTC, the surface temperature, under shelter, is 3°C. The sky is covered by 8 oktas of stratus. QNH is 1033 hPa. If the sky is covered all night, the minimum temperature of the night of January 3rd to January 4th should be: SLIGHTLY BELOW + 3°C
    ·As a result of diurnal variation radiation fog is lifted and a cloud cover is formed. Which statement is true? LOW STRATUS WILL DEVELOP CAUSED BY INCREASING WIND SPEED
    ·Assume that an aircraft is flying in the northern hemisphere at the 500 hPa pressure surface on a heading of 270 degrees. Which of the following statements is correct? IF IN THIS PRESSURE SURFACE THE WIND COMES FROM THE DIRECTION 360 DEGREES, THE TRUE ALTITUDE IS INCREASING
    ·Assuming a generalised zonal system of world climatic and wind circulation, zone "u" is in area of: NE TRADE WINDS
    ·Assuming a generalised zonal system of world climatic and wind circulation, zone "y" is an area of: TRAVELLING LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS
    ·Assuming a generalised zonal system of world climatic and wind circulation, zone "x" is an area of : SUBTROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEMS
    ·Assuming a generalised zonal system of world climatic and wind circulation, zone "t" is an area of: SUBTROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEMS
    ·Assuming a generalised zonal system of world wind circulation, the NE trade winds are applicable to zone: U
    ·Assuming a generalised zonal system of world wind circulation, the SE trade winds are applicable to zone: W
    ·Assuming that an initial "trigger" force is present, the conditions most likely to result in the formation of thunderstorms are: HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND INSTABILITY THROUGHOUT A DEEP LAYER
    ·At 40°N 20°W, the forecast wind at FL 390 is: 090°/45 KT
    ·At 40°N 70°W, the forecast wind is: 270°/95KT
    ·At a certain position, the temperature on the 300 hPa chart is -48°C; according to the tropopause chart, the tropopause is at FL 330. What is the most likely temperature at FL 350 ? -54°C
    ·At a cold front: WARM AIR IS LIFTED AS COOLER AIR PUSHES UNDER IT
    ·At a station at the surface the significant weather with a warm front will come: MOSTLY BEFORE THE FRONT PASSES
    ·At about what geographical latitude as average is assumed for the zone of prevailing westerlies? 50°N
    ·At about what geographical latitude as average is assumed for the zone of prevailing westerlies? 50°N
    ·At approximately what flight level is the subtropical jet stream found? FL 400
    ·At FL 180, the air temperature is -35°C.The air density at this level is: GREATER THAN THE DENSITY OF THE ISA AT FL 180
    ·At FL 300 between Geneva and Tunis, what mean wind would be most likely? 245/50
    ·At Lyon (LFLY, N4545 E00500), at 1200 UTC, the sky is overcast with Stratocumulus and Altostratus and it is raining. Using the SWC in appendix, valid at 1200 UTC, we can estimate a weather improvement for Lyon: 2100 UTC
    ·At the same latitude the geostrophic wind is greater than the gradient wind around a low pressure system with equal pressure gradient because the: CENTRIFUGAL FORCE OPPOSES THE PRESSURE GRADIENT
    ·At the same latitude the geostrophic wind is less than the gradient wind around an anticyclone with equal pressure gradient because the: CENTRIFUGAL FORCE IS ADDED TO THE PRESSURE GRADIENT
    ·At the surface the lifetime of a typical microburst and the diameter of the area affected by damaging winds are in the order of: 1-5 MINUTES AND 4 KM
    ·At the top of orographic waves, in mountainous regions, the cloud most likely to be encountered is: ALTOCUMULUS LENTICULARIS
    ·At what approximate flight level is the tropopause over Frankfurt? FL 330
    ·At what degree of icing can ICAO's "No change of course and altitude necessary" recommendation be followed? LIGHT
    ·At what degree of icing should ICAO's "Change course and/or altitude immediately" instruction be followed? SEVERE
    ·At what degree of icing should ICAO's "Change of course and/or altitude desirable" recommendation be followed? MODERATE
    ·At what flight level is the jet stream core that is situated over northern Scandinavia ? FL 280
    ·At what temperatures would you expect the heaviest ice accretion to occur in a CB? BETWEEN -2°C AND -15°C
    ·At what time of day, or night, is radiation fog most likely to occur? SHORTLY AFTER SUNRISE
    ·At what time of the year are tornadoes most likely to occur in North America? SPRING, SUMMER
    ·At what time of the year are typhoons most likely to occur over the southern islands of Japan? JULY TO NEVEMBER
    ·At what time of the year, are the paths of north Atlantic lows moving from west to east generally at their most southerly position? WINTER
    ·At which airport is the following weather development taking place? TAF 231200Z 231322 24014G32KT 4000 +TSRA SCT005 BKN015 BKN020CB BECMG 1416 29012KT 9999 BKN030TCU SCT100 TEMPO 1619 8000 SHRA BKN025TCU BECMG 1922 27012KT 9999 SCT030 OVC220 = EINN
    ·At which airport, is the following weather development taking place? TAF 060600Z 060716 25006KT 8000 BKN240 BECMG 0710 OVC200 BECMG 1013 23010KT 8000 OVC100 BECMG 1316 23014KT 6000 RA SCT030 OVC050 = EDDL
    ·At which altitude, at temperate latitudes, may hail be expected in connection with a CB? FROM THE GROUND UP TO A MAXIMUM OF FL 450
    ·At which height and at what time of the year can an aircraft be affected by the equatorial jet stream? FL500 FROM JUNE TO AUGUST
    ·At which position is the development of thunderstorms most likely, and what is the maximum height of the CB clouds at 00 UTC? POSITION B, FL 270
    ·At which pressure and temperature conditions may you safely assume that the minimum usable flight level at least lies at the same height, as the minimum safe altitude? AT A TEMPERATURE GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO THAT OF THE ISA AND WHERE THE QNH IS GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 1013.25 HPA
    ·At which time, if any, are polar front jet streams over the South Pacific usually strongest?: JULY
    ·ATIS information contains: METEREOLOGICAL AND OPERATIONAL INFORMATION
    ·Atmospheric soundings give the following temperature profile: 3000 FT +15°C 6000 FT +8°C 10000 FT +1°C 14000 FT -6°C 18000 FT -14°C 24000 FT -26°C At which of the following flight levels is the risk for aircraft icing, in cloud, greatest? FL 150
    ·Before landing, an altimeter set to QFE indicates: IN STANDARD ATMOSPHERE, THE HEIGHT OF THE AIRCRAFT ABOVE THE OFFICIAL AIRPORT ELEVATION
    ·Below a low level inversion visibility is often: MODERATE OR POOR BECAUSE THERE IS NO VERTICAL EXCHANGE
    ·Below is the forecast for the destination of a flight whose ETA is 2030 UTC.; TAF YUDO 120600Z 121206 17010KT 3000 SCT005 BECMG 1820 VRB03KT BCFG SKC BECMG 2022 0300 FG VV002=; What can be said about the destination airport at 2030 UTC if CAT II ILS minima 350 m RVR, 100 ft Decision Height are being considered? HAS TO BE CONSIDERED AS CLOSED
    ·Between mean sea level and a height of 20 km, the lowest temperature in the ICAO Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is: -56.5°C
    ·Between which latitudes are you most likely to find the region of travelling low pressure systems during summer? 45°-70°
    ·Between which latitudes are you most likely to find the subtropical high-pressure belt ? 25°-35°
    ·By volume, what percentage of the air in the lower troposphere consists of water vapour? 0-5%
    ·By volume, which of the following elements makes up the largest part of the atmosphere? NITROGEN
    ·Central Europe is situated in the zone of: MID-LATITUDE CLIMATE
    ·Clear ice forms as a result of: SUPERCOOLED WATER DROPLETS SPREADING DURING THE FREEZING PROCESS
    ·Clear ice forms on an aircraft by the freezing of: LARGE SUPERCOOLED WATER DROPS
    ·Clear ice is dangerous because it: IS HEAVY AND IS DIFFICULT TO REMOVE FROM THE AIRCRAFT SURFACES
    ·Clear ice is formed when supercooled droplets are: LARGE AND AT A TEMPERATURE JUS BELOW FREEZING
    ·Clouds in patches, sheets or grey or whitish layers made up of elements resembling large pebbles or rollers, together or not, and always clear of the ground are: STRATOCUMULUS
    ·Clouds will mainly consist of supercooled water droplets when the temperature is: BETWEEN O°C AND - 15°C
    ·Clouds, classified as being low level are considered to have bases from: THE SURFACE TO 6500 FT
    ·Clouds, fog or dew will always be formed when: WATER VAPOUR CONDENSES
    ·Cold air pools: ARE MOST EVIDENT IN THE TEMPERATURE AND WIND FIELDS OF THE UPPER LEVELS.
    ·Compare the following TAF and VOLMET reports for Nice: TAF 240600Z 240716 VRB02KT CAVOK = 0920Z 13012KT 8000 SCT040CB BKN100 20/18 Q1015 TEMPO TS = What can be concluded from the differences between the two reports ? THAT THE WEATHER AT NICE IS CLEARLY MORE VOLATILE THAN THE TAF COULD HAVE PREDICTED EARLIER IN THE MORNING
    ·Consider a parcel of air being forced upwards in the atmosphere. The lapse rate of the surrounding air is less than the saturated adiabatic lapse rate. After the initial force is no longer effective, the parcel of air: WILL TEND TO DESCENT TO ITS ORIGINAL ALTITUDE
    ·Consider a parcel of air which is moved upwards in the surrounding air by an external force. Which one of the following situations describes instability? THE PARCEL TENDS TO GAIN ALTITUDE AFTER BEING RELEASED
    ·Considering Melbourne (C) in July, the weather is predominantly influenced by the zone of: SUBTROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE, WITH THE OCCASIONAL PASSAGE OF FRONTS ORIGINATING IN THE ADJACENT ZONE OF WESTERLY WAVES
    ·Considering that portion of the route indicated from 30°E to 50°E, the upper winds in January above FL 300 are most likely to be: A SUBTROPICAL WESTERLY JET STREAM, MAXIMUM SPEED EXCEEDING 90 KT
    ·Considering the North Atlantic area north of 60°N during winter, the mean height of the tropopause is approximately: 29000 FT
    ·Considering the North Atlantic at latitude 50°N during winter, the mean height of the tropopause is approximately: 31000 FT
    ·Considering the North Atlantic between 30°N and 65°N, the mean position of the polar front during winter extends from: FLORIDA TO SW ENGLAND
    ·Considering the North Atlantic region between 30°N and 65°N and the adjacent land areas during mid-summer, the predominant pressure systems are: AZORES HIGH AND WEAK LOW OVER NE CANADA
    ·Considering the North Atlantic region between 30°N and 65°N together with the adjacent land areas during winter, the normal disposition of the main anticyclones at the surface is: AZORES, SIBERIA
    ·Considering the North Atlantic region between 30°N and 65°N, the mean position of the polar front during summer extends from: NEWFOUNDLAND TO N SCOTLAND
    ·Considering the North Atlantic route from the Azores to Bermuda, the mean height of the tropical tropopause during summer is approximately: 51000 FT
    ·Considering the region between 20°N and 70°N, the normal position of the main anticyclones at the surface during winter is: AZORES, SIBERIA, CANADA
    ·Considering the route between Valencia and Charleston at FL 340, the forecast mean temperature is:-50 °C
    ·Considering the route indicated from Recife to Dakar the mean height of the tropopause during January is approximately: 56000 FT
    ·Considering the sector from 10°N to Nairobi of the route indicated, during January the upper winds at the 300 hPa level are most likely to be: LIGHT EASTERLIES
    ·Considering the sector Rome to 25°N on the route indicated, what mean upper winds may be expected at FL 300 during winter? WESTERLY JET STREAMS IN EXCESS OF 70 KT
    ·Continuous freezing rain is observed at an airfield. Which of the four diagrams is most likely to reflect temperatures above the airfield concerned? DIAGRAM 4
    ·Convective activity over land in mid-latitudes is greatest in: SUMMER IN THE AFTERNOON
    ·Convective clouds are formed: IN UNSTABLE ATMOSPHERE
    ·Convective weather phenomena include: THUNSDERSTORMS, HAIL, TORNADOES, WIND GUSTS, HEAVY SHOWERS, LIGHTNING STRIKES
    ·Cumulus clouds are an indication for: UP AND DOWNDRAFTS
    ·Depressions associated with developing frontal waves can be assumed to move in the direction of the 3000 feet wind: IN THE WARM SECTOR
    ·Dew point is defined as: THE TEMPERATURE TO WHICH AIR MUST BE COOLED TO BECOME SATURATED AT A GIVEN PRESSURE
    ·Divergence in the upper air that is greater than the convergence in the friction layer results, near the surface, in: FALLING PRESSURE AND LIKELY FORMATION OF CLOUDS
    ·Does the following report make sense? METAR LSZH 182320Z VRB02KT 5000 MIFG 02/02 Q1015 NOSIG THE REPORT IS POSSIBLE, BECAUSE SHALLOW FOG IS DEFINED AS A THIN LAYER OF FOG BELOW EYE LEVEL
    ·During a cross-country flight at FL 50, you observe the following sequence of clouds: Nimbostratus, Altostratus, Cirrostratus, Cirrus. Which of the following are you most likely to encounter ? DECREASING TEMPERATURES
    ·During a descent from 2000 FT above the surface to the surface (no frontal passage, northern hemisphere), the wind normally: BACKS AND DECREASES
    ·During a flight at FL 100 from Marseille (QNH 1012 hPa) to Palma de Mallorca (QNH 1015 hPa), an aircraft remains at a constant true altitude. The reason for this is that: THE AIR AT MARSEILLE IS WARMER THAN THAT AT PALMA DE MALLORCA
    ·During a flight over the sea at FL 100 from Marseille (QNH 1012 hPa) to Palma de Mallorca (QNH 1012 hPa), the true altitude is constantly increasing. What action, if any, should be taken ? NONE, THE REASON FOR THE CHANGE IS THAT THE AIR AROUND PALMA IS WARMER THAN THE AIR AROUND MARSEILLE
    ·During a flight over the sea at FL 100 from Marseille (QNH 1016 hPa) to Palma de Mallorca (QNH 1016 hPa), the true altitude is constantly decreasing. What is the probable reason for this ? THE AIR AT MARSEILLE IS WARMER THAN AT PALMA DE MALLORCA
    ·During a flight over the sea at FL 135, the true altitude is 13500 feet; local QNH is 1019 hPa. What information, if any, can be gained about the air mass in which the aircraft is flying? IT IS COLDER THAN ISA
    ·During an adiabatic process heat is: NEITHER ADDED NOR LOST
    ·During an ILS approach on RWY 33, a northwesterly wind is blowing parallel to the runway. Its speed is decreasing rapidly with height while its change in direction is negligible. What has the pilot to be aware of with respect to wind shear and glide path (no autopilot engaged)? WITHOUT THE PILOTS INTERVENTION, THE AIRCRAFT IS LIKELY TO FLY ABOVE THE DESIGNATED GLIDE PATH WITH INCREASING DEVIATION FROM IT
    ·During flight in clouds, which of the following means is the best one to identify the position of embedded CBs? WEATHER CHART
    ·During flight the headwind increases suddenly due to wind shear. What initial effect does that have on true airspeed? THERE WILL BE A SUDDEN TEMPORARY INCREASE IN TRUE AIR SPEED
    ·During July flights from Bangkok (13°N - 100°E) to Karachi (25°N - 67°E) experience an average tailwind component of 22 kt. In January the same flights, also operating at FL 370, have an average headwind of 50 kt. What is the reason for this difference? THE WIND COMPONENTS CORRESPOND TO THE SEASONAL CHANGE OF THE REGIONAL WIND SYSTEM
    ·During periods of cloudless weather over land in the northern hemisphere the: SURFACE WIND SPEED TENDS TO THE HIGHEST DURING THE MID AFTERNOON
    ·During periods of undisturbed radiation weather, overland, the: SURFACE WIND SPEED TENDS TO BE HIGUEST DURING THE MID AFTERNOON
    ·During summer an anticyclone covers the British Isles giving mainly clear skies. At 0600 UTC a south coast airfield in Southern England reports a surface wind of 350/06. The coastline at the airfield perimeter is aligned in an east/west direction. During the next twelve hours the surface wind is likely to: BECOME SOUTHERLY TO SOUTHWESTERLY AND INCREASE IN VELOCITY BY AFTERNOON
    ·During summer, a weak pressure gradient covers a coastal airfield in Eastern England resulting in mainly clear skies. The surface wind at dawn was calm. If the alignment of the coastline in the vicinity of the airfield is predominantly north/south, the surface wind direction is likely to become: EASTERLY TO SOUTHERLY AND INCREASE IN VELOSITY BY AFTERNOON
    ·During summer, the cloud type most applicable to square 2A is: CB
    ·During the approach to Mumbai ( 19°N - 73°E ) on the west coast of India, you are listening to the ATIS on 15 July at 0700 LT. Which of the following reports is most likely ? 24014KT 4500 SHRA SCT015 BKN025CB 25/24 Q1006 NOSIG=
    ·During the climb after take-off, the altimeter setting is adjusted at the transition altitude. If the local QNH is 1023 hPa, what will happen to the altimeter reading during the resetting procedure ? IT WILL DECREASE
    ·During the climb after take-off, the altimeter setting is adjusted at the transition altitude. If the local QNH is 966 hPa, what will happen to the altimeter reading during the resetting procedure? IT WILL INCREASE
    ·During the formation of rime ice in flight, water droplets freeze: RAPIDLY AND DO NOT SPREAD OUT
    ·During the late afternoon an air temperature of +12°C and a dew point of +5°C were measured. What temperature change must at least occur during the night in order to induce saturation? IT MUST DECREASE TO +5 °C
    ·During the life cycle of a thunderstorm, which stage is characterized predominantly by downdrafts? DISSIPATING STAGE
    ·During the passage of a front in the northern hemisphere the wind veers. This statement is: TRUE
    ·During the preparation for approach to Zurich airport (1416 ft/AMSL) a pilot hears the following message on the ATIS: "Inversion warning. Inversion of 12°C between 1900 ft and 2300 ft altitude."This message indicates that the pilot should be prepared: FOR WIND SHEAR JUST ABOVE THE INVERSION
    ·During the winter months in mid-latitudes in the northern hemisphere, the polar front jet stream moves toward the: SOUTH AND SPEED INCREASES
    ·During the winter, the air mass type advected from a direction indicated by arrow number 1 is designated: MARITIME ARCTIC
    ·During which seasons are hurricanes most likely to appear in the northern hemisphere? SUMMER AND AUTUMN
    ·During which stage of thunderstorm development are rotor winds characterized by roll clouds most likely to occur ? MATTURE STAGE
    ·Examining the pictures, on which one of the tracks (dashed lines) is this cross-section to be expected? TRACK B-D
    ·Extensive cloud and precipitation is often associated with a non frontal thermal depression because of: SURFACE CONVERGENCE AND UPPER LEVEL DIVERGENCE CAUSING WIDESPREAD ASCENT OF AIR IN THE DEPRESSION
    ·Fair weather cumulus often is an indication of: TURBULENCE AT AND BELOW THE CLOUD LEVEL
    ·Fallstreaks or virga are: WATER OR ICE PARTICLES FALLING OUT OF A CLOUD THAT EVAPORATE BEFORE REACHING THE GROUND
    ·Flight from Bordeaux to Amsterdam, ETA 2100 UTC. At ETA Amsterdam what surface wind is forecast ?; TAF EHAM 281500Z 281601 14010KT 6000 -RA SCT025 BECMG 1618 12015G25KT; SCT008 BKN013 TEMPO 1823 3000 RA BKN005 OVC010 BECMG 2301 25020KT 8000; NSW BKN020 = 120°/15 KT GUSTS 25 KN
    ·Flight from Bordeaux to Amsterdam, ETA 2100 UTC. What is the minimum visibility forecast for ETA Amsterdam ? TAF EHAM 281500Z 281601 14010KT 6000 -RA SCT025 BECMG 1618 12015G25KT SCT008 BKN013 TEMPO 1823 3000 RA BKN005 OVC010 BECMG 2301 25020KT 8000 NSW BKN020 = 3KM
    ·Flight from Bordeaux to Amsterdam, ETA 2100 UTC. What lowest cloud base is forecast for arrival at Amsterdam? TAF EHAM 281500Z 281601 14010KT 6000 -RA SCT025 BECMG 1618 12015G25KT SCT008 BKN013 TEMPO 1823 3000 RA BKN005 OVC010 BECMG 2301 25020KT 8000 NSW BKN020 = 500 FT
    ·Flight from Bordeaux to Amsterdam, ETA 2100 UTC. What lowest cloud base is forecast for arrival at Amsterdam?; TAF EHAM 281500Z 281601 14010KT 6000 -RA SCT025 BECMG 1618 12015G25KT SCT008 BKN013 TEMPO 1823 3000 RA BKN005 OVC010 BECMG 2301 25020KT 8000 NSW 500 FT
    ·Flight from Lisbon (LPPT) to Kingston (MKJP) At 40°N 20°W, the temperature deviation from ISA at FL 390 is: 0°C
    ·Flight from Lisbon (LPPT) to Kingston (MKJP) Considering the route segment between 60°W and 70°W, at FL 390 the forecast mean temperature is: -55°C
    ·Flight Lisbon to Bordeaux, ETA 1800 UTC. What type of precipitation is forecast on the approach to Bordeaux ?; TAF LFBD 281400Z 281524 26015KT 9999 SHRA BKN020 TEMPO 1620 26020G30KT; 8000 +SHRA BKN015CB PROB30 TSRA = HEAVY RAIN SHOWERS
    ·Flight Lisbon to Bordeaux, ETA 1800 UTC. At ETA Bordeaux what is the lowest quoted visibility forecast ?; TAF LFBD 281400Z 281524 26015KT 9999 SHRA BKN020 TEMPO 1620 26020G30KT; 8000 +SHRA BKN015CB PROB30 TSRA = 8KM
    ·Flight Munich to London. What is the direction and maximum speed of the jet stream affecting the route between Munich and London ? 220°/120 KT
    ·Flight Shannon to London. What amount and type of cloud is forecast for the eastern sector of the route between Shannon and London at FL 220 ? INDIVIDUAL CUMULONIMBUS
    ·Flight visibility from the cockpit during approach in a tropical downpour can decrease to minimal: TENS OF METRES
    ·Flight Zurich to Rome, ETD 1600 UTC, ETA 1800 UTC. At what flight level would you first expect to encounter clear air turbulence on the climb out from Zurich? FL 220
    ·For 1300 UTC select a METAR which you consider to be most appropriate to position "T": 19010KT 6000 RABKN016 OVC090 08/06 Q1004=
    ·For a given airfield the QFE is 980 hPa and the QNH is 1000 hPa. The approximate elevation of the airfield is: 160 METRES
    ·For a similar pressure gradient, the geostrophic wind speed will be: GREATER AT 30°N THAN AT 60°N
    ·For a VFR aircraft, the conditions in which it could encounter severe airframe icing are: FLIGHT INTO A FREEZING RAIN, RESULTING IN CLEAR ICE FORMATION
    ·For a VFR flight severe airframe icing may occur when flying: INTO FREEZING RAIN, RESULTING IN CLEAR ICE FORMATION
    ·For an aircraft at FL 40, approaching the front (square 3C) from the direction of square 3D a potential hazard exists before reaching the front in the form of: CLEAR ICE ACCRETION TO THE AIRFRAME
    ·For an aircraft at FL 80, ahead of the front in square 2D, the expected flight conditions are: BELOW AS TYPE CLOUD, GENERALLY SMOOTH AIR WITH LIGHT PRECIPITATION
    ·For an aircraft making an approach to an airfield located in square 3B, the most likely weather conditions are: LOW CLOUD, MIST
    ·For an aircraft making an approach to an airfield located in square 3B, away from the vicinity of the fronts, the most likely weather conditions in winter are: POOR VISIBILITY IN MIST AND DRIZZLE
    ·For an aircraft making an approach to an airfield which is not situated near high ground, in the vicinity of the active front in square 3 B, a potential hazard exists in the form of: LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR.
    ·For an aircraft what are the meteorological dangers associated with a Harmattan wind? DUST AND POOR VISIBILITY
    ·For an airfield located in the British Isles, the passage of a warm front will usually be indicated by: RISE IN TEMPERATURE, RISE IN DEW POINT TEMPERATURE, WIND VEERS AND DECREASES
    ·For both saturated and unsaturated air instability will occur when the: ENVIRONMENTAL LAPSE RATE IS GREATER THAN BOTH ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE AND SATURATED ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE
    ·For subsonic cruising levels, a SIGMET is NOT issued in case of: ISOLATED CB
    ·For the same horizontal distance between adjacent isobars the gradient wind speed will be least at: 50°N WITH A CYCLONIC CIRCULATION
    ·For the same pressure gradient at 60°N, 50°N and 40°N the speed of the geostrophic wind will be: GREATEST AT 40°N
    ·Freezing fog consists of: SUPERCOOLED WATER DROPLETS
    ·Freezing fog exists if fog droplets: ARE SUPERCOOLED
    ·Freezing precipitation occurs: MAINLY IN THE FORM OF FREEZING RAIN OR FREEZING DRIZZLE
    ·Friction between the air and the ground results in the northern hemisphere in: BACKING OF THE WIND AND DECREASE OF WIND SPEED AT THE SURFACE.
    ·From indications shown on the chart, when front "S" passes position "V" the surface wind should: VEER AND REMAIN MORE OR LESS AT THE SAME SPEED
    ·From summer to winter the average geographic position of the polar front jet stream over the North Atlantic moves: TOWARDS THE SOUTH AND THE SPEED INCREASES
    ·From the following TAF you can assume that visibility at 2055Z in Birmingham (EGBB) will be :; EGBB 261812 28015G25KT 9999 SCT025 TEMPO 1822 29018G35KT 5000 SHRASN BKN010CB PROB30 TEMPO 1821 1500 TSGR BKN008CB BECMG 2124 26010KT NOT LESS THAN 1.5 KM BUT COULD BE IN EXCESS OF 10 KM
    ·From what type of cloud does drizzle fall ? STRATUS
    ·From which direction do the trade winds blow, in the southern hemisphere? SE
    ·From which of the following pieces of information can the stability of the atmosphere be derived? ENVIRONMENTAL LAPSE RATE
    ·Frontal fog can be formed by: CONDENSATION OF AIR SATURATED BY EVAPORATION OF PRECIPITATION
    ·Frontal fog is most likely to occur: IN ADVANCE OF A WARM FRONT
    ·Frontal fog will most likely dissipate with: THE PASSAGE OF A WARM FRONT
    ·Frontal thunderstorms are mainly associated with: COLD FRONTS
    ·Geostrophic wind is the wind when isobars are: STRAIGHT LINES AND NO FRICTION IS INVOLVED
    ·Geostrophic wind: IS PERPENDICULAR TO THE HORIZONTAL PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE
    ·Given the following METAR: EDDM 250850Z 33005KT 2000 R26R/P1500N R26L/1500N BR SCT002 OVC003 05/05 Q1025 NOSIG Which of the following statements is correct ? VISIBILITY IS REDUCED BY WATER DROPLETS
    ·Given: Altimeter setting: 1013.2 hPa Altimeter reading: 5000 ft Outside air temperature at 5000 ft: +5°C QFE: 958 hPa QNH: 983 hPa What is the true height of the aeroplane above the aerodrome? 3515 FT
    ·Good visibility in the lower levels may be expected when: COOL DRY AIR IS MOVING OVER A WARMER SURFACE
    ·Half the mass of the atmosphere is found in the first: 5 KM
    ·Hazardous hailstones, reaching the ground, are most likely to be experienced below CB clouds situated: IN CONTINENTAL INTERIORS IN MIDDLE LATITUDES
    ·Hoar frost forms as a result of: WATER VAPOUR TURNING DIRECTLY INTO ICE CRYSTALS ON THE AIRCRAFT SURFACE
    ·Hoar frost is most likely to form when: TAKING OFF FROM AN AIRFIELD WITH A SIGNIFICANT GROUND INVERSION (SKY CLEAR)
    ·How are high level condensation trails formed that are to be found occasionally behind jet aircraft ? THROUGH WATER VAPOUR RELEASED DURING FUEL COMBUSTION
    ·How are the air masses distributed in a cold occlusion ? THE COLDEST AIR MASS BEHIND AND THE LESS COLD AIR IN FRONT OF THE OCLUSSION; THE WARM AIR MASS IS ABOVE GROUND LEVEL
    ·How are well separated CB clouds described on the Significant Weather Chart? OCNL CB
    ·How do air masses move at a warm front ? WARM AIR OVERRIDES A COLD AIR MASS
    ·How do you recognize a cold air pool? A A LOW PRESSURE ARE ALOFT (E.G. ON THE 500 HPA CHART)
    ·How does a pilot react to heavy freezing rain at 2000 FT/AGL, when he is unable to deice, nor land? HE TURNS BACK BEFORE THE AIRCRAFT LOSES MANOEUVRABILITY
    ·How does freezing rain develop? RAIN FALLS THROUGH A LAYER WHERE THE TEMPERATURES ARE BELOW 0°C
    ·How does moderate turbulence affect an aircraft? CHANGES IN ALTITUDE OCCUR BUT THE AIRCRAFT REMAINS IN POSITIVE CONTROL AT ALL TIMES
    ·How does relative humidity and the dewpoint in an unsaturated air mass change with varying temperature? WHEN THE TEMPERATURE INCREASES, THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY DECREASES, AND THE DEWPOINT REMAINS CONSTANT
    ·How does temperature vary with increasing altitude in the ICAO standard atmosphere below the tropopause? DECREASES
    ·How does the height of the tropopause normally vary with latitude in the northern hemisphere ? IT DECREASES FROM SOUTH TO NORTH
    ·How is a ceiling defined? HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND OR WATER OF THE LOWEST LAYER OF CLOUD BELOW 20000 FT COVERING MORE THAN HALF OF THE SKY
    ·How is a ceiling defined? HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND OR WATER OF THE LOWEST LAYER OF CLOUD BELOW 20000 FT COVERING MORE THAN HALF OF THE SKY
    ·How is an easterly wave identifiable on a surface weather chart? AS A WEAK TROUGH
    ·How is the direction and speed of upper winds described in forecasts ? THE DIRECTION IS RELATIVE TO TRUE NORTH AND THE SPEED IS IN KNOTS
    ·How is the Mediterranean climate best described? ANTICYCLONIC AND HOT IN SUMMER, FRONTAL DEPRESSIONS IN WINTER
    ·How long does a typical microburst last? 1 TO 5 MINUTES
    ·How long from the time of observation is a TREND in a METAR valid? 2 HOURS
    ·How would the term "vertical visibility is missing or not measurable" be indicated in a METAR? W///
    ·How, if at all, is the relative humidity of an unsaturated air mass influenced by temperature changes? IT DECREASES WITH INCREASING TEMPERATURE
    ·Ice accretion to the airframe is likely to be most hazardous at temperatures: BETWEEN 0°C AND -23°C IN LARGE CU
    ·If a flight at FL 150 is planned, which of these upper wind and temperature charts would be nearest to that flight level? 600 HPA
    ·If a saturated air mass descends down a slope its temperature increases at: A LOWER RATE THAN IN DRY AIR, AS EVAPORATION ABSORBS HEAT
    ·If atmospheric conditions exist such that the temperature deviation is ISA +10°C in the lower troposphere up to 18000 FT, what is the actual layer thickness between FL 60 and FL 120 ? 6240 FT
    ·If CAVOK is reported then: NO LOW DRIFTING SNOW IS PRESENT
    ·If in a 100 m thick layer the temperature at the bottom of the layer is 10°C and at the top of the layer is 8°C then this layer is: ABSOLUTELY UNSTABLE
    ·If Paris reports a wind of 08010KT on the METAR, what wind velocity would you expect to encounter at a height of 2000 feet above the ground ? 11020KT
    ·If Paris reports a wind of 16020KT on the METAR, what wind velocity would you expect to encounter at a height of 2000 feet above the ground? 19040KN
    ·If Paris reports a wind of 19015KT on the METAR, what wind velocity would you expect to encounter at a height of 2000 feet above the ground ? 22030KT
    ·If Paris reports a wind of 30012KT on the METAR, what wind velocity would you expect to encounter at a height of 2000 feet above the ground ? 33025KT
    ·If radiation fog forms on a clear night with light winds, the increase in wind speed from 5 kt to 13 kt will most likely: CAUSE THE FOG TO LIFT AND BECOME LOW STRATUS
    ·If the pressure surfaces bulge upwards in all levels then the pressure system is a: WARM HIGH
    ·If the QFE at Locarno (200 metres above sea level) is 1000 hPa, what is the approximate QNH? 1025 HPA
    ·If the QFE at Locarno (200 metres above sea level) is 980 hPa, what is the approximate QNH ? 1005 HPA
    ·If the QFE, QNH and QFF of an airport have the same value: THE AIRPORT MUST BE AT MSL
    ·If the QNH at Locarno (200 metres above sea level) is 1015 hPa, what is the approximate QFE? 990 HPA
    ·If the QNH at Locarno (200 metres above sea level) is 1025 hPa, what is the approximate QFE? 1000 HPA
    ·If the subscale of an altimeter is set to QNH, what will it indicate after landing? AERODROME ELEVATION
    ·If the surface temperature is 15°C , then the temperature at 10000 FT in a current of ascending unsaturated air is: -15°C
    ·If you are flying at FL 100 in an air mass that is 10°C warmer than a standard atmosphere, what is the outside temperature likely to be? +5°C
  • If you are flying at FL 120 and the outside temperature is -2°C, at what altitude will the "freezing level" be? FL 110
    ·If you are flying at FL 300 in an air mass that is 15°C warmer than a standard atmosphere, what is the outside temperature likely to be? -30°C
    ·If you are flying from Zurich to London at FL 240, what conditions can you expect at cruising altitude? MODERATE OR SEVERE TURBULENCE AND ICING
    ·If you are flying from Zurich to Shannon at FL 340, where will your cruising altitude be? CONSTANTLY IN THE STRATOSPHERE
    ·If you are planning a flight at FL 170, which of these upper wind and temperature charts would be nearest your flight level ? 500 HPA
    ·If you are planning a flight at FL 290, which of these upper wind and temperature charts would be nearest your flight level ? 300 HPA
  • If you have to fly through a warm front when freezing level is at 10000 feet in the warm air and at 2000 feet in the cold air, at which altitude is the probability of freezing rain the lowest ? 12000 FEET
    ·Imagine an aircraft during approach to an airfield which is located in a basin within mountainous area under the influence of a blocking anticyclone in winter. Mark the most reasonable statement given below: WHILE APPROACHING THE AIRFIELD IN THE EARLY MORNING, AFTER A HORT PERIOD OF BUMPINESS THE ENGINES OF THE AIRCRAFT WILL DELIBER MORE THRUST AFTER BRAKING THROUGH THE INVERSION LAYER IF THE PILOT DOES NOT INTERVENE.
    ·Imagine an airfield during summer with sunny days and clear nights and with a runway parallel to the shoreline of a large inland lake 5 nautical miles away from the field.; A small aircraft heading for the airfield in the afternoon experiences wind shear during approach and a cross wind component which makes landing difficult.; The origin of the wind shear and cross wind is most likely to be seen in: A STRONG SEA BREEZE BLOWING MORE OR LESS PERPENDICULAR TO THE RUNWAY
    ·In a land- and sea-breeze circulation the land-breeze blows: DURING THE NIGHT AND IS WEAKER THAN THE SEA-BREEZE
    ·In a layer of air the decrease in temperature per 100 metres increase in height is more than 1°C. This layer can be described as being: ABSOLUTELY UNSTABLE
    ·In a low pressure system the convergence at the surface is caused by: FRICTIONAL FORCES
    ·In a METAR message, BR and HZ mean respectively: BR=MIST HZ= HAZE
    ·In a METAR message, the wind group is 23010MPS. This means: WIND FROM 230° TRUE AT 20 KNOTS
    ·In a mountain-valley wind circulation, the mountain wind blows: AT NIGHT DOWN FROM THE MOUNTAINS
    ·In a mountainous area, the most hazardous flying conditions associated with standing waves are likely to be experienced: IN THE VICINITY OF THE ROLL CLOUD OR ROTOR ZONE BENEATH THE FIRST WAVE ON THE LEEWARD SIDE
    ·In a situation with a weak pressure gradient and no thunderstorms around, what will the indication of the aneroid altimeter of an aircraft parked on the ground do over a period of about ten minutes? APPARENTLY NOTHING, BECOUSE ANY CHANGES WOULD BE SMALL
    ·In a warm front occlusion: THE WARM AIR IS LIFTED
    ·In a warm occlusion: THE WARM AIR IS LIFTED
    ·In a westerly situation, the mean time interval between polar frontal waves in Western Europe is: ONE TO TWO DAYS
    ·In addition to a lifting action, what are two other requirements necessary for thunderstorm formation ? UNSTABLE CONDITIONS AND HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT
    ·In addition to a stable layer of air over a substantial mountain range, the conditions most favourable to the development of standing waves are: WIND SPEED EXCESS OF 20 KT AT THE SURFACE AND INCREASING WITH HEIGHT, WIND DIRECTION PERPENDICULAR TO THE GENERAL DIRECTION OF THE RANGE
    ·In an air mass with no clouds the surface temperature is 15°C and the temperature at 1000 m/AGL is 13°C. This layer of air is: STABLE
    ·In an area of converging air in low level: CLOUDS CAN BE FORMED
    ·In an intense trough of low pressure over Iceland during wintertime the weather likely to be experienced is: STRONG WIND SHEAR, CONVECTION AND SNOW SHOWERS
    ·In an intense trough of low pressure over Iceland during wintertime the weather likely to be experienced is: STRONG WIND SHEAR, CONVECTION AND SNOW SHOWERS
    ·In an isothermal layer the state of the atmosphere is: ABSOLUTELY STABLE
    ·In an unsaturated layer in the friction layer the air is well mixed by turbulence. The layer remains unsaturated. After some time the vertical temperature profile will: CORRESPOND TO THE DRY ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE
    ·In an unstable layer there are cumuliform clouds. The vertical extent of these clouds depends on the: THICKNESS OF THE UNSTABLE AIR
    ·In appendix are shown four sections of the 700 hPa wind chart. The diagram representing most accurately the wind direction and speed is: 030°/30 KT (DIAGRAM A)
    ·In case of fronts, what cloud formation is most likely to occur at low levels when a warm air mass overrides a cold air mass? NIMBOSTRATUS
    ·In Central Europe when is the greatest likelihood for thunderstorms due to warm updrafts? MID-AFTERNOON
    ·In general, the visibility during rainfall compared to during drizzle is: GREATER
    ·In Geneva, the local QNH is 994 hPa. The elevation of Geneva is 1411 FT. The QFE adjustment in Geneva is: 942 HPA
    ·In January an extended high pressure area is normally observed over: SIBERIA
    ·In mature Cb's the probability of severe icing, according to meteorological rules, is greatest in the following temperature range: 0°C TO -23°C
    ·In METAR messages, the pressure group represents the: QNH ROUNDED DOWN TO THE NEAREST HPA
    ·In meteorology the process by which water vapour is transformed directly into ice is known as: SUBLIMATION
    ·In meteorology, which constituent is considered the most important in the atmosphere's composition? WATER VAPOUR
    ·In mid-latitudes, the tops of Cumulus are often limited by: A TEMPERATURE INVERSION
    ·In mid-latitudes, what surface weather is associated with a stationary high pressure region over land in the winter? A TENDENCY FOR FOG AND LOW ST
    ·In order to calculate QFE from QNH, which of the following must be known ? ELEVATION OF THE AIRFIELD
    ·In order to reduce QFE to QNH, which of the following item(s) must be known ? ELEVATION AT THE AIRFIELD
    ·In relation to the polar front jet stream, the greatest rate of wind shear is most likely to occur: CLOSE TO THE CORE ON THE POLAR SIDE
    ·In relation to the total weight of the atmosphere, the weight of the atmosphere between mean sea level and a height of 5500 m is: 50%
    ·In still air the temperature decreases at an average of 1.2°C per 100 m increase in altitude. This temperature change is called: ENVIRONMENTAL LAPSE RATE
    ·In stratiform clouds: WEAK VERTICAL CURRENTS OCCUR AND TEMPERATURE IS NEARLY EQUAL TO THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SURROUNDING AIR AT THE SAME HEIGHT
    ·In summer in the northern hemisphere the maximum wind speeds associated with sub-tropical jet streams are usually located: BELOW THE TROPOPAUSE AT ABOUT 200 HPA
    ·In summer, when wind is calm and sky is clear, the minimum temperature over land is reached approximately: HALF AN HOUR AFTER SUNRISE
    ·In temperate latitudes what weather conditions may be expected over land during the summer in the centre of a stationary high pressure zone ? CALM WINDS, HAZE
    ·In the central part of the Atlantic Ocean between 10°N and 20°N the prevailing winds are: NE TRADE WINDS
    ·In the following TAF, what is the forecast weather at 0800 UTC?; TAF EHAM 152300Z 160009 33005KT 9999 SCT025 BKN100 BECMG 0002 27015KT 4500 -SN SCT008 OVC015 TEMPO 0206 0400 +SN VV002 BECMG 0406 01008KT 9999 NSW SCT030 TEMPO 0709 03015G25KT 1200 SHSN SCT006 SCT015CB= MODERATE SNOW SHOWERS OR NO SIGNIFICANT WEATHER
    ·In the ICAO Standard Atmosphere the decrease in temperature with height below 11 km is: 0.65°C PER 100M
    ·In the ICAO standard atmosphere, which of the following alternatives indicates the correct vertical temperature distribution in the lowest 11 km? 15°C AT MEAN SEA LEVEL, DECREASING AT 0.65 °C PER 100 METRES
    ·In the lower layers of the atmosphere due to friction the wind changes direction towards the low pressure area because: WIND SPEED DECREASES AND THEREFORE CORIOLIS FORCE DECREASES
    ·In the lower levels of the atmosphere when the environmental lapse rate is greater than saturated adiabatic lapse rate but less than dry adiabatic lapse rate - the air mass is described as being: CONDITIONALLY UNSTABLE
    ·In the METAR code the abbreviation VC indicates: PRESENT WEATHER WITHIN A RANGE OF 8 KM, BUT NOT AT THE AIRPORT
    ·In the METAR code the abbreviation VCBLDU means: BLOWING DUST IN THE VICINITY
    ·In the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere the wind blows: CLOCKWISE AROUND ANTICYCLONES AND ANTI-CLOCKWISE AROUND CYCLONES
    ·In the mid-latitudes the stratosphere extends on an average from: 11 TO 50 KM
    ·In the middle of the eye of a hurricane the wind speed is; LOWER THAN 63 KNOTS AND THE AIR IS DESCENDING;
    ·In the month of August you prepare a flight (cruising level FL 370) from Bombay (19°N - 73°E) to Bangkok (13°N - 100°E). What wind conditions can you expect? HEADWINDS
    ·In the North Atlantic, you can often see a series of depressions located in a row and travelling from west to east. These depressions: ARE NORMALLY GENERATED AT THE POLAR FRONT
    ·In the northern hemisphere a pilot flying at 1000 FT/AGL directly towards the centre of a low pressure area, will find the wind blowing from: LEFT AND BEHIND
    ·In the northern hemisphere advection of warm air aloft indicates: THE APPROACH OF A WARM OCCLUSION
    ·In the northern hemisphere at 5000 ft/AGL a south-westerly wind is blowing. The surface wind at the same location is a southerly wind. What is the primary reason of difference between these two wind directions? FRICTION BETWEEN THE WIND AND THE SURFACE
    ·In the northern hemisphere the gradient wind of a cyclonic pressure distribution is 350/24, over the sea the surface wind would approximate: 340/20
    ·In the northern hemisphere the wind at the surface blows: COUNTER-CLOCKWISE AROUND, AND TOWARD THE CENTRE OF, A LOW PRESSURE AREA
    ·In the northern hemisphere with an anticyclonic pressure system the geostrophic wind at 2000 FT over the sea is 060/15. At the same position the surface wind is most likely to be: 050/10
    ·In the northern hemisphere, during periods of prolonged clear skies associated with anticyclonic conditions, the: SURFACE WIND SPEED TENDS TO BE HIGHUES DURING THE EARLY AFTERNOON
    ·In the southern hemisphere what wind effect would you expect when flying from a high pressure area towards a low pressure area at FL 100? WIND FROM THE RIGHT
    ·In the TAF for Athens, during the summer, for the time of your landing you note: TEMPO TS. What is the maximum time this deterioration in weather can last in anyone instance ? 60 MINUTES
    ·In the trade wind belt between the surface and the 500 hPa level, which of the following is true? THE AIR RELATEVILY MOIST IN THE LOWER PART AND DRY IN THE UPPER PART
    ·In the tropopause the position of so called "tropopause breaks" is important for aviation because: THE CORES OF JET STREAMS CAN BE LOCATED NEAR THESE BREAKS
    ·In the troposphere the decrease in pressure per 100 m increase in height is: LARGER IN THE LOWER LAYERS THAN IN THE HIGUER LAYERS
    ·In the vicinity of industrial areas, smoke is most likely to affect surface visibility when: THERE IS A LOW LEVEL INVERSION
    ·In the weather briefing room during the pre-flight phase of a passenger flight from Zurich to Rome, you examine the following weather reports of pressing importance at the time:; EINN SHANNON 2808 sigmet 2 valid 0800/1100 loc sev turb fcst einn fir blw fl 050 south of 53n wkn =; LIMM MILANO 2809 sigmet 2 valid 0900/1500 mod sev cat btn fl 250 and fl 430 fcst limm fir stnr nc =; EGLL LONDON 2808 sigmet nr01 valid 0800/1200 for london fir isol cb embd in lyr cloud fcst tops fl 300 btn 52n and 54n east of 002e sev ice sev turb ts also fcst mov e wkn =; Which decision is correct? BECOUSE OF THE EXPECTED TURBULENCE YOU SELECT A FLIGHT LEVEL BELOW FL 250
    ·In the weather pattern behind a cold front, the visibility outside precipitation is: GOOD AND THE PRECIPITATION IS SHOWERS
    ·In this question the wind speed with straight isobars (vst), the wind speed around a high-pressure system (vhigh) and the wind speed around a low-pressure system (vlow) in the southern hemisphere are being compared while pressure gradient and latitude constant. Which statement is correct? VST<VHIGH AND VST>VLOW
    ·In towering cumulus clouds: STRONG UPDRAUGHTS OCCUR AND THE TEMPERATURE IN THE COLD IS HIGHER THAN IN THE SURROUNDING AIR AT THE SAME HEIGHT
    ·In unstable air, surface visibility is most likely to be restricted by: SHOWERS OF RAIN OR SNOW
    ·In what height range and at what intensity could you encounter turbulence in CAT area n°2? FROM FL 220 TO FL 400, MODERATE
    ·In what hPa range is an upper weather chart for FL 340 situated? 300-200 HPA
    ·In which air mass are extremely low temperatures encountered? CONTINENTAL POLAR AIR
    ·In which approximate direction does the centre of a non-occluded frontal depression move? IN THE DIRECTION OF THE WARM SECTOR ISOBARS.
  • In which areas are easterly waves most likely to form? IN THE TRADE WIND ZONE
    ·In which conditions would you most likely encounter clear icing, and how would it normally appear? COMULIFORM CLOUDS, LARGE WATER DROPLETS, TEMPERATURES BETWEEN 0°C AND -15°C. APPEARS SMOOTH AND TENDS TO SPREAD BACK OVER AN AIRCRAFT WING
    ·In which environment is aircraft structural ice most likely to have the highest rate of accretion ? FREEZING RAIN
    ·In which layer is most of the atmospheric humidity concentrated ? TROPOSPHERE
    ·In which main direction does a polar front depression move? ALONG THE FRNT TOWARDS THE EAST
    ·In which meteorological forecast chart is information about CAT regions found? SIGNIFICANT WEATHER CHART
    ·In which month does the humid monsoon in India start? IN JUNE
    ·In which of the areas below does the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) have a significant impact? WESTERN AFRICA BETWEEN 10° N AND 20° N AND THE NORTHERN COASTS OF THE ARABIAN SEA IN JULY
    ·In which of the following 1850 UTC METAR reports, is the probability of fog formation, in the coming night, the highest? VRB01KT 8000 SCT 250 11/10 Q1028 BECMG 3000 BR=
    ·In which of the following areas do surface high pressure systems usually predominate over the North Atlantic region between 30°N and 65°N and the adjoining land areas during the northern summer? AZORES, SE USA, SW EUROPE
    ·In which of the following areas is the frequency of tropical revolving storms the highest? SOUTH CHINA SEA AND THE PHILIPPINES AREA
    ·In which of the following areas is the highest frequency of thunderstorms encountered ? TROPICAL
    ·In which of the following bands of latitude is the intertropical convergence zone most likely to be encountered in January, between Dakar and Rio de Janeiro? 0°-7°N
    ·In which of the following changes of state is latent heat absorbed? SOLID TO LIQUID
    ·In which of the following changes of state is latent heat absorbed? LIQUID TO GAS
    ·In which of the following changes of state is latent heat absorbed? SOLID TO GAS
    ·In which of the following changes of state is latent heat released ? GAS TO LIQUID
    ·In which of the following changes of state is latent heat released? GAS TO SOLID
    ·In which of the following changes of state is latent heat released? LIQUID TO SOLID
    ·In which of the following circumstances is a SIGMET issued ? SEVERE MOUNTAIN WAVES
    ·In which of the following conditions is moderate to severe airframe icing most likely to be encountered? IN NIMBOSTRATUS LOUD
    ·In which of the following METAR reports is the probability of fog formation in the coming night the highest? 201850Z 15003KT 6000 SCT120 05/04 Q1032 BECMG 1600 BR =
    ·In which of the following METAR reports is the probability of fog formation in the coming night the highest? 201850Z 15003KT 6000 SCT120 05/04 Q1032 BECMG 1600 BR=
    ·In which of the following regions does maritime polar air originate? EAST OF GREENLAND
    ·In which of the following situations can freezing rain be encountered ? AHEAD OF A WARM FRONT IN THE WINTER
    ·In which of the following situations is an aircraft most susceptible to icing ? LEVEL FLIGHT BELLOW A RAIN PRODUCING CLOUD WHEN OAT IS BELLOW ZERO DEGREES C
    ·In which of the following situations is the probability for severe thunderstorms the highest? ADVECTION OF MARITIME COLD AIR OVER A WARM SEA SURFACE
    ·In which of the following situations is the probability for severe thunderstorms the highest? ADVECTION OF MARITIME COLD AIR OVER A WARM SEA SURFACE
    ·In which of these cloud types can icing be virtually ruled out? CS
    ·In which of these cloud types can icing be virtually ruled out? CI
    ·In which of these temperature bands is ice most likely to form on the aircraft's surface? 0°C TO - 10°C
    ·In which situation is advection fog most likely to form? AN AIR MASS MOVING INLAND FROM THE COAST IN WINTER
    ·In which squares are conditions most likely to cause the occurrence of low level wind shear? 3A AND 3C
    ·In which stage of the life cycle of a single thunderstorm cell occur both up- and downdrafts simultaneously? MATURE STAGE
    ·In which weather report would you expect to find information about icing conditions on the runway? METAR
    ·In which zone of a polar front jet stream is the strongest CAT to be expected ? ON THE POLAR AIR SIDE OF THE CORE
    ·In winter, after breaking through a low level inversion during descent and assuming the pilot does not intervene: THRUST MOST LIKELY WILL INCREASE AND VISIBILITY IS LIKELY TO DETERIORATE
    ·In wintertime stratus is often formed when warm maritime air moves over cold land. How can such clouds be classified? TURBULENCE CLOUDS
    ·In Zurich during a summer day the following weather observations were taken: 160450Z 23015KT 3000 +RA SCT008 SCT020 OVC030 13/12 Q1010 NOSIG = 160650Z 25008KT 6000 SCT040 BKN090 18/14 Q1010 RERA NOSIG = 160850Z 25006KT 8000 SCT040 SCT100 19/15 Q1009 NOSIG 161050Z 24008KT 9999 SCT040 SCT100 21/15 Q1008 NOSIG =; 161250Z 23012KT CAVOK 23/16 Q1005 NOSIG = 161450Z 23016KT 9999 SCT040 BKN090 24/17 Q1003 BECMG 25020G40KT TS =161650Z 24018G35KT 3000 +TSRA SCT006 BKN015CB 18/16 Q1002 NOSIG = 161850Z 28012KT 9999 SCT030 SCT100 13/11 Q1005 NOSIG = What do you conclude based on these observations? A WARM FRONT PASSED THE STATION EARLY IN THE MORNING AND A COLD FRONT DURING LATE AFTERNOON
    ·Isobars on a surface chart are lines of equal: QFF
    ·Isolated thunderstorms of a local nature are generally caused by: THERMAL TRIGGERING
    ·Isotachs are lines joining equal: WIND SPEEDS
    ·Judging by the chart, on which of these routes can you expect to encounter moderate CAT at FL 300? ZURICH-ATHENS
    ·Judging by the chart, what wind speeds can you expect at FL 310 above London ? 90 KT
    ·Katabatic wind is: A FLOW OF COLD AIR DOWN THE SLOPE OF A MOUNTAIN
    ·Large hail stones: ARE TIPICALLY ASOCIATED WITH SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS
    ·Lenticular clouds in mountainous areas indicate: TURBULENCE
    ·Looking at the chart, at what altitude above Frankfurt would you expect the tropopause to be located? FL 360
    ·Low level vertical wind shear can be expected during the night: IN ASSOCIATION WITH RADIATION INVERSIONS
    ·Low level wind shear is likely to be greatest: AT THE TOP OF A MARKED SURFACE-BASED INVERSION
    ·Mark the correct statement concerning the flight through an inversion caused by subsidence: DURING CLIMB, THE REDUCED AIR DENSITY ABOVE THE INVERSION LAYER WILL CAUSE A CERTAIN DECREASE IN THE AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE(I.E. LIFT AND THRUST) AND THE PILOT WILL EXPERIENCE A SUDDEN IMPROVEMENT OF VISIBILITY
    ·Mark the statement most reasonable regarding a valley inversion: OVER NIGHT, COOL DENSE AIR AS A RESULT OF RADIATION COOLING WILL DESCEND ALONG THE MOUNTAIN SLOPES INTO THE BASIN AND LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VALLEY INVERSION
    ·Marseille Information gives you the following meteorological information for Ajaccio and Calvi for 1600 UTC: Ajaccio: wind 360°/2 kt, visibility 2000 m, rain, BKN stratocumulus at 1000 FT, OVC altostratus at 8000 FT, QNH 1023 hPa. Calvi: wind 040°/2 kt, visibility 3000 m, mist, FEW stratus at 500 FT, SCT stratocumulus at 2000 FT, OVC altostratus at 9000 FT, QNH 1023 hPa. The ceilings (more than 4 oktas) are therefore: 1000 FT AT AJACCIO AND 9000 FT AT CALVI
    ·Maximum wind speeds associated with subtropical jet streams are usually located in the: TROPICAL AIR BELOW THE TROPOPAUSE
    ·Moderate to severe CAT is encountered especially in: AN AREA WITH STRONGLY CURVED, CLOSELY PACKED ISOHYPSES
    ·Most tornadoes have a life span that lasts for: A FEW MINUTES UP TO 30 MINUTES
    ·Most tornadoes have a speed of movement that usually ranges from: 20 TO 40 KNOTS
    ·Mountain waves should be expected: ON THE DOWNWIND SIDE OF THE MOUNTAIN CHAIN
    ·Occlusions are formed when: COLD FRONTS OVERTAKE WARM FRONTS
    ·Of the four radio soundings, select the one that indicates ground fog: 2
    ·Of the four radio soundings, select the one that indicates low stratus: 3
    ·Of what does lenticular cloud provide evidence? MOUNTAIN WAVES
    ·On a clear summer day, turbulence caused by solar heating is most pronounced: DURING THE EARLY AFTERNOON
    ·On a particular day part of a polar front jet stream runs from north to south in the northern hemisphere. This means that: THE POLAR AIR IS BELOW AND TO THE EAST OF THE CORE OF THE JET
    ·On a route segment from A to B the highest terrain elevation is approximately 200 feet. For an instrument flight the minimum obstacle clearance is 1000 feet. The subscale of the altimeter is set to the local QNH of 1013 hPa and the temperature on the ground is -5°C. Assume a standard temperature lapse rate. What is the approximate minimum acceptable altimeter indication during the flight on this route segment? 1300 FEET
    ·On a Significant Weather Chart, we see the following for the area where a VFR-flight will take place: BKN CU SC 100 / 023 If the flight is planned at FL 85, we can estimate that: WE WILL PROBABLY HAVE TO DIVERT AROUND SOME CUMULUS TOPS
    ·On an aerodrome, when a warm front is approaching: QFE AND QNH DECREASE
    ·On an upper wind and temperature chart: THE PRESSUER IS CONSTANT ALL OVER THE CHART
    ·On average, going from the equator to the north pole, the altitude of the tropopause: DECREASES AND ITS TEMPERATURE INCREASES
    ·On the approach, the surface temperature is given as -5°C. The freezing level is at 3000 FT/AGL. At 4000 FT/AGL, there is a solid cloud layer from which rain is falling. According to the weather briefing, the clouds are due to an inversion caused by warm air sliding up and over an inclined front. Would you expect icing? YES, BETWEEN GROUND LEVEL AND 3000 FT/AGL
    ·On the European continent METARs of main airports are compiled and distributed with intervals of: 0.5 HOUR
    ·On the Significant Weather Chart, we see the following indications:; SCT CU100/060; The forecast charts for FL 050 and FL 100 both indicate a wind from 320°/15 kt. In flight at FL 055 over an area of plains (flat country) during the validity period of the Significant Weather Chart, we observe moderate turbulence. This turbulence is caused by: THE INSTABILITY OF THE AIR MASS BETWEEN THE TOP OF CUMULUS CLOUDS.
    ·On the West coast of India it can be said in general that the wind blows: FOR SIX MONTH FROM THE NORTH EAST AND FOR SIX MONTH FROM THE SOUTH WEST
    ·On which coast of North America, is the danger of tropical revolving storms the greatest? SE COAST
    ·On which latitudes can the coriolis force in practice be neglected for meteorological purposes? FROM 0 TO ABOUT 10 DEGREES NORTH AND SOUTH
    ·On which of the following aviation weather charts can a pilot most easily find a jet stream? SIGNIFICANT WEATHER CHART
    ·On which of the following routes can you expect icing to occur, on the basis of the chart? HAMBURG-OSLO
    ·On which of these routes would you not need to worry about icing at FL 170? LONDON-STOCKHOLM
    ·On which side of an easterly wave are thunderstorms most likely to develop? ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE WAVE
    ·One of the main reasons for radiation fog to dissipate or become low stratus is: SURFACE HEATING
    ·Orographic thunderstorms may occur: AT ANY TIME DURING DAY AND NIGHT
    ·Over Amsterdam, what amount and general type of cloud would you expect at FL 160? MAINLY 5 TO 8 OKTAS OF STRATIFORM CLOUD IN LAYERS
    ·Over Central Europe what type of cloud cover is typical of the warm sector of a depression during winter? ST
    ·Over Madrid, what intensity of turbulence and icing is forecast at FL 200 ? MODERATE TURBULANCE, MODERATE ICING
    ·Over Paris at what flight level would you expect to find the tropopause according to the map? FL 300
    ·Over the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal tropical cyclones are: OCCASIONALLY OBSERVED, IN THE AVERAGE 12 PER YEAR
    ·Over which areas can tropical revolving storms occur? CARIBBEAN SEA, GULF OF BENGAL, INDIAN OCEAN EAST OF MADAGASCAR
    ·Precipitation in the form of showers occurs from: CONVECTIVE CLOUDS
    ·Pressure altitude is obtained by: SETTING THE ALTIMETER TO STANDARD SEA LEVEL PRESSURE
    ·QNH is defined as: QFE REDUCED TO MSL USING THE VALUES OF THE STANDARD ATMOSPHERE
    ·Radiation fog most frequently occurs in: HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEMS OVER LAND
    ·Read this description: "After such a fine day, the ring around the moon was a bad sign yesterday evening for the weather today. And, sure enough, it is pouring down outside. The clouds are making an oppressively low ceiling of uniform grey; but at least it has become a little bit warmer." Which of these weather phenomena is being described? A WARM FRONT
    ·Refer to the diagram. Assuming the usual direction of movement, to which position will the polar frontal wave have moved ? POSITION 3
    ·Refer to the diagram. Assuming the usual direction of movement, where will this polar frontal wave have moved ? POSITION 3
    ·Refer to the following TAF extract; BECMG 1821 2000 BR BKN004 PROB30 TEMPO 2124 0500 FG VV001 What does the abbreviation "PROB30" mean? PROBABILITY OF 30%
    ·Refer to the following TAF extract: BECMG 1821 2000 BR BKN004 BECMG 2124 0500 FG VV001 What does the abbreviation "VV001" mean? VERTICAL VISIBILITY 100 FT
    ·Refer to the following TAF extract: BECMG 1821 2000 BR BKN004 BECMG 2124 0500 FG VV001 What does the abbreviation "BKN004" mean? 5-7 OKTAS, CEILING 400 FT
    ·Refer to the following TAF extract: BECMG 1821 2000 BR BKN004 BECMG 2124 0500 FG VV001 What does the "BECMG" data indicate for the 18 to 21 hour time frame? THE NEW CONDITIONS ARE ACHIEVED BETWEEN 1800 AND 2100 UTC
    ·Refer to the following TAF extract: BECMG 1821 2000 BR BKN004 BECMG 2124 0500 FG VV001 What visibility is forecast for 2400 UTC? 500M
    ·Refer to the following TAF message. LFxx 180800Z 180918 22020KT 6000 SCT015 SCT080 BECMG 1214 24025KT 2000 RA BKN009 OVC070= At 1400 UTC, the lowest cloud base will be: AT 900 FEET AGL
    ·Relative humidity at a given temperature is the relation between: ACTUAL WATER VAPOUR CONTENT AND SATURATED WATER VAPOUR CONTENT
    ·Relative humidity depends on: MOISTURE CONTENT AND TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR
    ·Relative humidity: CHANGES WHEN WATER VAPOUR IS ADDED, EVEN THOUGH THE TEMPERATURE REMAINS CONSTANT
    ·Relative humidity: INCREASES IF THE AIR IS COOLED WHILST MAINTAINING THA VAPOUR PRESSURE CONSTANT
    ·Rime ice forms through the freezing onto aircraft surfaces of: SMALL SUPERCOOLED DROPS
    ·Rising air cools because: IT EXPANDS
    ·Runway Visual Range (RVR) is: USUALLY BETTER THAN VISIBILITY
    ·Runway visual range can be reported in: A METAR
    ·Runway visual range is calculated from values derived from: FORWARD-SCATTER METERS
    ·Runway visual range is calculated from values derived from: TRANSMISSOMETERS
    ·Sea breezes are most likely to occur when: SLACK PRESSURE GRADIENT AND CLEAR SKIES RESULT IN RELATIVELY HIGH LAND TEMPERATURES
    ·Select from the map the average temperature for the route Athens - Geneva at FL 150: -14°C
    ·Select from the map the average temperature for the route Geneva -Stockholm at FL 260: -47°C
    ·Select from the map the average temperature for the route Zurich - Lisboa at FL 200: -33°C
    ·Select from the map the average temperature for the route Zurich - Rome at FL 110: -9°C
    ·Select from the map the average wind for the route Athens - Geneva at FL 160.: 240/40
    ·Select from the map the average wind for the route Shannon - Lisboa at FL 290: 360/80
    ·Select from the map the average wind for the route Zurich - Hamburg at FL 240: 230/20
    ·Select from the map the average wind for the route Zurich - Rome at FL110: 230/10
    ·Select from the map the wind for the route Zurich - London at FL 280: 220/60
    ·Select the answer which you consider will complete correctly the following statement in relation to the main pressure systems affecting the North Atlantic region between 30°N and 65°N. During winter the predominant mean low pressure system at the surface: ICELAND/GREENLAND
    ·Select the true statement concerning isobars and wind flow patterns around high- and low-pressure systems that are shown on a surface weather chart: WHEN THE ISOBARS ARE CLOSED TOGUETHER, THE PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE IS GREATER AND WIND VELOCITIES ARE STRONGER
    ·SIGMET information is issued as a warning for significant weather to: ALL AIRCRAFT
    ·Snow grains: FALL FROM STRATUS OR SUPERCOOLED FOG
    ·Solid precipitation which is transparent or translucent and has a diameter of 5mm or less formed by the freezing of raindrops or refreezing of melted snow, and usually bounces off hard surfaces, is a description of: ICE PELLETS
    ·Steady precipitation, in contrast to showery precipitation falls from: STRATIFORM CLOUDS WITH LITTLE OR NO TURBULENCE
    ·Steaming fog (arctic sea smoke) occurs in air: WITH COLD MASS PROPERTIES
    ·Stratus formed by turbulence will occur when: IN THE FRICTION LAYER MIXING OCCURS BY TURBULENCE AND THE MIXING CONDENSATION LEVEL IS SITUATED BELOW THE TOP OF THE TURBULENT LAYER
    ·Strongest clear air turbulence is to be expected: ON THE COLD AIR SIDE OF THE JET STREAM CORE
    ·Strongly developed cumulus clouds are an indication of: STABILITY IN THE ATMOSPHERE
    ·Subsidence is: VERTICALLY DOWNWARDS MOTION OF AIR
    ·Supercooled droplets are always: AT A TEMPERATURE BELOW FREEZING
    ·Supercooled droplets can be encountered: AT ANY TIME OF THE YEAR
    ·Supercooled droplets can occur in: CLOUDS, FOG AND PRECIPITATION
    ·Surface temperature inversions are frequently generated by: TERRESTIAL RADIATION ON A CALM CLEAR NIGHT
    ·Surface-based temperature inversions are common during: CLOUD-FREE NIGHTS IN WINTER WHEN THE GROUND IS DRY
    ·TAF EHAM 142300Z 150009 33005KT 9999 SCT025 BKN100 BECMG 0002 27015KT 4500 -SN SCT008 OVC015 TEMPO 0206 0400 +SN VV002 BECMG 0406 01008KT 9999 NSW SCT030 TEMPO 0709 03015G25KT 1200 SNSH SCT006 SCT015CB= What is the expected visibility at 0300 UTC? BETWEEEN 400 M AND 4500 M
    ·TAF LSZH 250600Z 250716 00000KT 0100 FG VV001 BECMG 0810 0800 VV002 BECMG 1012 23005KT 2500 BR BKN005 TEMPO 1316 6000 SCT007 = Which of these statements best describes the weather that can be expected at 1200 UTC? VISIBILITY 2.5 KILOMETRES, MIST, CLOUD BASE 500 FEET, WIND SPEED 5 KNOTS
    ·TAF LSZH 250716 00000KT 0100 FG VV001 BECMG 0810 0800 VV002 BECMG 1012 23005KT 2500 BKN005 TEMPO 1316 6000 SCT007 =; Which of these statements best describes the weather that can be expected at 1200 UTC? VISIBILITY 2.5 KILOMETRES, CLOUDBASE 500 FETT, WINDSPEED 5 KNOTS
    ·The 0° isotherm is forecast to be at FL 50. At what FL would you expect a temperature of -6° C? FL 80
    ·The air mass affecting position "A" is most likely to be: MARITIME POLAR
    ·The air mass affecting position "C" is most likely to be: MARITIME TROPICAL
    ·The air mass affecting position "P" is most likely to be: CONTINENTAL POLAR
    ·The air mass affecting position "R" is most likely to be: MARITIME POLAR
    ·The air mass affecting position "S" is most likely to be: MARITIME TROPICAL AND STABLE
    ·The air mass at position "X" is most likely to be:MARITIME TROPICAL
    ·The air mass in the warm sector of a polar front is: TROPICAL AIR
    ·The air mass type advected from a direction indicated by arrow number 6 is designated: MARITIME POLAR
    ·The air mass type indicated by arrow number 4 is designated: MARITIME TROPICAL
    ·The air masses that are observed most frequently over western Europe are: POLAR AIR AND TROPICAL AIR
    ·The amount of water vapour which air can hold largely depends on: AIR TEMPERATURE
    ·The approximate inclined plane of a warm front is: 1/150
    ·The arctic front is the boundary between: POLAR AIR AND ARCTIC AIR
    ·The arrows labelled "r" represent the mean tracks of tropical revolving storms which occur mainly from: DECEMBER TO APRIL AND ARE CALLED CYCLONES
    ·The arrows labelled "s" represent the mean tracks of tropical revolving storms which occur mainly from: MAY TO NOVEMBER AND ARE CALLED CYCLONES
    ·The arrows labelled "t" represents the mean track of tropical revolving storms which occur mainly from: JUNE TO OCTUBER AND ARE CALLED CYCLONES
    ·The arrows labelled "u" represent the tracks of tropical revolving storms which occur mainly from: JULY TO OCTOBER AND ARE CALLED TYPHOONS
    ·The arrows labelled "v" represent the mean tracks of tropical revolving storms which occur mainly from: DECEMBER TO APRIL AND ARE CALLED CYCLONES
    ·The attached chart shows the weather conditions on the ground at 1200 UTC on October 10. Which of the following reports reflects weather development at Zurich Airport? TAF LSZH 101601 VRB02KT 8000 SCT280 BECMG 1618 00000KT 3500 MIFG BECMG 1820 1500 BCFG BECMG 2022 0100 FG VV001 =
    ·The average forecast wind for the leg from Madrid to Dhahran at FL 390 is: 270/50
    ·The average height of the tropopause at 50°N is about: 11 KM
    ·The average position of the polar front in the northern hemisphere is: MORE SOUTHERLY DURING THE WINTER THAN DURING THE SUMMER
    ·The average position of the polar front in the northern hemisphere is: MORE SOUTHERLY DURING THE WINTER THAN DURING THE SUMMER
    ·The average slope of a cold front is in the order of: 1:80
    ·The average thickness of the troposphere varies with: LATITUDE
    ·The barometric compensator of an altimter is locked on reference 1013.2 hPa. The aircraft has to land on a point with an elevation of 290 feet where the QNH is 1023 hPa. The reading on the altimeter on the ground will be: 20 FT
    ·The Bora is a: COLD CATABATIC WIND WITH THE POSSIBILITY OF VIOLENT GUSTS
    ·The Chinook is a: WARM AND DRY WIND THAT FORMS AS AIR DESCENDS ON THE LEEWARD SIDE OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS
    ·The cloud base, reported in the METAR, is the height above: AIRFIELD LEVEL
    ·The cloud most likely to be experienced in square 1E is: CI
    ·The cloud type most applicable to most of square 3B is: SC
    ·The cloud type most applicable to square 1E is: CS
    ·The cloud type most applicable to square 2B is: CB
    ·The cloud type most applicable to square 2C is: AS
    ·The cloud type most applicable to square 2D is: AS
    ·The cloud type most applicable to square 3C is: NS
    ·The cold front is indicated with a number at position: 2
    ·The conditions most favourable to the formation of mountain waves are: WIND DIRECTION APPROXIMATELY AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE MOUNTAIN RANGE- WIND SPEED 30 KT AND STEADLY INCREASING WITH HEIGHT- AN INVERSION JUST ABOVE THE CREST LEVEL WITH LESS STABLE AIR ABOVE AND BELOW
    ·The core of the polar front jet stream is usually located in the: TROPICAL AIR BELOW THE TROPOPAUSE
    ·The decrease in temperature, per 100 metres, in a saturated rising parcel of air at lower level of the atmosphere is approximately: 0.6°C
    ·The decrease in temperature, per 100 metres, in an unsaturated rising parcel of air is: 1°C
    ·The degree of clear air turbulence experienced by an aircraft is proportional to the: INTENSITY OF THE VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL WIND SHEAR
    ·The dewpoint temperature: CAN BE EQUAL TO THE AIR TEMPERATURE
    ·The dewpoint temperature: CAN BE REACHED BY COOLING THE AIR WHILST KEEPING PRESSURE CONSTANT
    ·The diagram of the system in annex represents a: WARM OCLUSSION
    ·The diameter of a typical tornado is: 100 TO 150 METRES
    ·The difference between geostrophic wind and gradient wind is caused by: CURVATURE OF ISOBARS
    ·The diurnal variation in temperature is largest when: THE SKY IS CLEAR AND THE WIND IS WEAK
    ·The dotted line designated "Z" represents the: MEAN POSITION OF THE INTERTROPICAL FRONT(ITCZ) DURING JULY;
    ·The dotted line designated "Z" represents the: MEAN POSITION OF THE INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE(ITCZ) DURING JULY
    ·The dotted line labelled "Y" represents the: MEAN POSITION OF THE INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (ITCZ) DURING JANUARY
    ·The dry adiabatic lapse rate has a value of: 1°C/100M
    ·The dry adiabatic lapse rate: HAS A CONSTANT FIXED VALUE
    ·The environmental lapse rate in an actual atmosphere: VARIES WITH TIME
    ·The equatorial easterly jet is a jet stream that occurs: ONLY IN THE SUMMER OF THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE AT APPROX. 45000 FT
    ·The eye of a hurricane: EXTENDS FROM THE SURFACE TO THE TOP OF THE HURRICANE
    ·The first clouds are thin, wispy cirrus, followed by sheets of cirrus and cirrostratus, and altostratus. The sun is obscured as the altostratus thickens and drizzle or rain begins to fall. The cloud base is lowering as Nimbostratus arrives. These phenomena indicate: WARM FRONT
    ·The Foehn wind is a: WARM KATABATIC WIND
    ·The following sequence of clouds is observed at an airport: cirrus, cirrostratus, altostratus, nimbostratus. This is typical for: THE PASSAGE OF A WARM FRONT
    ·The following statements deal with precipitation, turbulence and icing. Select the list containing the most likely alternatives for NS cloud: PRECIPITATON MAY BE SNOW, SLEET OR RAIN. ICING IS PROBABLE AND MAY RANGE BETWEEN LIGHT AND SEVERE. TURBULENCE IS RARELY MORE THAN MODERATE
    ·The following temperatures have been observed over a station at 1200 UTC. Assume the station is at MSL. Height in feet. Temperature in degrees C. 20000.-12 18000.-11 16000.-10 14000.-10 12000.-6 10000.-2 8000. +2 6000. +6 4000. +12 2000. +15 surface+15. Which of the following statements is correct ? ASSUMING THAT THE MSL PRESSURE IS 1013.25 HPA THE TRUE ALTITUDE OF AN AIRCRAFT WOULD ACTUALLY BE HIGHER THAN THE INDICATED ALTITUDE
    ·The following weather message EDDM 241200Z 241322 VRB03KT 1500 BR OVC004 BECMG 1517 00000KT 0500 FG VV002 TEMPO 2022 0400 FG VV001 is a: 9 HOUR TAF
    ·The formation of clear ice on the leading edges of an aircraft is most likely to be caused by the: RELATIVELY SLOW FREEZING OF LARGE SUPERCOOLED WATER DROPLETS
    ·The formation of morning fog before sunrise is possible if: AIR TEMPERATURE AND DEW POINT ARE EQUAL OR CLOSE TO ONE ANOTHER
    ·The front at the bottom of the diagram, south of position C, is: AN OCCLUSION ON THE SURFACE
    ·The front labelled "E" is a: COLD FRONT
    ·The front labelled "Z" is a: WARM FRONT
    ·The front located from 10°W to 10°E is most likely to be: A QUASI-STATIONARY FRONT
    ·The geostrophic wind depends on: DENSITY, EARTHS ROTATION, GEOGRAPHIC LATITUDE
    ·The geostrophic wind speed is directly proportional to the: HORIZONTAL PRESSURE GRADIENT
    ·The greater the pressure gradient the: CLOSER THE ISOBARS AND THE STRONGER THE WIND
    ·The Harmattan is a: NE WIND AFFECTING NORTH-WEST AFRICA DURING NOVEMBER TO APRIL REDUCING VISIBILITY IN RISING DUST
    ·The height and the temperature of the tropopause are respectively in the order of: 16 KM AND -75°C OVER THE EQUATOR
    ·The height of the lifting condensation level is determined by: TEMPERATURE AND DEWPOINT AT THE SURFACE
    ·The Hurricane season is mainly from: JULY UNTIL NOVEMBER
    ·The ICAO Standard Atmosphere (ISA) assumes that temperature will reduce at the rate of: 1.98°C PER 1000 FT UP TO 36090 FT AFTER WHICH IT REMAINS CONSTANT TO 65617 FT
    ·The intertropical convergence zone: IS CHARACTERIZED BY DIFFERENT WIND DIRECTIONS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ZONE
    ·The isobars drawn on a surface weather chart represent lines of equal pressure: REDUCED TO SEA LEVEL
    ·The jetstream and associated clear air turbulence can sometimes be visually identified in flight by: LONG STREAKS OF CIRRUS CLOUDS
    ·The length, width and depth of a typical mid-latitude jet stream are respectively: 1000 NAUTICAL MILES, 150 NAUTICAL MILES, 10000FEET
    ·The lowest cloud base forecast at ETA Zurich (1200 UTC) is:; LSZH 061019 20018G30KT 9999 -RA SCT050 BKN080 TEMPO 23012KT 6000 -DZ BKN015 BKN030 BECMG 1518 23020G35KT 4000 RA OVC010=; 1500 FT
    ·The lowest cloud type observed is Stratus fractus, and there is moderate continuous rain. The area in which you are at this moment is most likely situated: IN THE MAIN BODY OF A WARM OR COLD FRONT
    ·The lowest visibility forecast at ETA Zurich 1430 UTC is:; LSZH 261019 20018G30KT 9999 -RA SCT050 BKN080 TEMPO 23012KT 6000 -DZ BKN015 BKN030 BECMG 1518 23020G35KT 4000 RA OVC010=: 6 KM
    ·The main components of a cirrostratus are: ICE CRYSTALS
    ·The main components of an altostratus are: ICE CRYSTALS AND WATER DROPLETS
    ·The main factor which contributes to the formation of very low clouds ahead of a warm front is the: SATURATION OF THE COLD AIR BY RAIN FALLING INTO IT AND EVAPORATING
    ·The maximum amount of water vapour that the air can contain depends on the: AIR TEMPERATURE
    ·The maximum vapour pressure over a flat supercooled water surface and the maximum vapour pressure over a flat ice surface of the same temperature are compared. The maximum vapour pressure is: GREATER OVER THE WATER SURFACE
    ·The mean height of the tropical tropopause is: 54000 FT
    ·The mean height of the tropical zero degree isotherm is: 16000 FT
    ·The mean temperature that may be expected to affect that segment of the route from the coast of SE England to Geneva at FL 270 is: -38°C
    ·The mean wind that may be expected to affect the route segment from the coast of SE England to Geneva at FL 270 is: 220/70
    ·The morning following a clear, calm night when the temperature has dropped to the dewpoint, is likely to produce: RADIATION FOG
    ·The most dangerous form of airframe icing is: CLEAR ICE
    ·The most dangerous icing conditions are encountered in: SUPERCOOLED PRECIPITATION
    ·The most dangerous low level wind shears are encountered: WHEN STRONG GROUND INVERSIONS ARE PRESENT AND NEAR THUNDERSTORMS
    ·The most effective way to dissipate cloud is by: SUBSIDENCE
    ·The most hazardous type of cloud that may be encountered on a cross country flight is: CUMULONIMBUS
    ·The most likely place to encounter clear air turbulence associated with a jet stream is: CLOSE TO THE CORE ON THE SIDE FACING THE POLAR AIR
    ·The most likely reason for radiation fog to dissipate or become low stratus is: INCREASING SURFACE WIND SPEED
    ·The occurrence of freezing rain at FL 60 is most likely in square: 3C
    ·The passage of a warm front can be associated with areas of fog. The types of fog just in advance and just after the passage are respectively: FRONTAL FOG AND ADVECTION FOG
    ·The polar front is the boundary between: POLAR AIR AND TROPICAL AIR
    ·The polar front is: THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN POLAR AND TROPICAL AIR MASSES
    ·The position of the intertropical convergence zone: SHOWS MORE VARIATION OVER THE CONTINENTS THAN OVER THE OCEANS
    ·The presence of altocumulus castellanus indicates: INSTABILITY IN THE MIDDLE TROPOSPHERE
    ·The presence of altocumulus lenticularis is an indication of the: PRESENCE OF MOUNTAIN WAVES
    ·The presence of ice pellets at the surface is evidence that: FREEZING RAIN OCCURS AT A HIGHER ALTITUDE
    ·The presence of ice pellets at the surface is the evidence that: TEMPERATURES ARE ABOVE FREEZING AT SOME HIGHER ALTITUDES.
    ·The pressure altitude is equal to the true altitude if: STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS OCCUR
    ·The pressure distribution located mainly in square 2A is a: RIDGE OF HIGH PRESSURE
    ·The pressure system at position "D" is a: COL
    ·The pressure system indicated in a vertical cross section by pressure surfaces at lower heights bulging upward and pressure surfaces at greater heights bulging downward, is a: COLD HIGH PRESSURE AREA
    ·The prevailing surface wind in the area of the west coast of Africa north of the equator (gulf of Guinea) is a: SW MONSOON IN SUMMER AND NE TRADEWIND IN WINTER
    ·The processes and/or effects which cause clouds to release precipitation are: COALESCENCE PROCESS AND BERGERON-FINDEISEN PROCESS
    ·The QFF at an airfield in California located 69 metres below sea level is 1030 hPa. The air temperature is 10°C lower than a standard atmosphere. What is the QNH? MORE THAN 1030 HPA
    ·The QFF at an airfield located 400 metres above sea level is 1016 hPa. The air temperature is 10°C higher than a standard atmosphere. What is the QNH? MORE THAN 1016 HPA
    ·The QFF at an airfield located 400 metres above sea level is 1016 hPa. The air temperature is 10°C lower than a standard atmosphere. What is the QNH? LESS THAN 1016 HPA
    ·The QNH at an airfield in California located 69 metres below sea level is 1018 hPa. The air temperature is 10°C higher than a standard atmosphere. What is the QFF? MORE THAN 1018 HPA
    ·The QNH at an airfield located 200 metres above sea level is 1009 hPa. The air temperature is 10°C lower than a standard atmosphere. What is the QFF? MORE THAN 1009 HPA
    ·The QNH at an airfield located 200 metres above sea level is 1022 hPa. The air temperature is not available. What is the QFF? IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO GIVE A DEFINITIVE ANSWER
    ·The QNH at an airfield located at mean sea level is 1022 hPa. The air temperature is not available. What is the QFF? 1022 HPA
    ·The QNH is equal to the QFE if: THE ELEVATION = 0
    ·The QNH of an airport at sea level is 983 hPa and the temperature deviation from ISA is -15°C below FL 100. What is the true altitude of FL 100? 8640 FT
    ·The radiosonde can directly measure: ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, AIR TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY.
    ·The range of wind speed in which radiation fog is most likely to form is: BELOW 5 KT
    ·The rate of cooling of ascending saturated air is less than the rate of cooling of ascending unsaturated air because: HEAT IS RELEASED DURING THE CONDENSATION PROCESS
    ·The reason for the fact, that the atmospheric pressure of a polar front depression is normally lower in winter than in summer is that: THE TEMPERATURE CONTRASTS BETWEEN ARCTIC AND EQUATORIAL AREAS ARE MUCH GREATER IN WINTER
    ·The region of the globe where the greatest number of tropical revolving storms occur is: THE NORTH-WEST PACIFIC, AFFECTING JAPAN, TAIWAN, KOREA AND THE CHINESE COASTLINE
    ·The relative humidity of a sample air mass is 50%. How is the relative humidity of this air mass influenced by changes of the amount of water vapour in it? IT INCREASES WITH INCREASING WATER VAPOUR
    ·The RVR, as reported in a METAR, is always the: VALUE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE TOUCHDOWN ZONE
    ·The sea breeze is a wind from the sea: OCCURING ONLY IN THE LOWER LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE IN DAYTIME
    ·The slope and speed of a warm front compared to the slope and speed of a cold front is in general: SMALLER AND SLOWER
    ·The stability in a layer increases by advection of: COLD AIR IN THE LOWER PART
    ·The stability in a layer is increasing if: WARM AIR IS ADVECTED IN THE UPPER PART AND COLD AIR IN THE LOWER PART
    ·The stable layer at some height in the low troposphere of an older high pressure area in the mid-latitudes is called: SUBSIDENCE INVERSION
    ·The station pressure used in surface weather charts is: QFF
  • The SW monsoon starts in the month of: JUNE IN SOUTHERN INDIA TO REACH PAKISTAN IN JULY
    ·The TAF weather messages are: AIRPORT FORECASTS
    ·The temperature at 10000 FT in the ICAO Standard Atmosphere is: -5°C
    ·The temperature at FL 110 is -5°C. What will the temperature be at FL 50 if the ICAO standard lapse rate is applied ? +7°C
    ·The temperature at FL 140 is -12°C. What will the temperature be at FL 110 if the ICAO standard lapse rate is applied ? -6°C
    ·The temperature at FL 160 is -22°C. What will the temperature be at FL 90 if the ICAO standard lapse rate is applied ? -8°C
    ·The temperature at FL 330 overhead London will be: -45°C
    ·The temperature at FL 80 is +6°C. What will the temperature be at FL 130 if the ICAO standard lapse rate is applied ? -4°CThe most frequent wind direction in a valley caused by thermal effects is toward the: MOUNTAIN DURING DAYLIGHT HOURS
    ·The temperature at the surface is given as +15°C and at 4000 FT it is +9°C, the state of this layer is said to be: STABLE
    ·The temperature deviation from ISA (to the nearest °C) overhead Charleston at FL 340 is: +5
    ·The temperature lapse rate of the ICAO standard atmosphere in the troposphere is: 2°C/1000 FT
    ·The term CAVOK is used when weather conditions are: 9999, NSC, NSW
    ·The term PROB as used in a TAF message, indicates the probability in percentage, of phenomena described during a specific period. The numerical values immediately following the term PROB, are: 30 OR 40
    ·The thickness of the troposphere varies with: LATITUDE
    ·The trade winds on the northern hemisphere blow from NORTH-EAST
    ·The transition from SW to NE monsoon in India occurs in: SEPTEMBER, OCTOBER, NOVEMBER
    ·The tropopause is a level at which: TEMPERATURE CEASES TO FALL WITH INCREASING HEIGHT
    ·The tropopause is lower: OVER THE NORTH POLE THAN OVER THE EQUATOR
    ·The troposphere is the: PART OF THE ATMOSPHERE BELOW THE TROPOPAUSE
    ·The troposphere: HAS A GREAT VERTICAL EXTENT ABOVE THE EQUATOR THAN ABOVE THE POLES
    ·The turbulence which occurs at high flight levels (above FL 250) is mainly of the type Clear Air Turbulence. In what way can moderate to severe Clear Air Turbulence affect an aircraft, the flight and the passengers? THE TURBULENCE IS A SMALL SCALE ONE AND CAN CAUSE DAMAGE. THE MANOEUVRING OF THE AIRCRAFT WILL BE MADE MORE DIFFICULT OR IMPOSSIBLE. FOR THE PASSANGERS THE FLIGHT WILL BE UNPLEASANT
    ·The type of icing that occurs in dense clouds with large supercooled drops that have a temperature of -5°C is most likely to be: CLEAR ICE
    ·The typical weather conditions affecting the Darwin area during July are: DRY SEASON- MAINLY SE WINDS-VISIBILITY REDUCED BY DUST AND HAZE
    ·The upper wind and temperature chart of 250 hPa corresponds, in a standard atmosphere, to about: 34000 FT
    ·The validity of a routine TAF is: STATED IN THE TAF
    ·The value of the saturated adiabatic lapse rate is closest to that of the dry adiabatic lapse rate in: CIRRUS
    ·The vertical extent of the friction layer depends primarily on: STABILITY, WIND SPEED, ROUGHNES OF SURFACE
    ·The warm sector is indicated by: NUMBER 3
    ·The weather activity within a cold air pool is usually greatest: IN THE AFTERNOON
    ·The weather most likely to be experienced at position "B" is: FREQUENT SHOWERS OF RAIN OR SNOW, GOOD VISIBILITY OUTSIDE SHOWERS
    ·The weather most likely to be experienced at position "B" is: FREQUENT SHOWERS OF RAIN OR SNOW
    ·The weather most likely to be experienced at position "R" is: FINE AND WARM AT FIRST-AC CASTELLANUS AND CB IN LATE AFTERNOON WITH THUNDERSTORMS
    ·The weather most likely to be experienced at position "S" is: FREQUENT HERAVY SHOWERS OF RAIN OR SNOW
    ·The weather most likely to be experienced at position "S" is: OVERCAST WITH DRIZZLE AND OROGRAPHIC FOG
    ·The weather most likely to be experienced at position A is: MAINLY OVERCAST WITH STRATUS OR STRATOCUMULUS AND DRIZZLE, MEDIUM TO STRONG WINDS
    ·The weather most likely to be experienced near to position "A" is: FREQUENT SHOWERS OF RAIN AND SNOW, GOOD VISIBILITY OUTSIDE PRECIPITATION
    ·The weather most likely to be experienced on the coast near position "Q" is: SHOWERY WITH GENERALLY GOOD VISIBILITY
    ·The widest precipitation zone occurs usually: AHEAD OF A WARM FRONT
    ·The wind at 500ft above ground is 290/15kt and at the same position at 600ft above ground 300/22kt. How is this wind situation called? MODERATE VERTICAL WIND SHEAR
    ·The wind direction in a METAR is measured relative to: TRUE NORTH
    ·The wind indicator for a weather observation receives the measured value from an anemometer. Where is this instrument placed? ON A MAST 6-10 M ABOVE THE RUNWAY.
    ·The wind speed in a system with curved isobars compared to a system with straight isobars is (other conditions being the same): HIGHER IS CURVATURE IS ANTYCICLONIC
    ·The wind tends to follow the contour lines (isohypses) above the friction layer because: THE CORIOLIS FORCE TENDS TO BALANCE WITH THE HORIZONTAL PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE
    ·This chart shows the weather conditions on the ground at 0600 UTC on May 23. Which of the following reports reflects weather development at Geneva Airport? TAF LSGG 230600Z 230716 20016KT 8000 -RA BKN030 OVC070 BECMG 0810 5000 RA BKN020 OVC050 TEMPO 1012 3000 +RA BKN010 OVC030 BECMG 1215 25014KT 8000 SCT030 BKN090 =
    ·Thunderstorms are often preceded by: ALTOCUMULUS CASTELLANUS
    ·Thunderstorms can occur on a warm front if the: WARM AIR IS MOIST AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAPSE RATE EXCEEDS THE SATURATED ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE
    ·Thunderstorms in exceptional circumstances can occur in a warm front if: THE WARM AIR IS UNSTABLE
    ·Thunderstorms reach their greatest intensity during the: MATURE STAGE
    ·To what extent is Munich covered by clouds ? 5 TO 8 OKTAS
    ·To which aerodrome is the following TAF most applicable ? TAF 231019 24014KT 6000 SCT030 BKN100 TEMPO 1113 25020G38KT 2500 +TSRA SCT008 BKN025CB BECMG 1315 28012KT 9999 SCT025 TEMPO 5000 SHRA BKN020 BECMG 1719 27008KT 9999 SCT030: LOWW
    ·To which type of message does the following text belong? MBST APCH RWY26 REP AT 1510 B747 30KT ASPEEDL 2NM FNA= WIND SHEAR WARNING
    ·Tropical revolving storms are NOT formed in: SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN
    ·Tropical revolving storms do not occur in the southeast Pacific and the south Atlantic mainly because: OF THE LOW WATER TEMPERATURE
    ·Troughs are extensions of: LOW PRESSURE AREAS AND GENERALLY HAVE LARGE AMOUNTS OF CLOUD
    ·Two aircraft are flying simultaneously in level flight at different flight levels on opposite tracks overhead a given position.; Aircraft A flying at FL 070 experiences a 30 kt headwind.; Aircraft B flying at FL 060 experiences a 20 kt headwind.; None of the aircraft experiences cross wind. This wind condition will be referred to as: VERTICAL WIND SHEAR ONLY
    ·Two aircraft, one with a sharp wing profile (S), and the other with a thick profile (T), are flying through the same cloud with same true airspeed. The cloud consists of small supercooled droplets. Which of the following statements is most correct concerning ice accretion ? AIRCRAFT S EXPERIENCES MORE ICING THAN T
    ·Under anticyclone conditions in the northern hemisphere, with curved isobars the speed of the gradient wind is: GREATER THAN THE GEOSTROPHIC WIND
    ·Under the weather conditions depicted, which of the following statements is likely to apply? THUNDERSTORMS MAY OCCUR IN THE SUMMER MONTHS OVER CENTRAL EUROPE
    ·Under what condition does pressure altitude have the same value as density altitude ? AT STANDARD TEMPERATURE
    ·Under which of the following conditions is the most severe CAT likely to be experienced ?A CURVED JET STREAM NEAR A DEEP TROUGH
    ·Under which of these conditions is radiation fog most likely to form? LITTLE OR NO CLOUD
    ·Updraughts in a thunderstorm are prevailing during the: INITIAL STAGE
    ·Vertical wind shear is: A CHANGE OF HORIZONTAL WIND DIRECTION AND/OR SPEED WITH HEIGHT
    ·Visibility is reduced by haze when: DUST PARTICLES ARE TRAPPED BELOW AND INVERSION
    ·Weather conditions at Mumbai during early July are mainly influenced by the: SW MONSOON
    ·Weather conditions at Mumbai during January are mainly influenced by the: NE MONSOON
    ·What are squall lines? BANDS OF INTENSIVE THUNDERSTORMS
    ·What are the characteristics of cumuliform clouds? LARGE WATER DROPLETS, INSTABILITY, SHOWERS AND MAINLY CLEAR ICE
    ·What are the characteristics of rime ice, and what conditions are most favourable for its formation? MIKY GRANULAR APPEARANCE, FORMING ON LEADING EDGES AND ACCUMULATING FORWARD INTO THE AIR STREAM. STRATIFORM CLOUDS AT TEMPERATURES OF-10°C TO -20°C ARE MOST CONDICIVE TO ITS FORMATION.
    ·What are the characteristics of the Bora ? IT IS A COLD AND VERY STRONG WIND THAT BLOWS MAINLY IN WINTER FROM A TABLELAND DOWNWARDS TO THE ADRIATIC
    ·What are the colours with which a stationary front is shown on a surface chart? RED AND BLUE
    ·What are the conditions required for the formation of hoar frost? THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SURFACE IS LOWER THAN THE DEW POINT OF THE AIR AND THE DEWPOINT IS LOWER THAN 0°C
    ·What are the differences between radiation fog and advection fog ? RADIATION FOG FORMS DUE TO SURFACE COOLING AT NIGHT IN A LIGHT WIND. ADVECTION FOG FORMS WHEN WARM HUMID AIR FLOWS OVER A COLD SURFACE
    ·What are the images of satellites provided daily by the Weather Service used for? TO LOCATE FRONTS IN AREAS WITH FEW OBSERVATION STATIONS
    ·What are the meanings of the meteorological abbreviations SQ, BR, MIFG and SG respectively? SUDDEN INCREASE IN WIND SPEED LASTING FOR AT LEAST ONE MINUTE/MIST/SHALLOW FOG/SNOWGRAINS
    ·What are the normal and official sources of meteorological information for an aircraft in flight? VOLMET BROADCAST;ATIS;ALL ATS-UNITS
    ·What are the requirements for the formation of a thunderstorm? AN ADEQUATE SUPPLY OF MOISTURE, CONDITIONAL INSTABILITY AND A LIFTING ACTION
    ·What are the typical differences with regard to the temperature and humidity between an air mass with its origin in the Azores and an air mass with its origin over northern Russia ? THE AIR OF THE AZORES IS WARMER AND MORE HUMID THAN THE NORTH-RUSSIAN AIR
    ·What are the typical weather conditions in a cold air pool in summer? PRECIPITATION IS PREDOMINANT
    ·What are the typical weather conditions in a warm anticyclone over land? FINE WEATHER DOMINATES IN SUMMER
    ·What are the typical weather conditions in a westerly situation? VERY CHANGEABLE
    ·What are the typical weather conditions in an area with a flat pressure pattern in summer? GENERALLY FIEN WEATHER, POSSIBLY THUNDERSTORMS IN THE AFTERNOON OR EVENING
    ·What average geographical latitude is assumed for the zone of the subtropical high? 30°N
    ·What causes surface winds to flow across the isobars at an angle rather than parallel to the isobars ? SURFACE FRICTION
    ·What change in pressure, will occur at point A, during the next hour? A RISE IN PRESSURE
    ·What change in pressure, will occur at point B, during the next hour? APPROXMATELY CONSTANT PRESSURE
    ·What change in pressure, will occur at point F, during the next hour? A DROP IN PRESSURE
    ·What change in temperature will occur at point A during the next hour? A DROP IN TEMPERATURE
    ·What change in temperature will occur at point B during the next hour? APPROXIMATELY CONSTANT TEMPERATURE
    ·What characteristic is associated with a temperature inversion ? STABILITY
    ·What characteristics will the surface winds have in an area where the isobars on the weather map are very close together? STRONG AND FLOWING SOMEWHAT ACROSS THE ISOBARS
    ·What characterizes a stationary front ? THE SURFCE WIND USSUALLY HAS ITS DIRECTION PARALLEL TO THE FRONT
    ·What cloud cover is typical for a wide warm sector of a polar front depression over Central Europe in the summer ? FAIR WEATHER CU
    ·What cloud type can produce freezing rain? NIMBOSTRATUS
    ·What conditions are most likely to lead to the formation of hill fog? HUMID STABLE AIR MASS, WIND BLOWING TOWARDS THE HILLS
    ·What conditions are most likely to prevail at an aerodrome located in square 3B? 6-8 OKTAS SC AND ST, VISIBILITY MODERATE TO POOR IN DRIZZLE
    ·What conditions are necessary for vertical visibility to be reported? WHENEVER THE SKY IS OBSCURED BY FOG OR HEAVY PRECIPITATION AND THE HEIGHT OF THE CLOUD BASE CANNOT BE MEASURED
    ·What degree of aircraft icing is determined by the following ICAO description?"Conditions in which change of heading and/or altitude may be considered desirable" MODERATE
    ·What degree of aircraft icing is determined by the following ICAO description? "Conditions in which immediate change of heading and/or altitude is considered essential" SEVERE
    ·What degree of turbulence, if any, is likely to be encountered while flying through a cold front in the summer over Central Europe at FL 100? SEVERE TURBULENCE IN CB CLOUD
    ·What does dewpoint mean? THE TEMPERATURE TO WHICH A MASS OF AIR MUST BE COOLED IN ORDER TO REACH SATURATION
    ·What does the abbreviation "BKN" mean? 5-7 EIGHTS OF THE SKY IS CLOUD COVERED
    ·What does the abbreviation "nosig" mean? NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGES
    ·What does the code R24R/P1500 mean? RVR RWY 24 RIGHT ABOVE 1500 METRES
    ·What does the code TAF AMD mean? REVISED TAF
    ·What does the symbol indicate on a significant weather chart? THE CENTER OS A TROPOPAUSE HIGH, WHERE THE TROPOPAUSE IS AT FL 400
    ·What does the term METAR signify? A METAR SIGNIFIES THE ACTUAL WEATHER REPORT AT AN AERODROME AND IS GENERALLY ISSUED IN HALF-HOURLY INTERVALS
    ·What does the term SIGMET signify? A SIGMET IS A WARNING OF DANGEROUS METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS
    ·What does the term TREND signify?IT IS A LANDING FORECAST ADDED TO THE ACTUAL WEATHER REPORT
    ·What feature is normally associated with the initial stage of a thunderstorm? CONTINUOUS UPDRAFT
    ·What flight conditions are most likely to be experienced in square 2B by an aircraft at FL 120? VMC ABOVE LAYERS OF ST AND SC, GENERALLY STABLE CONDITIONS
    ·What flying conditions are normally encountered when flying in cirrus clouds? AVERAGE HORIZONTAL VISIBILITY MORE THAN 1000 M, NIL ICING
    ·What information is given on a Significant Weather Chart? THE SIGNIFICANT WEATHER FORECAST FOR THE TIME GIVEN ON THE CHART
    ·What information is required to calculate a lowest usable flight level from a given minimum safe altitude? LOWEST VALUE OF QNH AND THE HIGUEST NEGATIV TEMPERATURE DEVIATION FROM ISA
    ·What intensity and type of aircraft icing is likely to occur at FL 100 in a thunderstorm, with the freezing level at 7000 FT? MODERATE TO SEVERE ICING DUE TO CLEAR ICE
    ·What intensity and type of airframe icing is most likely to occur when flying at FL 170 in AS with the outside air temperature at -20°C? LIGHT-RIME
    ·What intensity and type of airframe icing is most likely to occur when aircraft descend rapidly from FL 320 (temp. -45°C) to FL 60 in warm, moist clear air? LIGHT OR MODERATE HOAR FROST
    ·What is "mixing ratio"? THE NUMBER OF GRAMMES OF WATER VAPOUR PER KILOGRAMME OF DRY AIR
    ·What is a characteristic of stable air? STRATIFORM CLOUDS
    ·What is a characteristic phenomenon for a stable atmosphere? STATIFIED CLOUDS
    ·What is a downburst? A CONCENTRATED DOWNDRAFT WITH HIGH SPEEDS AND A LOWER TEMPERATURE THAN A SORROUNDING AIR
    ·What is a favourable synoptic situation for the development of a Scirocco? LOW PRESSURE AREA IN THE WESTERN PART OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA
    ·What is a Foehn wind? IT IS AN ADIABATICALLY HEATED WIND BLOWING DOWN A MOUNTAIN SIDE. THE TEMPERATURE ON THE LEE SIDE IS NORMALLY HIGUER THAN ON THE WINDWARD SIDE OG THE MOUNTAIN AT THE SAME LEVEL
    ·What is a radiosonde? INSTRUMENT INTENDED TO BE CARRIED BY A BALLON UP THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE, EQUIPPED WITH DEVICES TO MEASURE METEREOLOGICAL VARIABLES AND PROVIDED WITH A RADIO TRANSMITTER FOR SENDING THIS INFORMATION TO THE OBSERVING STATION
    ·What is a SPECI? A SPECIAL AERODROME WEATHEWR REPORT, ISSUED WHEN A SIGNIFICANT CHANGE OF THE WEATHER CONDITIONS HAVE BEEN OBSERVED
    ·What is a stormscope? AN INSTRUMENT ON BOARD AN AIRCRAFT TO DETECT ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES
    ·What is a trend forecast? A LANDING FORECAST APPENDED TO METAR/SPECI, VALID FOR 2 HOURS
    ·What is a VOLMET broadcast? PROVISION, AS APPROPIARATE, OF CURRENT METAR, SPECI, TAF, AND SIGMET BY MEANS OF CONTNUOUS AND REPETITIVE VOICE BROADCAST
    ·What is an aerodrome warning ? A MESSAGE ISSUED BY A METEREOLOGICAL OFFICE CONCERNING THE METEREOLOGICAL CONDITIONS WHICH COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT AN AIRCRAFT ON GROUND, INCLUDING PARKED AIRCRAFT, AND THE AERODROME FACILITIES AND SERVICES
    ·What is characteristic of the pamperos? A MARKED ADVANCE OF COLD AIR IN SOUTH AMERICA
    ·What is determined by a transmissometer? VISIBILITY, RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE
    ·What is encountered during the summer, over land, in the centre of a cold air pool? SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS
    ·What is meant by QFE? THE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AT THE OFFICIAL AERODROME ELEVATION
    ·What is meant by QFF? THE PRESSENT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AT AN AERODROME COVERTED TO MEAN SEA LEVEL IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ACTUAL CONDITIONS
    ·What is meant by the term "altitude"? THE VERTICAL DISTANCE OF A LEVEL OR A POINT MEASURED FROM MEAN SEA LEVEL
    ·What is necessary for the development of a polar front jet stream? STRONG HORIZONTAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS
    ·What is normally the most effective measure to reduce or avoid CAT effects? CHANGE OF FLIGHT LEVEL
    ·What is signified if an occlusion is described as "cold"? THE AIR AHEAD OF THE ASSOCIATED WARM FRONT IS LESS COLD THAN THE AIR BEHIND THE ASSOCIATED COLD FRONT
    ·What is the approximate composition of the dry air by volume in the troposphere ? 21% OXYGEN, 78% NITROGEN, AND THE REST OTHER GASSES
    ·What is the approximate height of the tropopause between Munich and Helsinki? FL340
    ·What is the approximate maximum diameter of a the area affected by damaging winds at the surface caused by a microburst ? 4 KM
    ·What is the approximate ratio between height and width for a jet stream cross section? 1/100
    ·What is the approximate speed of a 25-knot wind, expressed in kilometres per hour? 45 KM/H
    ·What is the approximate speed of a 40-knot wind, expressed in m/sec? 20M/SEC
    ·What is the approximate speed of a 90 km/h wind, expressed in knots? 50 KT
    ·What is the approximate vertical interval which is equal to a pressure change of 1 hPa at an altitude of 5500 m? 15 M (50 FT)
    ·What is the approximate vertical interval which is equal to a pressure change of 1 hPa at sea level? 8M(27 FT)
    ·What is the average height of the arctic jet stream core? 20000 FT
    ·What is the average height of the jet core within a polar front jet stream? 30000FT
    ·What is the average temperature at FL 160 between Oslo and Paris ? -19°C
    ·What is the average temperature difference from ISA at FL 300 between Edinburgh and Madrid? -2°C
    ·What is the average temperature difference from ISA at FL 390 between Madrid and Dhahran? -1°C
    ·What is the average vertical extent of radiation fog? 500 FT
    ·What is the average wind forecast for FL 300 between Edinburgh and Madrid? 280/30
    ·What is the best approximation for the wind speed at flight level 250? BY INTERPOLATION OF THE WIND INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THE 500 AND 300 HPA CHARTS, WHILE ALSO CONSIDERING THE MAXIMUM WIND INFORMATION FOUND ON THE SIGNIFICANT WEATHER CHART
    ·What is the best way in dealing with thunderstorms associated with a cold front? AVOIDANCE OF EMBEDDED CBS BY USING AIRBONE WEATHER RADAR
    ·What is the boundary layer between troposphere and stratosphere called? TROPOPAUSE
    ·What is the classification of the airmass affecting position "Q" at 0600 UTC? TROPICAL MARITIME
    ·What is the correct term for the descending air flow in a large high pressure area? SUBSIDENCE
    ·What is the deviation of the temperature at FL 140 above Copenhagen compared to ISA? 8°C COLDER THAN ISA
    ·What is the difference between radiation fog and advection fog ? RADIATION FOG FORMS DUE TO SURFACE COOLING AT NIGHT IN A LIGHT WIND. ADVECTION FOG FORMS WHEN WARM HUMID AIR FLOWS OVER A COLD SURFACE
    ·What is the dry adiabatic lapse rate ? 3°C/1000 FT
    ·What is the effect of a strong low level inversion ? IT PROMOTES VERTICAL WIND SHEAR
    ·What is the height of the lowest cloud forecast for Bangkok at ETA 1400 UTC ? TAF VTBD 271800Z 280024 VRB05KT 1200 BR TEMPO 0002 4000 BECMG 0205 9999 SCT015 BKN100 TEMPO 1118 04010G20KT 5000 TSRA SCT009 BKN014 BKN018CB BECMG 2024 6000= 900 FEET
    ·What is the ICAO qualifying term for the described intensity of turbulence:; "Conditions in which abrupt changes in aircraft attitude and/or altitude occur; aircraft may be out of control for short periods"? SEVERE
  • What is the likely track for a hurricane in the Caribbean area? WEST IN THE EARLIER STAGES AND LATER TURNING NORTH EAST
    ·What is the lowest cloud base forecast for arrival at Geneva (ETA 1200 UTC)? TAF LSGG 020900Z 021019 18007KT 9999 SCT020 BKN100 BECMG 1114 8000 RA SCT010 OVC020 PROB30 TEMPO 1018 VRB10G25KT TSRA SCT005 BKN015CB= 500 FT
    ·What is the lowest cloud base that can be expected from the forecast for 1500 UTC ? KCHS 280430Z 280606 VRB05KT 4000 BR SCT005 OVC013 PROB40 SHRA BECMG 1314 9000 SHRA OVC015 PROB40 TEMPO 1416 VRB15G25KT 1600 TSRA OVC010CB BECMG 1618 26010KT BKN030 BECMG 2122 CAVOK. 1000 FEET
    ·What is the lowest possible cloud base forecast for 2300 UTC? EDDF 272200Z 280624 VRB05KT 4000 BR SCT005 OVC013 BECMG 1314 9000 SHRA OVC015 PROB40 TEMPO 1416 VRB15G25KT 1600 TSRA OVC010CB BECMG 1618 26010KT BKN030 BECMG 2122 CAVOK= 5000 FEET
    ·What is the lowest probable cloud base forecast for ETA 1700 UTC at Kingston ? TAF MKJP 160000Z 160606 36010KT 9999 FEW025 BECMG 1315 14020G34KT FEW015CB SCT025 PROB30 TEMPO 1520 6000 +SHRA SCT010 BKN015CB BECMG 2301 34010KT FEW025= 1000FT
    ·What is the lowest visibility forecast for approach into Geneva (ETA 1200 UTC)? TAF LSGG 020900Z 021019 18007KT 9999 SCT020 BKN100 BECMG 1114 8000 RA SCT010 OVC020 PROB30 TEMPO 1018 VRB10G25KT TSRA SCT005 BKN015CB= 8KM
    ·What is the lowest visibility forecast for Bangkok at ETA 1400 UTC ? TAF VTBD 271800Z 280024 VRB05KT 1200 BR TEMPO 0002 4000 BECMG 0205 9999 SCT015 BKN100 TEMPO 1118 04010G20KT 5000 TSRA SCT009 BKN014 BKN018CB BECMG 2024 6000= 5KM
    ·What is the lowest visibility that may be expected during an approach into Dhahran at ETA 0600 UTC ? TAF OEDR 280000Z 280110 VRB08KT CAVOK BECMG 0103 7000 TEMPO 0410 28014G24KT 4000 SA= 4KM
    ·What is the main cause for the formation of a polar front jet stream? THE NORTH-SOUTH HORIZONTAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENT AT THE POLAR FRONT
    ·What is the main composition of clouds classified as "high level clouds"? ICE CRYSTALS
    ·What is the main energy source of a tropical revolving storm? LATENT HEAT RELEASED FROM CONDENSING WATER VAPOUR
    ·What is the meaning of "RERA" in a METAR? THERE HAS BEEN MODERATE OR HEAVY RAIN SINCE THE LAST ISSUE OF METAR
    ·What is the meaning of the abbreviation "SCT" ? 3-4 OKTAS
    ·What is the meaning of the different coloured areas on a plan position indicator of an airborne weather radar? DIFERENT RANGES OF INTENSITIES OF PRECIPITATION
    ·What is the meaning of the expression "FEW"? 1-2 OKTAS
    ·What is the meaning of the following weather message? CNL WS WRNG 1 211130/211330= THE FIRST WIND SHEAR WARNING ON THE 21ST OF A MONTH, ISSUED AT 1130 UTC HAS BEEN CANCELLED AT THE SAME DAY AT 13.30 UTC
    ·What is the minimum speed for a wind to be classified as a jet stream? 60 KT
    ·What is the most likely cause of a lack of clouds at higher levels in a stationary high? SINKING AIR
    ·What is the most likely forecast lowest cloud base that can be expected during an approach to Madrid into 2300 UTC? TAF LEMD 281200Z 281812 13005KT CAVOK TEMPO 1821 8000 SCT020 SCT030 BECMG 2123 21005KT 9999 SCT015 BKN080 PROB40 TEMPO 2306 6000 SCT008 1500 FEET
    ·What is the most likely temperature at the tropical tropopause? -75°C
    ·What is the most probable temperature at the tropical tropopause? -75°C
    ·What is the most significant difference between an equatorial jet stream and all the other jet streams ? WIND DIRECTION
    ·What is the name of the northerly, cold and strong wind, that sometimes blows over a certain part of Europe? MISTRAL
    ·What is the name of the wind or air mass which gives to the main part of India its greatest proportion of precipitation? SOUTH-WEST MONSOON
    ·What is the optimum flight level between Rome and Paris according to the significant weather chart? FL 220
    ·What is the relationship between visibility and RVR in homogeneous fog? THE VISIBILITY IS GENEARALLY LESS THAN THE RVR
    ·What is the relationship, if any, between QFE and QNH at an airport situated 50 FT below sea level? QFE IS GREATER THAN QNH
    ·What is the relative movement of the two air masses along a cold front ? COLD AIR PUSHES UNDER A WARM AIR MASS
    ·What is the significance to aviation of breaks or steps in the tropopause ? THEY INDICATE THE POSITION OF STRONG UPPER WINDS
    ·What is the speed of the front located over France ? 15 KT
    ·What is the strong relatively cold katabatic wind, blowing down the northern Adriatic coast, mainly during the winter and spring called? BORA
    ·What is the surface visibility most likely to be in a warm sector of maritime tropical air during a summer afternoon in western Europe? MODERATE (SEVERAL KM)
  • What is the symbol for hail on a significant weather chart? SYMBOL 2
    ·What is the technical term for an increase in temperature with altitude? INVERSION
    ·What is the temperature deviation in degrees Celsius, from the ICAO Standard Atmosphere overhead Frankfurt ? ISA - 13°C
    ·What is the type, intensity and seasonal variation of precipitation in the equatorial region ? RAINSHOWERS, HAIL SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS OCCUR THE WHOLE YEAR, BUT FREQUENCY IS HIGHUEST DURING TWO PERIODS: APRIL-MAY AND OCTOBER-NOVEMBER
    ·What is the wind speed given in a METAR report based on? THE AVERAGE SPEED OF THE PREVIOUS 10 MINUTES
    ·What is true for the water vapour distribution in the layer between the surface and the 500 hPa pressure surface in the tradewind belt? THE LOWER PART IS RELATIVELY MOIST AND THE UPPER PART IS RELATIVELY DRY
    ·What is, approximately, the temperature at 20000 FT in the ICAO Standard Atmosphere? -25°C
    ·What jet streams are likely to be crossed during a flight from Stockholm to Rio de Janeiro (23°S) at FL 350 in July ? A POLAR FRONT JET STREAM FOLLOWED BY ONE OR TWO SUBTROPICAL JET STREAMS
    ·What kind of fog is often observed in the coastal region of Newfoundland in spring time? ADVECTION FOG
    ·What kind of turbulence is caused by the friction of air flowing over the earth's surface? MECHANICAL TURBULENCE
    ·What kind of turbulence is dependent on the sun's radiation and therefore follows a pronounced diurnal pattern? CONVECTIVE TURBULENCE
    ·What lowest cloud base is most likely to be experienced during an approach into Madrid at 2300 UTC? TAF LEMD 281200Z 281812 13005KT CAVOK TEMPO 1821 8000 SCT020 SCT030 BECMG 2123 21005KT 9999 SCT015 BKN080 PROB40 TEMPO 2306 6000 SCT008= 1500 FEET
    ·What name is given to the jet stream lying across India (A) ? TROPICAL JET STREAM
    ·What name is given to the jet stream lying over North Africa (B) ? SUB-TROPICAL JET STREAM
    ·What name is given to the jet stream lying over Scandinavia (C)? POLAR FRONT JET STREAM
    ·What name is given to the low level wind system between the subtropical high pressure belt and the equatorial trough of low pressure (ITCZ) ? TRADE WINDS
    ·What name is given to the low level wind system between the subtropical high pressure belt and the equatorial trough of low pressure (ITCZ) ? TRADE WINDS
    ·What OAT would you expect at FL 200 over Geneva ? -24°C.
    ·What positions are connected by contour lines on a weather chart? POSITIONS WITH THE SAME HEIGHT IN A CHART OF CONSTANT PRESSURE
    ·What positions are connected by isobars on the surface weather chart? POSITIONS WITH THE SAME AIR PRESSURE AT A GIVEN LEVEL
    ·What pressure is defined as QFE? THE PRESSURE AT FIELD ELEVATION
    ·What prevents air from flowing directly from high-pressure areas to low-pressure areas ? CORIOLIS FORCE
    ·What process in an air mass leads to the creation of wide spread NS and AS cloud coverage? LIFTING
    ·What relationship exists between the wind at 3000 feet and the surface wind? THE WIND AT 3000 FEET IS PARALLEL TO THE ISOHYPSES AND THE SURFACE WIND DIRECTION IS ACROSS THE ISOBARS TOWARDS THE LOW PRESSURE AND THE SURFACE WIND IS WEAKER
    ·What surface wind is forecast for 2200 UTC ?; EDDF 272200Z 280624 VRB05KT4000 BR SCT005 OVC013 BECMG 1314 9000 SHRA OVC015 PROB40 TEMPO 1416 VRB15G25KT 1600 TSRA OVC010CB BECMG 1618 26010KT BKN030 BECMG 2122 CAVOK: 260°/10KT
    ·What surface wind is forecast for ETA 1700 UTC at Kingston? MKJP 160430Z 160606 36010KT 9999 FEW025CB BECMG1315 14020G34KT FEW015CB SCT025 PROB30 TEMPO 1720 6000 +SHRA SCT010 BKN015CB BECMG 2301 34010KT FEW025= 140°/ 20 KT GUSTS 34 KT
    ·What type of air movement is associated with the centre line of a trough? CONVERGENCE WITH LIFTING
    ·What type of cloud can produce hail showers? CB
    ·What type of cloud is being described ? A generally grey cloud layer with fairly uniform base and uniform appearance, which may give drizzle or snow grains. When the sun is visible through the cloud, the outline is clearly discernible. Sometimes it appears in the form of ragged patches: STRATUS
    ·What type of clouds are associated with rain showers ? TOWERING CUMULUS AND CUMULONIMBUS
    ·What type of clouds are associated with snow showers ? CUMULUS AND CUMULONIMBUS
    ·What type of fog is most likely to form over flat land during a clear night, with calm or light wind conditions ? RADIATION
    ·What type of front / occlusion usually moves the fastest? COLD FRONT
    ·What type of fronts are most likely to be present during the winter in Central Europe when temperatures close to the ground are below 0°C, and freezing rain starts to fall? WARM FRONTS, WARM OCCLUSIONS
    ·What type of low pressure area is associated with a surface front? POLAR FRONT LOW
    ·What type of meteorological hazard to safe flight is most likely to be experienced during the final approach to Geneva (ETA 1200 UTC) ? TAF LSGG 020900Z 021019 18007KT 9999 SCT020 BKN100 BECMG 1114 8000 RA SCT010 OVC020 PROB30 TEMPO 1018 VRB10G25KT TSRA: LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR
    ·What type of precipitation might occur at 1700 UTC? MKJP 160430Z 160606 36010KT 9999 FEW025 BECMG 1315 14020G34KT FEW015CB SCT025 PROB30 TEMPO 1720 6000 +SHRA SCT010 BKN015CB BECMG 2224 34010KT FEW025= HEAVY RAIN SHOWERS
    ·What type of precipitation might occur at 1730 UTC? MKJP 160430Z 160606 36010KT 9999 FEW025 BECMG 1315 14020G34KT FEW015CB SCT025 PROB30 TEMPO 1720 2500 +SHRA SCT010 BKN015CB BECMG 2224 34010KT FEW025= HEAVY RAIN SHOWERS
    ·What type of precipitation would you expect at an active unstable cold front? SHOWERS ASSOCIATED WITH THUNDERSTORMS
    ·What type of weather can usually be expected in a polar maritime air mass over central Europe in the daytime during summer? SHOWERS AND GOOD VISIBILITY
    ·will you see flying at FL 50 towards a warm front? AT SOME 800 KM CS, LATER AS, AND AT SOME 300 KM NS UNTIL THE FRONT
    ·What units are used to report vertical wind shear? KT/100FT
    ·What visibility is most likely to be experienced at 1400 UTC ?; EDDF 272200Z 280624 VRB05KT4000 BR SCT005 OVC013 BECMG 1314 9000 SHRA OVC015 PROB40 TEMPO 1416 VRB15G25KT 1600 TSRA OVC010CB BECMG 1618 26010KT BKN030 BECMG 2122 CAVOK 9000 METRES
    ·What visibility is most likely to be experienced during an approach into Madrid at 2300 UTC ? TAF LEMD 281200Z 281812 13005KT CAVOK TEMPO 1821 8000 SCT020 SCT030 BECMG 2123 21005KT 9999 SCT015 BKN080 PROB40 TEMPO 2306 6000 SCT008 10 KILOMETRES OR MORE
    ·What weather conditions are expected at Paris airport (LFPO) around 0550 UTC? 23014KT 3000 +RA SCT008 OVC025 15/13 Q1004 NOSIG=
    ·What weather conditions are indications of the summer monsoon in India? THUNDERSTORMS, SHOWERS OF HEAVY RAIN
    ·What weather conditions are most likely to affect an approach to Dakar during July? WET AND THUNDERY DUE TO THE PROXIMITY OF THE INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (ITCZ)
    ·What weather conditions are prevalent during the summer, over the North Sea, approximately 300 km behind a quickly moving cold front? CLOUD COVER MOSTLY SCATTERED, ISOLATED SHOWERS.
    ·What weather conditions in the region of the Alps would you expect with Foehn from south? CLOUDS, ON THE SOUTHERN SIDES OF PASSES IN THE ALPS
    ·What weather conditions would you expect at a squall line? THUNDERSTORMS
    ·What weather is prevalent in easterly waves? THUNDERSTORMS AND RAIN
    ·What will be the effect on the reading of an altimeter of an aircraft parked on the ground during the period following the passage of an active cold front ? IT WILL HAVE DECREASED
    ·What will be the effect on the reading of an altimeter of an aircraft parked on the ground shortly before an active cold front passes? IT WILL BE INCREASING
    ·What will be the effect on the reading of an altimeter of an aircraft parked on the ground as an active cold front is passing? IT WILL FIRST INCREASE THE DECREASE
    ·What wind direction will occur at point B? SOUTHWEST
    ·What wind direction will occur over the land at point E? WEST
    ·What wind direction will occur over the sea at point F? SOUTH
    ·What wind is forecast at FL 390 over Paris ? 210/40
    ·What winds and air mass characteristics are mainly associated with the winter monsoon in the monsoon regions of the Indian sub-continent? NORTH-EASTERLY WINDS BRINGING DRY AND HAZY AIR
    ·What, approximately, is the average height of the tropopause over the equator ? 16 KM
    ·When a front crosses a mountain range, its activity: STRENGTHENS UPWIND OF THE MOUNTAINS
    ·When a front has to cross a chain of mountains, its activity: STRENGTHENS UPWIND OF THE MOUNTAINS
    ·When a mass of unsaturated air descends, what effect will it have on relative humidity? IT DECREASES
    ·When and where is an easterly jet stream likely to be encountered ? IN SUMMER FROM SOUTH-EAST ASIA EXTENDING OVER SOUTHERN INDIA TO CENTRAL AFRICA
    ·When are the rainy seasons in equatorial Africa? MARCH TO MAY AND OCTOBER TO NOVEMBER
    ·When compared to the geostrophic wind in the northern hemisphere, surface friction will cause the surface wind to: BACK AND DECREASE
    ·When do cold occlusions occur most frequently in Europe? SUMMER
    ·When flying at 5000 feet in the northern hemisphere over plains (flat country) with an anticyclone on the left and a depression on the right, the wind will be: A HEAD WIND
    ·When flying in mountainous terrain and assuming ISA temperatures and strong winds, which of the following is correct? IN CASE OF VENTURI EFFECT, THE ACTUAL ALTITUDE OF THE AIRCRAFT IS LOWER THAN THE INDICATED ALTITUDE
    ·When fog is reported, the visibility is below: 1 KM
    ·When front "G" passes position "T" the surface wind should: VEER AND DECREASE
    ·When in summer calm and clear conditions exist, a station on the shore of a large body of water will experience wind: FROM THE WATER IN DAYTIME AND FROM THE LAND AT NIGHT
    ·When in the northern hemisphere at the same latitude the distance between isobars is equal then; THE GRADIENT WIND IN A LOW PRESSURE AREA IS WEAKER THAN IN A HIGH PRESSURE AREA
    ·When in the upper part of a layer warm air is advected the: STABILITY INCREASES IN THE LAYER
    ·When is the RVR reported at most airports? WHEN THE VISIBILITY DECREASES BELOW 1500 M
    ·When isobars, for an area in the mid-latitudes on a weather map, are close together, the wind is most likely to be: STRONG
    ·When planning a flight at FL 110, which upper wind and temperature chart would be nearest your flight level ? 700 HPA
    ·When planning a flight at FL 60, which upper wind and temperature chart would be nearest your flight level ? 850 HPA
    ·When severe mountain waves are present, where would the area of most severe turbulence be located? IN THE ROTOR ZONE
    ·When the subscale is set to the QNH of an airfield the pressure altimeter indicates: ELEVATION WHILE LANDING
    ·When the subscale of a pressure altimeter is set to the QFE of the destination airfield it will indicate: ZERO AT LANDING ROOL OUT
    ·When the temperature and dew point are less than one degree apart the weather conditions are most likely to be: FOG OR LOW CLOUD
    ·When visibility is reduced by water droplets to less than 1000 metres it is classified as: FOG
    ·When water evaporates into unsaturated air: HEAT IS ABSORBED
    ·When water vapour condenses or water freezes: HEAT IS RELEASED IN BOTH CASES
    ·When will the surface wind in a METAR record a gust factor ? WHEN GUSTS ARE AT LEAST 10 KNOTS ABOVE THE MEAN WIND SPEED
    ·When, if at all, is a tropical revolving storm most likely to affect Darwin, on the central north coast of Australia? DECEMBER TO APRIL
    ·Where are easterly waves found? BETWEEN SUBTROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE CELLS AND ITCZ
    ·Where are the westerlies to be expected? IN THE MID-LATITUDES
    ·Where are you likely to find the strongest winds close to the ground? IN THE TRANSITION ZONE BETWEEN TWO AIR MASSES
    ·Where do the trade winds blow? BERWEEN THE HORSE LATITUDES AND THE DOLDRUMS
    ·Where does one normally find the highest cloud tops? IN A TROPICAL CYCLONE
    ·Where does polar continental air originate? SIBERIAN LANDMASS
    ·Where does wind shear occur? AT ANY LEVEL IN THE ATMOSPHERE IF ASSOCIATED WITH EITHER A CHANGE OF WIND DIRECTION AND/OR WINDSPEED
    ·Where is a squall line most likely to be expected? IN FRONT OF AN ACTIVE COLD FRONT
    ·Where is the coldest air to be found, in an occlusion with cold front characteristics? BEHIND THE FRONT
    ·Where is the most dangerous zone in a tropical revolving storm? IN THE WALL OF CLOUDS AROUND THE EYE
    ·Where is the projection of the polar front jet stream on the surface most likely to be found in relation to the cold and warm fronts of a depression? 50 TO 200 NM BEHIND THE COLD FRONT AND 300 TO 450 NM IN THE WARM FRONT
    ·Where is the source of continental tropical air that affects Europe in summer? THE SOUTHERN BALKAN REGION AND THE NEAR EAST
    ·Where is the wind speed of a polar front jet stream normally at its strongest? IN THE AREA BETWEEN A TROUGH AND A RIDGE
    ·Where, as a general rule, is the core of the polar front jet stream to be found? IN THE TROPICAL AIR MASS
    ·Where, during a flight from Marseille to Dakar, in July, may the ITCZ be encountered? IN THE VICINITY OF DAKAR
    ·Where, in central Europe, are the highest wind speeds to be found ? JUST BELOW THE TROPOPAUSE
    ·Which airport is most likely to have fog in the coming night? LSZH
  • Which airport, at 1200 UTC, has the lowest probability of precipitation? LSZH
    ·Which area of a polar front jet stream in the northern hemisphere has the highest probability of turbulence? LOOKING DOWNSTREAM, THE AREA TO THE LEFT OF THE CORE
    ·Which climatic type is to be expected between 10°N and 10°S? TROPICAL RAIN CLIMATE
    ·Which cloud species is described by the following definition?; "Clouds which present, in at least some portion of their upper part, cumuliform protuberances in the form of turrets which generally give the clouds a crenellated appearance. The turrets, some of which are taller than they are wide, are connected by a common base and seem to be arranged in lines. The typical character is especially evident when the clouds are seen from the side." CASTELLANUS
    ·Which cloud type (genus) is described by the following definition? ; "Greyish or bluish cloud sheet or layer of striated, fibrous or uniform appearance, totally or partly covering the sky, and having parts thin enough to reveal the sun at least vaguely, as through ground glass. This genus does not show halo phenomena." ALTOSTRATUS
    ·Which cloud type (genus) is described by the following definition?"Cumulus clouds which are markedly sprouting and are often of great vertical extent; their bulging upper part frequently resembles a cauliflower." TOWERING CUMULUS
    ·Which cloud type (genus) is described by the following definition? ; "Grey cloud layer, often dark, the appearance of which is rendered diffuse by more or less continuously falling rain or snow, which in most cases reaches the ground. It is thick enough throughout to blot out the sun. Low, ragged clouds frequently occur below the layer, with which they may or may not merge." NIMBOSTRATUS
    ·Which cloud type may indicate the presence of severe turbulence ? ALTOCUMMULUS LENTICULARIS
    ·Which constant pressure altitude chart is standard for FL 100? 700 HPA
    ·Which constant pressure altitude chart is standard for FL 180? 500 HPA
    ·Which constant pressure altitude chart is standard for FL 300? 300 HPA
    ·Which constant pressure altitude chart is standard for FL 390? 200 HPA
    ·Which constant pressure altitude chart is standard for FL50? 850 HPA
    ·Which constant pressure chart is standard for FL 140? 600 HPA
    ·Which constant pressure chart is standard for FL 240? 400 HPA
    ·Which constant pressure chart is standard for FL 340? 250 HPA
    ·Which constant pressure chart is standard for FL 450? 150 HPA
    ·Which cross-section of air mass and cloud presentation is applicable to the straight line A-B? 3
    ·Which degree of aircraft turbulence is determined by the following ICAO description? "There may be moderate changes in aircraft attitude and/or altitude but the aircraft remains in positive control at all times. Usually, small variations in air speed. Changes in accelerometer readings of 0.5 to 1.0 g at the aircraft's center of gravity. Occupants feel strain against seat belts. Loose objects move about. Food service and walking are difficult.": MODERATE
    ·Which degree of aircraft turbulence is determined by the following ICAO description?"Conditions in which abrupt changes in aircraft attitude and/or altitude occur; aircraft may be out of control for short periods. Usually, large variations in air speed. SEVERE
    ·Which FL corresponds with the 150 hPa pressure level? FL 450
    ·Which FL corresponds with the 200 hPa pressure level ? FL390
    ·Which FL corresponds with the 250 hPa pressure level? FL 340
    ·Which FL corresponds with the 300 hPa pressure level ? FL300
    ·Which FL corresponds with the 400 hPa pressure level? FL 240
    ·Which FL corresponds with the 500 hPa pressure level ? FL 180
    ·Which FL corresponds with the 600 hPa pressure level? FL 140
    ·Which FL corresponds with the 700 hPa pressure level ? FL 100
    ·Which FL corresponds with the 850 hPa pressure level ? FL 50
    ·Which force causes the surface wind, in the northern hemisphere, to deflect to the left compared to the geostrophic wind? FRICTIONAL FORCE
    ·Which forces are balanced with geostrophic winds? PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE, CORIOLIS FORCE
    ·Which form of precipitation from clouds containing only water is most likely to fall in mid-latitudes? DRIZZLE
    ·Which is true of a secondary depression in the northern hemisphere? IT TENDS TO MOVE ROUND THE PRIMARY IN A CYCLONIC SENSE
    ·Which is true of a typical thermal depression? IT FORMS OVER LAND IN SUMMER
    ·Which is true of advection fog? IT CAN APPEAR SUDDENLY BY DAY OR BY NIGHT
    ·Which is true of Nairobi (Kenya)? THERE ARE TWO WET SEASONS
    ·Which is true of the temperature at the tropopause? IT IS HIGHER IN POLAR REGIONS THAN IN EQUATORIAL REGIONS
    ·Which jet stream blows all year round, over the northern hemisphere? THE SUBTROPICAL JET STREAM
    ·Which jet stream is connected with a surface front system? THE POLAR FRONT JET STREAM
    ·Which kind of meteorological messages are normally transmitted in an ATIS? MET REPORT/SPECIAL
    ·Which kind of meteorological messages are normally transmitted in a VHF-VOLMET broadcast within Europe? METAR/SPECI
    ·Which layer of the atmosphere contains more than 90 per cent of all water vapour? TROPOSPHERE
    ·Which of the following are favourable conditions for the formation of freezing rain? WARM AIR ALOFT FROM WHICH RAIN IS FALLING INTO AIR WITH A TEMPERATURE BELOW 0°C
    ·Which of the following are medium level clouds ? ALOSTRATUS AND ALTOCUMULUS
    ·Which of the following best describes the intertropical convergence zone ? THE ZONE WHERE THE TRADE WINDS OF THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE MEET THOSE OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE
    ·Which of the following best describes Zone A? TROUGH OF LOW PRESSURE
    ·Which of the following best describes Zone B? COL
    ·Which of the following best describes Zone C? RIDGE OF HIGHT PRESSURE
    ·Which of the following best describes Zone D? DEPRESSION
    ·Which of the following causes echoes on meteorological radar screens? HAIL
    ·Which of the following changes of state is known as condensation? GAS TO LIQUID
    ·Which of the following changes of state is known as evaporation? LIQUID TO GAS
    ·Which of the following changes of state is known as freezing? LIQUID TO SOLID
    ·Which of the following changes of state is known as melting? SOLID TO LIQUID
    ·Which of the following changes of state is known as sublimation (in meteorology)? SOLID DIRECT TO VAPOUR
    ·Which of the following circumstances most favour the development of radiation fog? MOIST AIR OVER LAND DURING CLEAR NIGHT WITH LITTLE WIND
    ·Which of the following circumstances most favours the development of frontal fog? INCREASE OF THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY BY EVAPORATION OF RAIN DROPS
    ·Which of the following circumstances most favours the development of orographic fog? HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY
    ·Which of the following cloud genera may extend over the low, middle and high stages? CB
    ·Which of the following cloud is classified as low level cloud ? ST
    ·Which of the following cloud types are most likely to produce light to moderate icing when they are not subject to orographic lifting and consist of supercooled cloud droplets? ALTOCUMULUS AND ALTOSTRATUS
    ·Which of the following cloud types can project up into the stratosphere? CUMULONIMBUS
    ·Which of the following cloud types is a medium level cloud ? AS
    ·Which of the following cloud types is classified as low level cloud? SC
    ·Which of the following cloud types is found at high level? CS
    ·Which of the following cloud types is found at high levels? CC
    ·Which of the following cloud types is found at high levels? CI
    ·Which of the following cloud types is least likely to produce precipitation ? CI
    ·Which of the following cloud types will most probably form when cold moist air moves over a warm surface? CUMULUS
    ·Which of the following clouds are classified as medium level clouds in temperate regions ? AS, AC
    ·Which of the following clouds may extend into more than one level? NIMBOSTRATUS
    ·Which of the following clouds may extend into more than one stage? CUMULUS CONGESTUS
    ·Which of the following combinations is most characteristic of unstable air behind a cold front? GOOD VISIBILITY BETWEEN SHOWERS, SHOWERY PRECIPITATION, CUMULIFORM CLOUDS
    ·Which of the following combinations of pressure and temperature is correct in the ICAO standard atmosphere? 500 HPA -21.1°C
    ·Which of the following conditions are most favourable to the formation of mountain waves ? STABLE AIR AT MOUNTAIN TOP ALTITUDE AND A WIND AT LEAST 20 KNOTS BLOWING ACROSS THE MOUNTAIN RIDGE
    ·Which of the following conditions are you most likely to encounter when approaching an active warm front at medium to low level ? LOW CLOUD BASE AND POOR VISIBILITY
    ·Which of the following conditions gives the highest value of the QNH? QFE= 995 HPA, ELEVATION= 1600 FT (488M)
    ·Which of the following conditions is most likely to cause airframe icing ? +FZRA
    ·Which of the following conditions is most likely to lead to the formation of steam fog (arctic smoke)? COLD AIR MOVING OVER WARM WATER
    ·Which of the following conditions would cause the altimeter to indicate a lower altitude than that actually flown ? AIR TEMPERATURE HIGHER THAN STANDARD
    ·Which of the following constant pressure charts would be most relevant for planning a flight at FL 430? 150 HPA
    ·Which of the following constant pressure charts would be most relevant for planning a flight at FL 260? 400 HPA
    ·Which of the following constant pressure charts would be most relevant for planning a flight at FL 330? 250 HPA
    ·Which of the following describes a warm occlusion? THE COLDER AIR MASS IS AHEAD OF THE ORIGINAL WARM FRONT
    ·Which of the following extracts of weather reports could be, in accordance with the regulations, abbreviated to "CAVOK"? (MSA minus airport elevation equals: LSZB 10000 FT, LSZH 8000 FT, LSGG 12000 FT, LFSB 6000 FT) LSGG 22003KT 9999 SCT120 BKN280 09/08 Q1026 BECMG 500 BR=
    ·Which of the following factors have the greatest effect on the formation of the various types of ice on an aircraft ? CLOUD TEMPERATURE AND DROPLET SIZE
    ·Which of the following front types is most known for gusty winds? COLD FRONT
    ·Which of the following groups of conditions requires a crew to transmit a special air-report (subsonic air transport)? SEVERE TURBULENCE; WIDESPREAD THUNDERSTORMS; SEVERE MOUNTAIN WAVES
    ·Which of the following is a cause of stratus forming over flat land? RADIATION DURING THE NIGHT FROM THE EARTH SURFACE IN MODERATE WIND
    ·Which of the following is a common cause of ground or surface temperature inversion ? TERRESTIAL RADIATION ON A CLEAR NIGHT WITH NO OR VERY LIGHT WINDS
    ·Which of the following is a possible consequence of subsidence? AN INVERSION OVER A LARGE AREA WITH HAZE, MIST.
    ·Which of the following is correct regarding a cold high pressure area? IT WILL DECREASE IN INTENSITY WITH INCREASING ALTITUDE
    ·Which of the following is correct regarding a warm anticyclone? IT INCREASES IN INTENSITY WITH INCREASING ALTITUDE
    ·Which of the following is correct regarding geostrophic wind? IT BLOWS PARALLEL TO STRAIGHT EQUIDISTANT ISOBARS
    ·Which of the following is correct regarding the wind speed in a jet stream in the northern hemisphere? WITH COLDER AIR TO THE LEFT WHEN LOOKING DOWNWIND, THE WIND SPEED INCREASES WITH HEIGHT, WHILE WITH THE COLDER AIR TO THE RIGHT THE WIND SPEED DECREASES WITH HEIGHT
    ·Which of the following is most likely to lead to the dissipation of radiation fog ? A MARKED INCREASE IN WIND VELOCITY NEAR THE GROUND
    ·Which of the following is most likely to lead to the formation of radiation fog? HEAT LOSS FROM THE GROUND ON CLEAR NIGHTS
    ·Which of the following is the definition of relative humidity ? RATIO BETWEEN THE ACTUAL MOXING RATIO AND THE SATURATION MIXING RATIO X100
    ·Which of the following is true concerning an aircraft that is flying at FL180 in the northern hemisphere, where wind is geostrophic and the true altitude remains constant ? THERE IS NO CROSS WIND
    ·Which of the following is true of a land breeze? IT BLOWS FROM LAND TO WATER
    ·Which of the following is typical for the passage of an active cold front in the summer ? MAINLY TOWERING CLOUDS
    ·Which of the following is typical for the snow (tundra) climate? HIGH PRESSURE WEATHER DOMINATES IN WINTER, WITH THE SUB-SOLL BEING FROZEN
    ·Which of the following layers of fog above land is coded as MIFG? A LAYER OF 5 FEET DEEP
    ·Which of the following messages should be cancelled when the conditions are no longer occurring or no longer expected to occur? AERODROME WARNING
    ·Which of the following meteorological phenomena can rapidly change the braking action of a runway? +FZRA
    ·Which of the following meteorological phenomenon indicates upper level instability which may lead to thunderstorm development ? AC CASTELLANUS
    ·Which of the following phenomena can produce a risk of aquaplaning? +RA
    ·Which of the following phenomena can provide the initial lifting leading to air mass thunderstorms? ADVECTION OF COLD AIR OVER A WARM SEA
    ·Which of the following phenomena has to be mentioned in a SIGMET? VOLCANIC ASH
    ·Which of the following phenomena has to be mentioned in a SIGMET? HEAVY DUDTSTORM
    ·Which of the following phenomena has to be mentioned in a SIGMET? VOLCANIC ASH
    ·Which of the following phenomena is least likely to lead to the formation of a Cumulonimbus with thunderstorm ? GROUND RADIATION
    ·Which of the following phenomena should be described as precipitation at the time they are observed? + SHSN
    ·Which of the following phenomena should be described as precipitation at the time they are observed? SN
    ·Which of the following phenomena should be described as precipitation at the time they are observed? DZ;
    ·Which of the following phenomena should be described as precipitation at the time they are observed? +SHSN;
    ·Which of the following processes contributes to the formation of frontal fog? RAIN FALLS FROM THE WARM AIR INTO THE COLD AIR
    ·Which of the following processes is the most important one concerning the heating of the air in the troposphere?; The radiation of the sun heats: THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH, WHICH HEATS THE AIR IN THE TROPOSPHERE
    ·Which of the following processes will increase the stability of an air mass? COOLING BY THE UNDERLYING SURFACE
    ·Which of the following processes within a layer of air may lead to the building of CU and CB clouds? CONVECTION
    ·Which of the following quantities remains unchanged if unsaturated air is lifted until it reaches the lifting condensation level? MIXING RATIO
    ·Which of the following sets of conditions are most favourable to the development of thunderstorms? ENVIRONMENTAL LAPSE RATE GREATER THAN SATURATED ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE THROUGH A GREAT VERTICAL EXTENT, HIGHT RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND AN INITIAL LIFTING PROCESS
    ·Which of the following sets of conditions are most likely to lead to the formation of advection fog? A MILD MOIST AIRSTREAM FLOWING OVER COLDER SURFACES WITH THE WIND SPEED LESS THAN 15 KT
    ·Which of the following situations favours the formation of heavy thunderstorms? A COLD FRONT APPROACHING A MOUNTAIN RANGE IN THE EVENING
    ·Which of the following situations will be typical for the intertropical convergence zone? LOW PRESSURE AND INSTABILITY
    ·Which of the following situations will most likely lead to a stable air mass? SUBSIDENCE AND/OR COOLING FROM BELOW
    ·Which of the following statements about lightnings and lightning strikes is correct? THE AIRCRAFT IS TEMPOARILY PART OF THE LIGHTNING TRAJECTORY
    ·Which of the following statements concerning a cold air pool is correct? DIRECTION AND SPEED OF MOVEMENTS OF COLD AIR POOLS ARE DIFFICULT TO FORECAST
    ·Which of the following statements concerning airborne weather radar is correct? IT SHOWS ON A PLAN POSITION INDICATOR THE AREAS OF PRECIPITATION OF RAIN, SNOW AND/OR HAIL
    ·Which of the following statements concerning an isothermal layer in the atmosphere is correct? AN ISOTHERMAL LAYER IS ABSOLUTELY STABLE
    ·Which of the following statements concerning jet streams is correct? IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE BOTH WESTERLY AND EASTERLY JET STREAMS OCCUR
    ·Which of the following statements concerning the airflow during the summer monsoon is correct? SOUTHWESTERLY AIRFLOW OVER INDIA
    ·Which of the following statements concerning the core of a polar front jet stream is correct ? IT LIES AT A HEIGHT WHERE THERE IS NO HORIZONTAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENT; THE SLOPE OF THE PRESSURE SURFACES AT THE HEIGHT OF THE CORE IS AT ITS MAXIMUM
    ·Which of the following statements concerning the intertropical convergence zone is true? THERE ARE FREQUENT OCCURRENCES OF CB
    ·Which of the following statements concerning the lifting of a parcel of air is correct ? UNSATURATED PARCELS COOL MORE RAPIDLY THAN SATURATED PARCELS
    ·Which of the following statements concerning the tropopause is correct? THE TEMPERATURE LAPSE RATE CHANGES ABRUPTLY AT THE TROPOPAUSE
    ·Which of the following statements concerning the use of airborne weather radar in the vicinity of thunderstorms is true? ACCURATE ASSESMENT OF THE WEATHER AHEAD OF THE AIRCRAFT MIGHT BE HAMPERED DUE TO THE ATTENUATUON OF THE RADAR ECHOES BY THE HEAVY RAIN
    ·Which of the following statements concerning the variation in wind speed between summer and winter on the North Atlantic between FL 300 and FL 400 is most correct? THE AVERAGE WESTERLY COMPONENT IS GREATER IN THE WINTER THAN IN THE SUMMER. THE LATITUDE OF THE AXIS OF GREATEST SEASONAL WIND SPEED IS FURTHER SOUTH IN WINTER THAN IN SUMMER
    ·Which of the following statements concerning trade winds is correct? THE OCCUR ONLY IN THE LOWER PART OF THE TROPOSPHERE AND MORE PRONOUNCED OVER THE OCEANS
    ·Which of the following statements is an interpretation of the METAR ? 25020G38KT 1200 +TSGR BKN006 BKN015CB 23/18 Q1016 BECMG NSW = GUSTS OF 38 KNOTS, THUNDERSTORM WITH HEAVY HAIL, DEW POINT 18°C
    ·Which of the following statements is an interpretation of the METAR ? 00000KT 0200 R14/0800U R16/P1500U FZFG VV001 m03/m03 Q1022 BECMG 0800 = RVR FOR WUNWAY 14 800 METRES, VERTICAL VISIBILITY 100 FEET, CALM, VISIBILITY IMPROVING TO 800 METRES IN THE NEXT TWO HOURS
    ·Which of the following statements is an interpretation of the SIGMET ? LSAS SIGMET 2 VALID 030700/031100 LSZH- SWITZERLAND FIR/UIR MOD TO SEV CAT FCST N OF ALPS BTN FL 260/380 STNR INTSF= MODERATE TO SEVERE CLEAR AIR TURBULENCE TO BE EXPECTED NORTH OF THE ALPS. INTENSITY INCREASING. DANGER ZONE BETWEEN FL 260 AND FL 380.
    ·Which of the following statements is an interpretation of the SIGMET ? LGGG SIGMET 3 VALID 121420/121820 LGAT- ATHINAI FIR EMBD TS OBS AND FCST IN W PART MOV E NC = THUNDERSTORMS MUST BE EXPECTED IN THE WESTERN PART OF THE ATHENS FIR. THE THUNDERSTORM ZONE IS MOVING EAST. INTENSITY IS CONSTANT
    ·Which of the following statements is correct concerning rotors below the crest of a mountain wave? THE WIND DIRECTION AT THE LOWER SIDE OF THE ROTORS OPPOSITE TO THE PREVALLING WIND DIRECTION
    ·Which of the following statements is correct concerning the geostrophic wind?; IT IS PRESENT AT LATITUDES HIGUER THANABOUT 15 DEGREES NORTH/SOUTH
    ·Which of the following statements is correct concerning the mediterranean climate? THE ANNUAL RAINFALL IS SIGNIFICANTLY BELOW 700 MM
    ·Which of the following statements is correct concerning the savannah climate? THERE ARE SIGNIFICANT YEARLY VARIATIONS IN RAINFALL WITH A WET AND A DRY PERIOD
    ·Which of the following statements is correct concerning the typical weather in a warm sector in mid- and high latitudes over continental areas during summer? GENERALLY MODERATE TO GOOD VISIBILITY, HAZE, SOMETIMES FEW OR SCATTERED CUMULUS
    ·Which of the following statements is correct concerning the weather in a warm sector? ISOLATED THUNDERSTORMS ARE SOMETIMES POSSIBLE OVER CONTINENTAL AREAS DURING THE SUMMER
    ·Which of the following statements is correct regarding the variation of wind with height? THE WIND NORMALLY VEERS DURING CLIMB OUT THROUGH THE FIRST 2000-3000 FEET IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE
    ·Which of the following statements is correct? AIRFRAME ICING CAN OCCUR IN CLEAR AIR
    ·Which of the following statements is correct? AT THE EQUATOR HORIZONTAL MOTIONS DO NOT INDUCE ANY HORIZONTAL CORIOLIS FORCE
    ·Which of the following statements is correct? FG IS REPORTED ONLY WHEN VISIBILITY IS REDUCED BY WATER DROPLETS OR ICE CRISTALS TO LESS THAN 1000M
    ·Which of the following statements is correct? NORMALLY ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE STOPS FALLING RAPIDLY BEHIND A WARM FRONT, THE AIR TEMPERATURE RISES
    ·Which of the following statements is correct? THE BERGERON-FINDEISEN PROCESS IS MAINLY BASED ON THE DIFFERENCE OF MAXIMUM VAPOUR PRESSURE OVER WATER AND OVER ICE OF THE SAME TEMPERATURE
    ·Which of the following statements is true ? QNH CAN BE EQUAL TO QFE
    ·Which of the following statements is true concerning frontal fog? IT MAY BE FORMED BY DAY AS WELL AS BY NIGHT
    ·Which of the following statements is true concerning orographic fog? IT MAY BE FORMED BY DAY AS WELL AS BY NIGHT
    ·Which of the following statements is true concerning orographic fog? IT IS FORMED WHEN AIR IS FORCED TO RISE UP A SLOPE
    ·Which of the following statements is true concerning the Bergeron-Findeisen process? IT ONLY TAKES PLACE IN CLOUDS WITH SUPERCOOLED WATER DROPLETS AND ICE CRYSTALS
    ·Which of the following statements is true concerning the coalescence process? IN THE MID-LATITUDES THIS PROCESS PRODUCES ONLY DRIZZLE OR VERY LIGHT RAIN
    ·Which of the following statements is true of the dew point of an air mass? IT CAN ONLY BE EQUAL TO, OR LOWER, THAN THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR MASS
    ·Which of the following statements is true regarding moderate to severe airframe icing? IT IS LIKELY TO OCCUR IN NIMBOSTRATUS CLOUD
    ·Which of the following statements is true regarding moderate to severe airframe icing? IT WILL NOT OCCUR IN CLEAR-SKY CONDITIONS
    ·Which of the following statements is true with regard to mountain waves? FLIGHT WITH HEADWIND TOWARD HIGH GROUND IS LIKELY TO BE MORE HAZARDOUS THAN FLIGHT WITH TAILWIND TOWARDS HIGH GROUND
    ·Which of the following statements regarding an aircraft being struck by lightning is true? THE FLIGHT CREW MIGHT HAVE TEMPORARY DIFFICULTIES IN DETERMING THE CURRENT ATTITUDE OF FLIGHT
    ·Which of the following statements regarding the development of valley inversions is correct? VALLEY INVERSIONS OFTEN ARE A RESULT OF RADIATION COOLING IN COMBINATION WITH DRAVITY, BOTH AFECTING THE AIR AT THE SURFACE OF A MOUNTAIN SLOPE
    ·Which of the following symbols represents a quasi-stationary front? SYMBOL 3
    ·Which of the following symbols represents a severe squall line? SYMBOL 1
    ·Which of the following thunderstorms produce the most severe conditions, such as heavy hail and destructive winds? SQUALL LINE THUNDERSTORMS
    ·Which of the following types of cloud can extend over the low, medium and high cloud levels ? CB
    ·Which of the following types of clouds are evidence of unstable air conditions? CU, CB
    ·Which of the following types of jet streams can be observed all year round? SUBTROPICAL JET STREAM/POLAR FRONT JET STREAM
    ·Which of the following weather conditions favour the formation of radiation fog? LIGHT WIND, LITTLE OR NO CLOUD, MOIST AIR
    ·Which of the following weather conditions would be expected at Athens Airport (LGAT) at around 1450 UTC? 21002KT 6000 BR SCT040 29/16 Q1026 NOSIG=
    ·Which of the following weather reports could be, in accordance with the regulations, abbreviated to "CAVOK"? 27019G37KT 9999 BKN050 18/14 Q1016 NOSIG=
    ·Which of the following weather reports could be, in accordance with the regulations, abbreviated to "CAVOK"? (MSA minus airport elevation equals: LSZB 10000 FT, LSZH 8000 FT, LSGG 12000 FT, LFSB 6000 FT): LSZB 28012KT 9999 OVC100 16/12 Q1012 BECMG 5000 -RA=
    ·Which of the following weather reports could be, in accordance with the regulations, abbreviated to "CAVOK"? 15003KT 9999 BKN100 17/11 Q1024 NOSIG=
    ·Which of the following weather reports is a warning of conditions that could be potentially hazardous to aircraft in flight ? SIGMET
    ·Which of the following zones is most likely to encounter little or no precipitation? THE NORTH SIDE OF THE ALPS WITH A PREVALLING FOEHN FROM THE SOUTH
    ·Which of the four answers is a correct interpretation of data from the following METAR ? LSZH 050820Z 16003KT 0400 R14/P1500 R16/1000 FZFG VV003 M02/M02 Q1026 BECMG 2000 BR = VISIBILITY 400M, RVR FOR RUNWAY 16 1000M WITH NO DISTINCT TENDENCY, DEW POINT -2°C, FREEZING FOG
    ·Which of the statements is true concerning squall lines ? FOR SEVERE SQUALL LINES A SIGMET IS ISSUED
    ·Which of these four METAR reports suggests that a thunderstorm is likely in the next few hours? 201250Z 21005KT 9999 SCT040CB SCT100 26/18 Q1016 TEMPO 24018G30KT TS=
    ·Which of these four METAR reports suggests that rain is most likely in the next few hours? 23015KT 8000 BKN030 OVC070 17/14 Q1009 BECMG 4000=
    ·Which of these statements best describes the weather most likely to be experienced at 1500 UTC?; TAF LSZH 211322 22018G35KT 9999 SCT012 BKN030 BECMG 1315 25025G45KT TEMPO 1720 4000 +SHRA BKN025TCU BECMG 2022 25015KT T1815Z T1618Z = VISIBILITY 10 KILOMETRES OR MORE, MAIN CLOUDBASE 3000 FEET, WIND 250°, TEMPERATURE 18°C
    ·Which of these statements is true? SCATTERED THUNDERSTORMS CAN BE EXPECTED OVER FRANCE
    ·Which one of the displayed cloud forms is representative of a cumulonimbus capillatus? 4
    ·Which one of the displayed cloud forms is representative of a cumulus? 1
    ·Which one of the displayed cloud forms is representative of altocumulus castellanus? 3
    ·Which one of the displayed cloud forms is representative of altocumulus lenticularis? 2
    ·Which one of the following cloud types can be characterised by the optical phenomenon called halo? CIRROSTRATUS
    ·Which one of the following local winds is a Foehn wind? CHINOOK
    ·Which one of the following statements applies to the tropopause? IS SEPARATES THE TROPOSPHERE FROM THE STRATOSPHERE
    ·Which one of the following statements concerning the formation of aircraft icing is most correct ? A CLOUD CONSISTING OF BOTH SUPERCOOLED WATER DROPLETS AND ICE CRYSTALS PRODUCES AIRCRAFT ICING
    ·Which one of the following statements is correct concerning the movement of the ITCZ in the region of West Africa? IT REACHES ITS MAXIMUM NORTHERLY POSITION OF 15°-20°N IN JULY.
    ·Which one of the following statements regarding the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is correct? FREQUENT AND WIDESPREAD THUNDERSTORMS ARE TO BE EXPECTED WITHIN THE AEREA OF THE ITCZ
    ·Which one of the following types of cloud is most likely to produce heavy precipitation ? NS
    ·Which one of the tracks (dashed lines) is represented by the cross-section shown on the left ? TRACK D-A
    ·Which pilots are obliged to transmit a special air-report if they encounter severe aircraft icing? ALL CATEGORIES OF PILOTS
    ·Which statement about hurricanes is correct? THEIR EYE CAN BE WELL OBSERVED BY WEATHER SATELLITES
    ·Which statement concerning the cold front and warm front of a frontal depression in the northern hemisphere is correct? THE RISK OF FOG IS GREATER AHEAD OF AND BEHIND THE WARM FRONT THAN AHEAD OF AND BEHING THE COLD FRONT
    ·Which statement concerning the Scirocco is correct? IT BLOWS FROM SOUTHERLY DIRECTIONS AND CAN CARRY DUST AND SAND WHICH MAY REACH EUROPE
    ·Which statement concerning the tropopause is correct? THE LAYER JUST ABOVE THE TROPOPAUSE IS ABSOLUTELY STABLE
    ·Which statement does correspond to the definition of severe turbulence? AIRCRAFT MAY BE OUT OF CONTROL FOR SHORT PREIODS, OCCUPANTS ARE FORCED VIOLENTLY AGAINST SEAT BELTS, LOOSE OBJETCS ARE TOSSED ABOUT
    ·Which statement is correct concerning a mountain ridge where a marked mountain wave has been reported ? RAGGED ALTOCUMULUS LENTICULARIS IS AN INDICATION FOR THE PREENCE OF MODERATE/SEVERE TURBULENCE AT THE LEVEL OF THESE CLOUDS
    ·Which statement is correct for a warm occlusion? THE COLD FRONT BECOMES A FRONT ALOFT
    ·Which statement is correct for an absolutely unstable atmosphere? VISIBILITY IS GOOD BETWEEN SHOWERS
    ·Which statement is correct for microbursts ? THE DIAMETER OF THE AFFECTED AREA ON THE SURFACE DOES NOT EXCEED 4 KM
    ·Which statement is correct for the southern hemisphere? IN THE FRICTION LAYER THE WIND BACKS WITH INCREASING HEIGHT
    ·Which statement is correct regarding the ICAO Standard Atmosphere ? AT MSL TEMPERATURE IS 15°C AND PRESSURE IS 1013.25 HPA
    ·Which statement is correct? FOG CAN BE SUPERCOOLED AND CAN ALSO CONTAIN ICE CRYSTALS
    ·Which statement is true ? QNH CAN BE LOWER AS WELL AS HIGHER THAN 1013.25 HPA
    ·Which statement is true for a conditionally unstable layer? THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAPSE RATE IS LESS THAN 1°C/100M
    ·Which statement is true for advection fog? IT CAN APPEAR SUDDENLY BY DAY OR BY NIGHT
    ·Which statement is true for hurricanes? FROM THE EARTHS SURFACE UP TO THE TROPOPAUSE THE CORE IS WARMER THAN ITS SURROUNDINGS
    ·Which statement regarding aircraft and lightning is correct? AIRCRAFT MADE BY COMPOSITE MATERIAL MAY GET SEVERE DAMAGE, THE CREW MAY BE BLINDED AND TEMPORARILY LOSE THE HEARING
    ·Which thunderstorms generally produce the most severe conditions, such as heavy hail and destructive winds? SQUALL LINE THUNDERSTORMS
    ·Which thunderstorms move forward the fastest? FRONTAL THUNDERSTORMS
    ·Which two air masses are most likely to govern weather in western Europe? MARITIME TROPICAL WARM AND MARITIME POLAR COLD
    ·Which type of air mass never occurs over central Europe ? EQUATORIAL AIR
    ·Which type of fog can NOT be formed over water? RADIATION FOG
    ·Which type of fog is likely to form when air having temperature of 15°C and dew point of 12°C blows at 10 knots over a sea surface having temperatures of 5°C ? ADVECTION FOG
    ·Which types of clouds are typical evidence of stable air conditions? ST, AS
    ·Which typical weather condition is shown by the design for northern Italy? HIGH PRESSURE
    ·Which typical weather condition is shown by the design for the area of Central Europe ? WESTERLY WAVES
    ·Which typical weather situation is shown on the weather chart ? (Spacing of the isobars: 5 hPa) FLAT PRESSURE PATTERN
    ·Which units are used for the forecasted wind at higher levels? DIRECTION IN DEGREES RELATIVE TO TRUE NORTH AND SPEED IN KNOTS
    ·Which weather chart gives information about icing ? SIGNIFICANT WEATHER CHART
    ·Which weather condition lowers true altitude as compared to pressure altitude to a position where flight over mountains could be dangerous? COLD LOW
    ·Which weather phenomena are typical for the northern side of the Alps with strong winds from the south (Foehn)? GOOD VISIBILITY, TURBULENCE
    ·Which wind systems converge on the ITCZ, when it lies at the equator? SE TRADE WINDS AND NE TRADE WINDS
    ·While approaching your destination aerodrome you receive the following message: RVR runway 23: 400m This information indicates the: LENGTH OF RUNWAY WHICH A PILOT IN AN AIRCRAFT ON THE GROUND WOULD SEE, ON THE THRESHOLD OF RUNWAY 23
    ·While crossing a jet stream at right angles in Western Europe (3000 FT below its core) and OAT is decreasing, what would be the prevailing wind? CROSSWIND FROM THE LEFT
    ·While descending through a cloud cover at high level, a small amount of a white and rough powderlike contamination is detected along the leading edge of the wing. This contamination is called: RIME ICE
    ·While using the airborne weather radar in order to circumnavigate thunderstorms, the radar scope is clear between heavy echoes. Which of the following interpretations of the scope is correct? THE CLEAR AREA INDICATES AN AREA FROM WHICH NO ECHOES ARE RECEIVED. HOWEVER, HIS RADAR SCOPE PROVIDES NO ASSURANCE OF BEING IN VMC WHILE FLYING IN THIS AREA
    ·Whilst flying at FL 180 on the northern hemisphere an aircraft experiences right drift. What effect, if any, will this have on the aircraft's true altitude ? IT DECREASES
    ·Why are indications about the height of the tropopause not essential for flight documentation in the tropics? THE TROPOPAUSE IS GENERALLY WELL ABOVE THE FLIGHT LEVEL ACTUALLY FLOWN
    ·Why can the following METAR not be abbreviated to CAVOK? DLLO 121550Z 31018G30KT 9999 FEW060TCU BKN070 14/08 Q1016 TEMPO 4000 TS= (Aerodrome elevation 1000 ft, MSA for sector 000-190° 5800 ft, for sector 190-360° 7300 ft.): BECAUSE THE CLOUD BASE IS BELOW THE HIGHEST MINIMUM SECTOR ALTITUDE
    ·Why do tropical revolving storms tend to develop mostly in the western parts of the tropical oceans? BECAUSE THERE IS A MAXIMUM OF HUMIDITY AS A RESULT OF THE TRADE WINDS LONG SEA PASSAGE
    Wind is caused by: HORIZONTAL PRESSURE DIFFERENCES
    ·With all other quantities being constant, the density of the atmosphere increases with increasing:
    AIR PRESSURE
    ·With regard to temperature, which of the following is correct for the polar climates?
    THE MEAN TEMPERATURE OF ALL MONTHS IS BELOW PLUS 10°C
    ·With the development of a thunderstorm, at what stage will there be only updraughts of air?
    INITIAL STAGE
    ·With what type of cloud is "+TSRA" precipitation most commonly associated?
    CB
    ·With what type of cloud is "DZ" precipitation most commonly associated?
    ST
    ·With what type of cloud is "GR" precipitation most commonly associated?
    CB
    ·With what type of cloud is heavy precipitation unlikely during the summer months ?
    SC, AS
    ·With what type of clouds are showers most likely associated?
    CUMULONIMBUS
    ·With which meteorological phenomena are wind shear conditions mostly associated
    ? GUST FRONTS; LOW LEVEL TEMPERATURE INVERSION; FRONTAL SURFACES
    ·With which of the following types of cloud is "+RA" precipitation most commonly associated?
    NS
    ·With which type of cloud are tornadoes associated ?
    CUMULONIMBUS
    ·Within a short interval, several flight crews report that they have experienced strong clear air turbulence in a certain airspace. What is the consequence of these reports?
    THE COMPETENT AVIATION WEATHER OFFICE WILL ISSUE A SIGMET
    ·You are flying at 2 500 FT/AGL, the wind is 180°, and intend to land at an airport, at sea level directly below. From approximately which direction would you expect the surface wind (mid-latitude, northern hemisphere)?
    SOUTH-SOUTHEAST
    ·You are flying at FL 130, and your true altitude is 12000 FT. What is the temperature deviation from that of the standard atmosphere at FL 130 (QNH 1013,2 hPa) ?
    ISA - 20°C
    ·You are flying at FL 160. Outside air temperature is -27°C, and the pressure at sea level is 1003 hPa. What is the true altitude?
    15100 FT
    ·You are flying at FL 200. Outside air temperature is -40°C, and the pressure at sea level is 1033 hPa. What is the true altitude?
    19310 FT
    ·You are flying at FL 300 where the outside air temperature is -57.5°C and the pressure at MSL is 1013.25 hPa. If you assume that the difference between the actual temperature and the temperature in the ISA is valid for the whole troposphere, then the true altitude is
    : 28500 FT
    ·You are flying at FL 340 on the northern hemisphere. The wind is geostrophic and there is a cross wind from the right all the time. Your true altitude will: I
    NCREASE
    ·You are flying from east to west in the northern hemisphere at the 500 hPa pressure surface. Which of the following statements is correct?
    IF THE WIND IS FROM THE NORTH YOU ARE GAINING ALTITUDE
    ·You are flying from Munich to Amsterdam. Which of the following flight levels would you choose in order to avoid turbulence and icing?
    FL260
    ·You are flying in the northern hemisphere at 2000 FT over a flat country area. An anticyclone is ahead of you and a depression is behind you. The wind affecting you, will be:
    FROM YOUR RIGHT
    ·You are flying in the southern hemisphere at FL 180 from east to west. If the wind at FL 180 is southerly, which of the following statements is correct?
    THE TRUE ALTITUDE IS INCREASING
    ·You are flying over the sea at FL 250 and measure an outside temperature of -50°C. The pressure at sea level is 1023 hPa. What is your approximate true altitude calculated using normal vertical change in temperature with increase in height?
    23770 FT/AMSL
    ·You are flying with an outside air temperature of -12°C and a TAS of 250 kt at FL 150 through 8 oktas NS. What type and degree of icing is most probable?
    IN CLOUDS PUSHED UP AGAINST THE MOUNTAINS, MODERATE TO SEVERE MIXED ICE
    ·You are planning to fly across a mountain range. The chart recommends a minimum altitude of 12000 feet above mean sea level. The air mass you will be flying through is an average 10°C warmer than ISA. Your altimeter is set to 1023 hPa (QNH of a nearby airport at nearly sea level). What altitude will the altimeter show when you have reached the recommended minimum altitude?;
    11520 FEET
    ·You cross a jet stream in horizontal flight at approximately right angles. While crossing, in spite of a strong wind of 120 kt, you notice the temperature barely changes. Which of the following statements is correct ?
    THE PHENOMENON IS ABSOLUTELY NORMAL AS YOU ARE CROSSING THE JET CORE
    ·You have been flying for some time in dense layered cloud. The outside air temperature is -25°C. Which of the following statements is true?
    SEVERE AIRFRAME ICING IS UNLIKELY UNDER THESE CONDITIONS
    ·You intend to carry out a VFR flight over the Alps, on a fine and hot summer day. What is the best time of day to conduct this flight?
    MORNING
    ·You intend to overfly a mountain range. The recommended minimum flight altitude is, according to the aviation chart, 15000 FT/AMSL. The air mass that you will fly through is on average 15°C warmer than the standard atmosphere. The altimeter is set to QNH (1023 hPa). At what altimeter reading will you effectively be at the recommended minimum flight altitude?
    14100 FT
    ·You must make an emergency landing at sea. The QNH of a field on a nearby island with an elevation of 4000 FT is 1025 hPa and the temperature is -20°C. What is your pressure altimeter reading when landing if 1025 hPa is set in the subscale?
    LESS THAN 0 FT
    ·You plan a flight over a mountain range at a true altitude of 15000 FT/AMSL. The air is on an average 15°C colder than ISA, the pressure at sea level is 1003 hPa. What approximate indication should the altimeter (setting 1013.2 hPa) read?
    16230 FT
    ·You receive the following METAR: LSGG 120750Z 00000KT 0300 R05/0700N FG VV001 M02/M02 Q1014 NOSIG = What will be the RVR at 0900 UTC?
    THE RVR IS UNKNOWN, BECAUSE THENOSIG DOES NOT REFER TO RVR

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met atpl QNH rounded up to the nearest hpa severe icing at certain flight levels by information supplied Severe turbulence in CB cloud An aircraft is flying through the Rockies on a warm summer's day. The weather is fine, and there is a high pressure system in the area. During the flight, a mountain is passed at an altitude of its summit. What reading will the aneroid altimeter give content meteorology cold air pool atpl Which of the following phenomena are formed when a moist, stable layer of air is forced to rise against a mountain range? if the surface temperature is 15°c , then the temperature at 10000 ft in a current of ascending unsaturated air is: atpl met An observer in the northern hemisphere is under influence of the wind system of a depression, which is moving from West to East. The centre of the depression passes to the South of the observer. For this observer the wind direction is According to ICAO, which symbol always represents danger to an aircraft in flight? Considering that portion of the route indicated from 30E to 50E, the upper winds in January above FL 300 are most likely to be An aircraft flying at FL 45 (OAT 6°C) obtains a reading of 1860 ft on its radio altimeter (ground elevation 3090 ft). What is the value of the QNH, to the nearest hPa, at that point? an aircraft is flying in the southern hemisphere at low altitude (less than 2000 feet) and going directly away from a centre of low pressure. what direction, relative to the aircraft, does the wind come from? If the QFE, QNH and QFF of an airport have the same value aerodrome warning message During a descent from 2000 FT above the surface to the surface (no frontal passage) the wind normally A microburst phenomenon can arise in the