1.Genes are located on chromosomes,each gene is made up of a segment of DNA.2.Each gene has a specific place(locus) on a chromosome.3.The 2 alleles which determine a specific trait are located on 2 chromosomes which are the same size and shape:homologous chromosomes. Types of mutations:gene mutation,chromosome mutation,numerical mutation. Causes of mutations:physical mutagens,chemical mutagens,biological mutagens. A blood group:A antigens and anti-b antibodies.B blood group:B antigen and anti-A antibodies.AB blood group:A and B antigens and not antibodies.O blood group:no antigens and both anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies. Rh+:antigens but no anti-Rh antibodies. Rh-:no antigens, yes anti-Rh antibodies.
human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes:22 pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. A karyotpe is a profile of the number,type and structure of chromosomes found in the cell of a particular species.You can detect anomalies. Amniocentesis
. Congenital malformations are alterations in the shape,structure or size of part of the body that occur during foetal development; they can affect:limbs(arms and legs deformation),the palate(paladar),internal organs(heart),sensory organs(cataracts or deafness);diagnosticarlo:el bebe es tratado con alta tecnologia y cirujia y a la situacion se explica a los padres. Down syndrome
:trisomy 21,edwards syndrome:trisomy 18,patau syndrome:trisomy 13//triple X syndrome:trisoy X or XXX syndrome, turner syndrome:monosomy X//XYY syndrome:XXY trisomy, klinefelter syndrome. Changes in chromosome structure:deletion,duplication,inversion,translocation