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External focalization: it does’n belong to a character. It gives us info about the character’s psychology. It suggests anonymity and objectivity but it is never neutral, it prompts the viewer’s identification with the character. It is crucial for identification. It is crucial to have access to the psychology of a character. The info that the film tells us when we see a character looking is necessary to understand the situation. It tells a lot about the psychology of a character but it needs to be combined with internal focalization for identification to occur. 

Internal focalization: it allows us to have access to what a specific character is seeing, and his/her reaction towards it (when combined with external f.). It provides info about what/who is focalized but also about the focalizer. 

Conclusion: I.F. Gives us access to character’s subjectivity, what he or she thinks and feels. E.F. Limits the access to a character’s interiority. 

The importance: -Theoretical account of the patriarchal manipulation of audiences. -Emphasis on the importance of pleasure in cinema. -It explained the relationship btw narrative (male) and spectacle (female). 

Responses: 1. Mary Ann Doane: in the “women’s films” of the 1940s women certainly look but don’t control the object. Look is masochistic. 2. Steve Neale: the mall body is also objectified and eroticized but only in action scenes. 3. Lacan: Identity is formed through a series of identifications. Following this paradigm, it could be said hat our identifications with various characters contribute to the formation or transformation of our identity. 4. E. Covie and G. Studlar: films offer masculine and feminine subject positions and spectators of both genders may identify with them. Mulvey’s theory wants us that film representation is never neutral. We agree to identify with a character or an ideological position but there are limits to our identification. 

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