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21.4 Discuss the impact of the protestant reformation on the visual arts in northern Europe, focusing your discussion on types of subject matter the patrons sought

The reformation in the sixteenth century divides Christianity between Catholics and protestants. The protestant reformation induced to a wave of iconoclasm, or destruction of religious imaginary. The relation with god was reflected in day to day scenes depicted in paintings. Images of Christ and saints and clergy were less frequents. The artist preferred to paint depictions of the of human folly and weakness, still lifes and landscapes.p

CH 22

22.1 Summarize the goals and interest of the Counter Reformation, and explain the impact of the council of Trent of Italian artists working in its wake.it may be helpful to look back to chapters 20 and 21 in forming your answer

22.2 Discuss how Bernini and Caravaggio established the baroque style in sculpture and painting respectively. Locate the defining traits of the period style in at least one work from the chapter by each of this artist.

Bernini’s David is one the best example of what the baroque is about. It was made in 1623, it introduces a new tridimensional type of composition.  The david bends  at the waist and twist far to one side, ready to lunch the rock.  Bernini’s david is a twisting figure caught in movement and incorpores the surrounding space within the composition. Thus, the viewer becomes part of the action.  Caravaggio painted the calling of st Mathew in 1600, he uses tenebrism to make forms emerge from dark background into a strong like thus this results in a theatrical spotlight. Viewers have the sense that  they are witnessing  the scene as it is occurring.



Ch 18,

18.1 Explain how oil-painting technique allowed fifteenth-century Flemish painters to achieve unprecedented descriptive effects in their work. Support your answer by discussing one specific work in this chapter.

Since oil  was slow to dry  and provided luminous quality and flexibility and while it is still wet changes can be made easily. Flemish painters could create highly detailed painting.

18.4 Discuss the symbolic meanings that fifteenth century viewers would have comprehended in the objects contained in the domestic environment of either the Merode Altarpiece of the Arnolfini double portrait.

In the picture A double portrait of giovany arnolfini and his wife. 1434. By Jan Van Eyck. It is painting full of mysterious. We cannot tell whether she is pregnant or she is just lifting her skirt over her belly. But the luxury and their extravagant clothing indicate they are wealthy. They are surrounded by luxury objects: like lavish bed hangings, sumptuous chandelier, precious carpet, and the extravagant clothes. The crystal prayer beads hanging next to the convex mirror imply the couple’s piety. The mirror is a symbol of the all-seeing eye of God and it is framed by scenes of Christ’s passion. The dog symbolizes fidelity but here it could be another element to express luxury.

Ch. 19

19.1 Discuss Masaccio’s use of linear perspective in either The Tribute Money or Trinity with the virgin, st john the evangelist and donors. How does this he use this technique? Illustrate your points with a comparative reference to a work discussed earlier In this chapter or in a previous chapter.

19.4 Discuss the 1401 competition to choose an artist to create the bronze doors of baptistery. How did the competition affect the careers of the two finalists? Ghileberti and bruneleschi?

After Ghiberty was declared the winner, bruneleschi was so dissapointe that he went back to roma and never sculpted again. He refocused his career in on buildings and became one of the most important architects of Italian renaissance. But for giberthy, he was acknowledged as the best artist and became well known and got more works to do and later was commissioned to create another set of doors for the baptistery.

Ch 20

20.2 Write about either michelangelos or raphaels extensive work in the Sistine chapel. How did papal commissions push these two established artist in new creative directions?

In 1507 the pope Julius ii ordered Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine chapel. The initial order was to replace  the star spangled blue decoration. Later he wanted 12 apostles seated on thrones  on the triangular spandrels bertween the lunnettes framing windows.  When Michelangelo objected the limitations of the popes plan the pope told him to paint whatever he wanted and he did it. Michealgenlo assembled a team of expert assistants to work with him. Then when Leo x became pope he commissioned Raphael to produce ten cartoons for a lavish set of tapestries portraying scenes of the lives of saint peter and saint paul  to decorate the chapels lower level. The cartoons were created in Raphaels workshop with the collaboration of his assistants. This was five times more expensive than the Sistine chapel ceiling.

21.4 Discuss the impact of the protestant reformation on the visual arts in northern Europe, focusing your discussion on types of subject matter the patrons sought

The reformation in the sixteenth century divides Christianity between Catholics and protestants. The protestant reformation induced to a wave of iconoclasm, or destruction of religious imaginary. The relation with god was reflected in day to day scenes depicted in paintings. Images of Christ and saints and clergy were less frequents. The artist preferred to paint depictions of the of human folly and weakness, still lifes and landscapes.

CH 22

22.1 Summarize the goals and interest of the Counter Reformation, and explain the impact of the council of Trent of Italian artists working in its wake.it may be helpful to look back to chapters 20 and 21 in forming your answer

22.2 Discuss how Bernini and Caravaggio established the baroque style in sculpture and painting respectively. Locate the defining traits of the period style in at least one work from the chapter by each of this artist.

Bernini’s David is one the best example of what the baroque is about. It was made in 1623, it introduces a new tridimensional type of composition.  The david bends  at the waist and twist far to one side, ready to lunch the rock.  Bernini’s david is a twisting figure caught in movement and incorpores the surrounding space within the composition. Thus, the viewer becomes part of the action.  Caravaggio painted the calling of st Mathew in 1600, he uses tenebrism to make forms emerge from dark background into a strong like thus this results in a theatrical spotlight. Viewers have the sense that  they are witnessing  the scene as it is occurring.

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