2. THE CRISIS OF THE LATE MIDDLE AGES.
It occurs From around 1300 to the 15thcentury in Europe. As an overview we Can talk about the Iberian Peninsula that was reclaimed from Muslims except Granada; the Byzantine Empire was taken over by the Ottomans and Constantinople Finally falls in 1453. It happens the Hundred Years’ War, and it finishes with The Age of Exploration and the Renaissance.
In 1348 an Epidemic of bubonic plague, the Black Death, reached Europe from Asia. For Europe as a whole, the population was reduced by at least one third. The plague Became permanent, with new outbursts for the remainder of the century, but People thought that all this was a punishment of God, because of the illiteracy Of the époque. Adding to the misery, warfare reached a new peak of intensity. In the Hundred Years' War, which went from 1338 to 1453, between France and England, large areas were devastated by a policy of destruction, while the Byzantine Empire finally succumbed to the Ottoman Turks.
In the First half of the 14th century, crop failures and famine made Population begin to decrease. The Great Famine, between 1315 and 1317, affected The whole northern Europe. The increasing danger of the food supply, with Congestion and the lack of sanitary facilities rendered the population more Susceptible to epidemics. Therefore there was a climatic deterioration: the Winters became longer, colder and wetter, it looked like a new ice age. The Stagnation and decline of the economy was caused by overpopulation that came of The good times of the High Middle Ages, for the resources and technology Available. They tried to increase productivity with the introduction of Four-course, new crop rotations, etcetera, but the efforts were not made fast And substantial enough to offset the diminishing returns of over cropped Marginal lands. As population growth continued, the prices of most agricultural Commodities rose while wages fell.