Naturalism and realism

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Benito Perez Galdos

Recognition of his work Galdós's work is characterized by a marked and sharp realism. He is a keen observer of insight with brilliant touches that let you capture both the atmospheres of environments and situations she describes as the portraits of places and characters. It uses language to identify their characters and this has often be accused of what is not, use vulgar language when describing a character or vulgar speech. Galdós's charm is in the sense of spontaneity and vitality that we passed through an expressive style, flexible and suggestive. It is revealing the number of his works that have gone to the movies or television. After Cervantes, numerous studies put it at the highest elevation of the Spanish novel. Galdós divided his work into "Episodios nacionales", "Spanish novels from the early days" and "Contemporary Spanish Novels". Furthermore, we must consider his theater.
National Episodes From 1873 to 1912, Pérez Galdós set itself the ambitious project to tell the fictionalized story of nineteenth-century Spain, ie from 1807 to the Restoration, with the intention of analyzing the role of conservative and progressive forces in Spain. Are 46 novels in five series of ten plays each, except the last one was cut and has only six. Choral works, epic, covering the story of the individual protagonist. Far from the romantic historical novel, Galdós rigorously documented and so far can historical facts and comments are narrated with great objectivity.
The first two series (1873-1879) covering the War of Independence and the reign of Fernando VII. In them the author expresses some optimism in a slow but steady evolution toward progress. Among the most celebrated works of these series are in Trafalgar, Bailen, Napoleon at Chamartin or The Family of Charles IV.
In 1898, the series resumed again, where he worked until 1912. Covers from the Carlist Wars until the Restoration. Galdosian optimism has gone and now comes the bitter vision of Spain and facing deep split in fratricidal wars, before this conviction, the author seeks a solution in the ideal of "equal distribution of human welfare" result of his political radicalism. Some of the works from this period are Zumalacárregui, Mendizabal, de Onate to La Granja, Amadeo I or the latest episode, Canovas.
Spanish novels from the early days Up to 1880 writes a thesis novels, Manichean, where good characters are modern, open, liberal and progressive, and poor, conservative, traditionalist, religious fanatics and uncompromising. Simplistic works full of youthful ardor. These include Miss Perfect (1876), Gloria (1877) and The family of Leon Roch (1878). In Doña Perfecta loaded inks in the anticlericalism and the clash between progress and tradition in Glory distributed fairly religious intransigence between Jews and Catholics, and the family of Leon Roch between Catholics and liberals.

This contemporary Spanish novels Galdós called twenty-four novels published since 1880. It is an impressive picture of Madrid and Spain at the time, which gather all kinds of environments, types, feelings, from the noble to the lowest.In these works the author and do not use religious or political Manichaean approaches to assess the behavior of his characters, and freely discusses his feelings, desires and frustrations. What emerges is an impressive array of narrow, kind, wealthy bourgeois, nobles ruined, destitute, the greatness and misery of people who live for show. Galdós captures the social plurality and vital new narrative techniques using both the interior monologue, and the indirect style or the character-narrator who had used in the first National Episodes. Now the author presents and the reader judge.
The first of these novels is the disinherited (1881), naturalist work in which the protagonist, a crazy girl who is in the madhouse of Leganés (Madrid), is believed descendant of an aristocratic and ends up in prostitution; The friend Manso ( 1883)-work already announced the "Nivola" by Miguel de Unamuno, raises the contrast between a teacher and Krausist superficial and cunning child; in Torment (1884) the protagonist is tricked and seduced by a dissolute priest and collects an Indian Rich but not marry her; in Miau (1888) describes the hardships of a progressive loss in a conservative government, and the hell of bureaucracy usury Torquemada is treated at the stake (1889) which tells the social advancement of a loan shark who has just become a senator. Among all these works became Fortunata and Jacinta (1887) the most extraordinary mural on the history and society of the time in Madrid and one of the best novels in Spanish literature: Juan Santa Cruz is the lover of a poor girl, passionate and love but he married his cousin, the gentle Jacinta, who suffers her husband's infidelities. Fortunata becomes pregnant and the "self-satisfied," as Ortega y Gasset defined the prototype of this character, seeks another friend. Fortunata has his son but full of jealousy provokes a fight with the new lover to death will not before he delivered the child to Jacinta. On this central argument that weave in other political and social reality of the moment of substance, Galdós as narrator accomplice stood Nature correcting the mistakes of their children.
In the nineties there arises a spiritual attitude in the novels of Galdós. The ethical and religious issue is addressed in Nazarin (1895)-that Luis Buñuel made into a film, as did another novel by Galdós, Tristana, in which a priest is losing faith because the purity of the Gospel is not understood or accepted by a miserable world, Mercy (1897) is considered one of his masterpieces and it portrays the sweet Benina begging for money to keep the house where he works as a maid without pay and that the altarpiece appears starkest of misery Madrid.
Fortunata and Jacinta (1886-1887) As the judge's wife is a novel broad and very carefully constructed that develops on the basis of various love triangles, the troubled and changing social life of Madrid from 1873 to 1876, interweaving elements fictional and historical.
In Galdós's work displays many of his best narrative arts: thorough collection of environments and types, masterful use of dialogue, innovative use of interior monologues, anecdotes, wise management of multiple storylines, etc..
It consists of four parts. Two is subtitled stories married. It basically tells the amorous adventures of Juanito Santa Cruz, a young middle-class Madrid, married to her cousin Jacinta, after its relationship with Fortunata, woman of humble status, which leaves it to become pregnant.
Lucky comes to prostitution, but is redeemed by Maximiliano Rubin, a young idealist whom she admires and with whom he agreed to marry, but may forget his love for Santa Cruz. The latter, exasperated by the sterility of Jacinta, Fortunata search again, who the day after his wedding rejoins his former lover, who will be pregnant again. But the unstable nature of Santa Cruz leads to infidelity with Fortunata and again, to reconciliation with Jacinta. Fortunata dies after childbirth, and is mourned by her husband and her lover. This is a story more or less enriched with hints of melodrama symbolic political.

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