Stage 1. Avoid punishment: authority, Obedience, punishment. Children. People focus on the direct consequences their actions will have on them. The More the punishment is, the worst the action has been.
Stage 2: Self-interest: fair deal, Favours, selfishness, whats in it for me? Schoolchildren. It is About self-interest. Reasoning here shows no interest in the needs of others. The perspective of the world is seen as morally relative ‘’you scratch my bag, I will scratch yours’’.
Stage 3: good boy attitude: Motive, character, doing what society spects. Early teens, people living in small towns or tribes. Anyone who lives only in a Face to face world. To be accepted in society you need to fulfil some roles. You must be a good person to lie up with expetations. Respect, gratitude. Desire to maintain rules and authority just to be supported by society.
Stage 4: law and order morality: law and order, duty to society. Late Teens, most people in large societies. Important To obey laws for the society to keep working. Moral reasoning is beyond Individual approval. Central ideas stay what is wrong and good. If a law is Violated, it is morally wrong. Culpability separates the bad domains from the Good ones. Most people stay in this stage.
Stage 5: social contracts. Rights, Democracy, changing unjust laws, revolution. Jefferson, some in their midd 20 or later. Individuals are seen as holding Different opinions and values. Laws ae regarded as social contracts rather than Rigid dictums.
Stage 6: Principle: duty to justice, civil disobedience. Gandhi, Martin Luther King. Moral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning by the use of Universal ethical principles. Laws are only valid when they are grounded in Justice. There is an obligation of disobeying unfair laws. Rights are unnecessary As social contracts are not essential. Being in this stage is imaginating by putting In someone elses shoes. N