Migration africa to europe

Classified in Geography

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  • IMPERIALISM CAUSES
    • Economic.

    • Industrialised European countries wanted new markets to sell surplus (beneficios) products at the best possible price.

    • Raw materials: coal, iron, cotton, rubber, etc. 

    • Colonial products: sugar, chocolate, tea, etc.

    • Opportunities for investment: invest excess capital outside Europe (cheap labour → increased profits).

    • Demographic.

    • Overpopulation in Europe (19th century) made people emigrate to other continents (solution to metropole).

    • Agricultural reforms, industralisation and medicine caused a reduction in death in Europe → population explosion (European population doubled). Africa’s demographic growth led to chronic malnutrition.

    • Migration was possible by new means of transport (steamships), all classes sailed on the ships. People who left Europe were poor peasants / middle-class people.

    • There was a difference between countries with large colonies and countries without colonies (conditions were worse) → wage earners.

    • Political.

    • Gain more influence by expanding their areas of influence and by occupying other continents (to increase their political power) → race to control new territories.

    • Ideological.

    • Myth of the master race: racist and nationalistic attitudes presented as scientific facts, scientist convinced population of its legitimacy. It was a justifiable domination exerted by any means, including war. 

    • People believe they had to spread their culture and civilisation among inferior people (usually black).

    • Scientific causes:

    • Geographical explorations: new territoires and scientific journeys.

    • First European expeditions carried by British (Livingstone and Stanly) and by French (Brazza).

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