- IMPERIALISM CAUSES
Industrialised European countries wanted new markets to sell surplus (beneficios) products at the best possible price.
Raw materials: coal, iron, cotton, rubber, etc.
Colonial products: sugar, chocolate, tea, etc.
Opportunities for investment: invest excess capital outside Europe (cheap labour → increased profits).
Overpopulation in Europe (19th century) made people emigrate to other continents (solution to metropole).
Agricultural reforms, industralisation and medicine caused a reduction in death in Europe → population explosion (European population doubled). Africa’s demographic growth led to chronic malnutrition.
Migration was possible by new means of transport (steamships), all classes sailed on the ships. People who left Europe were poor peasants / middle-class people.
There was a difference between countries with large colonies and countries without colonies (conditions were worse) → wage earners.
Gain more influence by expanding their areas of influence and by occupying other continents (to increase their political power) → race to control new territories.
Myth of the master race: racist and nationalistic attitudes presented as scientific facts, scientist convinced population of its legitimacy. It was a justifiable domination exerted by any means, including war.
People believe they had to spread their culture and civilisation among inferior people (usually black).
Geographical explorations: new territoires and scientific journeys.
First European expeditions carried by British (Livingstone and Stanly) and by French (Brazza).