A)No Interface position(any Relation)-Represented by Krashen(the main author of that)-2 different Ways to develop lg. competence: acquisition & learning.*Krashen, 1982:10–Acq (is) a process similar, if not identical to the way Children develop ability in their 1 lg. Acq is a subconscious Process, lg. Acquires are not usually aware of the fact that they are Acquiring lg., but we only aware of the fact that they are using the Lg. For communication. The result of lg. Acq, acquired competence, is Also subconscious. We are generally not consciously aware of the Rules of the lgs we have acquired. Instead, we have a ''feel''for Correctness.Gramm sentences'sound' right or 'feel'right,& errors Feel wrong,even if we do not consciously know what rule was Violated..In nontechnical terms,acq is ''picking up''a Lg.(krashen,1982).We're acquire the rules,but you're aware of This,you can't explain the rules..(LG.LEARNING).He doesn't speak About implicit learning,for him,the last is acq.MAIN CHARACTERISTICS:-ACQ:(the Natural form of learning lg:the way that children learng lg->you acquire knowledge)Example of incidental knowled.>no intention.1.Unconscious and informal process(similar to the one undergo when they're learning their l1)=no awareness,no intention(incidental learning),no control/similar to implicit learning.2.Picking up('acquiring')the TL through real,meaningful activities & interaction with other people.->you can't explain the rules but you're aware of use it(the way children learn a lg).BY KRASHEN:3.Focused on communication(communicative act).4.Outcome:acquired knowledge/competence(unconscious,diff to verbalize it.->acq:he focuses on communication,meaning & fluency.-LEARNING:1.Conscious & formal process(eg.the teacher explicitly teaches grammar & students study it)=awareness,interaction,control(automatic process)similar to explicit learning.2Learning about the TL(analysis & study of the formal properties of the TL)->There's control over the learning process,similar to explicit learning.3.Focused on grammar rules->precision and focus on form.4.Outcome:Learned knowledge/competence(conscious,easy to verbalize it).5.Learning:focus accuracy in shape.-(x)KRAHEN:-[input]Ls have 2 independent means of developing knowledge about the TL:acq & learning.(One person w/ a big head:re receives input in 2 diff processes'independently').When we receive information(input) in the TL,we're going to develop knowledge in 2 diff processes:acq & learning.*Knowledge gained through one means(eg.Learning) can't be internalized as knowledge of the other kind(eg.Acq).*The knowledge developed by learning is only to go to take place in its place,not in the other.All knowledge you learn go to one part of the brain,all knowledge acquire go to the other part.-knowledge through learning:learned competence(learned system).-knowledge through acq:acquired competence(acquired system).-[output]Ls have 2 independent systems of L2 performance:the acquired system & the learned system.*Acquired system(or competence):to produce lg to generates utterances(output).According to Krashen,when we produce lg is only initiated & produced by our acquired system(or competence)-this is the function of the acquired system.*Learned system(or competence):no production of lg.Acts as a 'monitor' or 'editor' of the acquired system:Making small corrections on the utterance or output produced by the acquired system.(eg.When you're using the corrector,it corrects the error that is produced in the learned lg).THE MONITOR HYPOTHESIS:both systems(acquired & learned)don't operate in a parallel manner & don't communicate.Learned systems work at a superficial level & 3 conditions are fulfilled:1.TIME:you need time to think about the rules you're going to use.2.FOCUS ON FORM:Ls need time to think about the structure & they have to focus on form.3.KNOWLEDGE OF THE RULE:if you don't know the rule,you can't use this system,you need to know it.*Explicit & implicit learning/knowledge:completely independent form each other.-Explicit learning can never lead to implicit(acquired)knowledge.-Explicit knowledge cannot become implicit knowledge & vice versa.(NO INTERFACE).*krashen:-Rejection of any kind of explicit grammar teaching.-L2 instruction focused on authentic & meaningful activities to help learners communicate in the real world(emphasis on implicit learning.Eg.Acq).1OBJECTION:-Krashen:fluent,unconscious speech is the product of the acquired system.-So what is learned in a formal context(ie.learned competence/knowledge)is never available for this use(ie.Fluent speech)-Image this situation:1.Ls who learn the TL only in a formal setting(by means of explicit learning).2.Having only a learned system(no acquired system).3.If speaking is initiated through the acquired system,how would these ls ever generate utterances?2OBJECTION:-Krashen:no evidence that learning & acq are 2 separate systems.-Remaining a hypothesis.B) Strong interface position.-Represented mainly by Dekeyser,Sharwood–Smith & O’ Malley et Al.-Explicit knowledge can gradually be converted into implicit Knowledge through long-term practice.Dekeyser:3 developmental stages of linguistic knowledge:1.Begins as declarative Knowledge(knowing about).2.Becomes procedural(knowing how)(as a Skill, knowing how to speak English).3.Will finally become Automatized.-How does this declarative knowledge become procedural?Key Step: proceduralization & automatization. Dekeyser focuses on wore declarative knowledge.