Microtubules anoxema

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GLUT4= glucose transporter 

adipogenesis = preadipocyte -> lipid droplets-> mature adipocyte

3 pathways to regulate adipocyte differentiation -> PPARy

a) promotes-> IGF-1 -> PKB-> inhibits NECDIN and GATA2

b) inhibits-> Wnt-> b-catenin->TCF

c)inhibits-> TGF-b -> Smad3

cytoskeletal fibers -> organization and movement of organelles and provide cell shape movement and contraction (ex: filopodia, lamellipodia, stress fibers)

Microfilaments -> actin -> dynamic

Microtubules ->ab-tubulin dimer -> dynamic 

Intermediate filaments -> various -> static


Most abundant intracellular protein In eukaryotic cells

Muscle cells -> 10% cellular protein

Non-muscle cells -> 1-5% cellular protein

a - associated with contractile structure

b - at the front of the cell where actin filaments polymerize (cell cortex and Leading edge of motion cells)

g - accounts for filaments in stress fibers


G-actin --> globular monomer 

F-actin --> filamentous polymer 

they are polar ->  (-) end favors dissociation of actin and (+) end favors addition of actin

polymerization is measured by:

1. Viscometry -> long actin filaments increase viscosity 

2. Sedimentation-> ultracentrifugation sediment F-actin but not G-actin 

3. Fluorescence microscopy

4. Fluorescence spectroscopy

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