Historical and cultural framework in Europe.
Realism and Naturalism (1850-1900)
With regard to the romantic era, the most relevant changes are:
"Socially, the bourgeoisie, which was consolidated as the ruling class drift toward conservative positions. His attachment to reality and practicality make the environment. Faced with the bourgeoisie, the working masses struggling to improve their living conditions. "In terms of ideology, liberalism still dominates, which branches in moderate and progressive liberalism. In parallel, the revolutionary doctrines accommodate workers: socialism, communism, anarchism (Marx's Communist Manifesto: 1848) .- The thought and science developments offer an impact on literature. Positivism is opposed to the romantic idealism and accepts as true only what can be observed or experienced. With him relate the "experimental method" as well as sociology and psychology.
Historical and cultural framework in Spain. Spain in the second half of the nineteenth century lived social and political tensions. The overall impression is of a backward country that is bleeding in internal conflicts, without hitting the road fructífera.En social coexistence, let us note that the rise of the bourgeoisie is later than in other countries and sectors remain very strong Traditionalists (nobility and clergy). The liberal bourgeoisie itself is divided between conservatives and progressives. To his left are Democrats and Republicans as well as workers revolutionary movements: socialists and anarchists (the PSOE was founded in 1879). Politically, until 1868, dominated by a moderate trend. The revolution of '68, who dethroned Isabel II, opens a progressive stage, bloodied by a new Carlist war. The Restoration of the Monarchy (1875: Alfonso XII) introduced a turnantes party system (Conservatives and progressives alternate in government) that was ineffective. Culturally, we will see similar clashes between traditionalism and progressivism, are the "two Spains".
Realism. Genesis. By mid-century, in France, was called realistic to certain artists that was intended to reflect the society at that time as opposed to romantic fantasies and dreams.
Since then it is often presented as the antithesis to Realism Romanticism. This is not quite accurate. In some romantic writers, along with the features of the movement, realistic pictures were admirable (and, in novels such as Les Miserables, Victor Hugo or typical genre paintings).
What would be more accurate to say that Romanticism to Realism is passed through a double process: a) elimination of certain elements such as the fantastic, the sentimental excess, etc.. B) developing further as the interest in nature, so regional as usual, by the everyday.
Features. · Scrutiny and faithful reproduction of life. The writer has internalized the lessons of the experimental method of sociology or psychology. It is documented in the field, takes notes on the environment, people, their dress, etc.. This desire for accuracy will be reflected in the description of behavior or environment-rural or urban, refined or popular "(Balzac, Dickens, Galdos) and description of characters, the source of great psychological novel (Flaubert, Dostoyevsky).
• In the narrative, the writer adopts an attitude of more or less objective chronicler.
· Descriptions, or types of environments, acquire a significant role in the play.
• The style tends to sobriety. In the dialogues, the tongue is adapted to the nature of the characters, for example, the reflection of popular speech, among others.
• The novel is the genre best suited to the purposes of realistic and naturalistic movement.
Naturalism. Naturalism is called the current set by the French novelist Émile Zola (1840-1902). For the tenets of realism Zola added some elements from typical doctrines of his time:
• The materialism. It denies the spiritual part of man's feelings, ideals, and so on., Are considered products of the organism.
• The determinism. Human behavior is marked by biological inheritance and social conditions.
• The experimental method. Like a scientific experiment with their guinea pigs, the novelist must experiment with their characters, placing them in certain situations to show that its behavior depends on heredity and previous budgets medio.De derive several literary consequences:
1. As for themes, settings and characters, there are many issues "strong" base passions and characters morons, alcoholics and psychopaths, people who obey without knowing their genetic tendencies, but their reactions differ according to the environment accidentally they have been educated.
2. In technique and style is carried to its logical methods of observation and documentation of Realism. Also becomes more accurate speech reproduction.
Poetry & the Age Realistic Theater.
Poetry. In the second half of the nineteenth century two poets develop their exceptional work: Becquer and Rosalia, studied in the field of Romanticism.
The realist bourgeois mentality and did not favor the development of lyric. The two trends are far more characteristic of the prose of Campoamor and rhetoricity with civic and philosophical pretensions Nunez de Arce.
Ramón de Campoamor (1817-1901) achieved fame with his moods, pains and little poems, which alternate skeptical irony and sentimentality. Intended to introduce the vernacular in poetry, but with doubtful acierto.Gaspar Núñez de Arce (1834-1903) has written poems of grand style and civic issues close to their political discourses of his time. His compositions are vain pretentious philosophical. Let us quote his book Cries of battle (1875). The theater. The theater of this era is of little importance, except for the theatrical work of Galdós. Surviving on the one hand, certain features of Romanticism. In this romantic reaped successes José Echegaray (1832-1916) with high-sounding dramas unbearable today, as the Great Galeotti. It was, however, the first Spanish who won the Nobel Prize (1904). A realistic taste responses of a genre called high comedy, which is characterized by addressing contemporary issues, with a didactic approach and a more sober language. The cultivated, for example, Lopez de Ayala and Tamayo y Baus, among others now forgotten.
Authors major Spanish royalists.
"Fernan Caballero" (1796 -1877)
Pseudonym of Cecilia Bohl de Faber, daughter of the German consul in
Cadiz. Cultivated an Andalusian customs, sentimental and moralistic approaches. Stresses his novel The Seagull (1849). Fernán Caballero and Pedro Antonio Alarcón prereality or represent the transition from Romanticism to Realism.
Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (1833-1891) Granadino. Also started as a writer of manners and romantic. Romantic elements in her novels are still as Scandal (1875). However, realism is a transparent three-cornered hat (1874), an authentic jewel of the Spanish novella, for the fun of the argument, the sharp uptake rates and the lively atmosphere and style.
Juan Valera (1824-1905) Cordoba aristocrat, very cultured, liberal and skeptic, began fifty years career as a novelist with a masterpiece, Pepita Jiménez (1874), whose protagonist is torn between a religious vocation more deeply and conventional strong attraction to the woman who gives title to the work. Human impulses win. The same applies in several works, like Juanita, another splendid novel. James is so rigorous realistic observation, but shies away, however, the most distressing aspects of reality or raw. His weapon is a subtle irony criticism. He also characterized his psychological insight (especially female characters) and a careful style, so elegant and simple. Jose Maria Pereda (1833-1906) Santander life. It is situated in a traditional line, attached to an idyllic vision of the field (compared with urban dynamism). So exalts nature and the simple people of their land: the sea and fishermen Sotileza (1885), the mountain in Peñas arriba (1895). Outstanding paintings of landscapes, although sometimes too detailed.
Armando Palacio Valdés (1853-1937) Asturias. It also presents a celebration of traditional virtues, as opposed to progress. Thus, in The Lost Village (1903) account of the ravages of invasion Asturian mining in a valley before idyllic and then degraded. Became famous as his other novels Sister San Sulpicio or Joy of Captain Ribot.
Emilia Pardo Bazán (1851-1921) From the naturalist took the taste for the tough social environments, their violent passions and crudities. Los Pazos de Ulloa and Mother Nature (1886-1887) composed an intense picture of people and landscapes of Galicia. Besides novels, is the author of hundreds of stories, often excellent.
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (1867-1928) novelist is the closest to the naturalist: it was called "the Spanish Zola" and, indeed, he shares with his taste for sleazy environments, the rawness of the issues and concerns about the hereditary defects. This is linked to the strength with which he capture the countryside of his homeland, Valencia, in novels that would become very famous, such as La Barraca (1894), Cañas y barro (1902), and so on.
The two most prominent realists: GALDÓS and CLARIN.
Authors European realists.
Stendhal (Grenoble, 1783-Paris, 1842) His merit as a novelist lies especially in the psychological study of his characters. Although fundamentally Romantic, his work anticipates the realism and psychological treatment.
His major novels are: The Charterhouse of Parma, The Red and Black. The latter has been regarded by critics as the initiator of the realist novel.
Honoré de Balzac (Tours, 1799-Paris, 1850) Of great imagination, portrays an entire society whose fundamental motive is money. Very thorough and detailed in their descriptions. He wrote a great set of novels by contemporary issue, grouped under the name of the human comedy. It would reflect all the strata of French society in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Gustave Flaubert (Rouen, 1821-Croisset, 1880) is the author of the best French realist novel Madame Bovary. Other works include Salammbo or sentimental education.
His work is distinguished by scrubbing style and great care in data collection.
Emile Zola (Paris, 1840-Paris, 1902) is the outstanding representative of naturalism. Tried to develop the so-called experimental novel, to transfer the experimental literature. Achieved notoriety with The Rougon-Macquart series, which depicts the life of a French family during the Second Empire. Among the twenty volumes that make up the series include The Belly of Paris, The Tavern and Germinal.
CHARLES DICKENS (Portsmouth, Godshill, 1870) maximum representative of the British realist novel. Dickens is a master at constructing narratives whose protagonists are children. Character Creator moralizing tendency of great influence in the European novel. His most outstanding works are: "Hard Times papers Pickwick, David Copperfield, A Christmas Carol and Oliver Twist.
Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Moscow, 1821, St. Petersburg, 1881) Its great merit lies in its qualities of psychologist and creative action in their characters. All his work reflects an immense pity for the most miserable beings and a deep understanding, deep essentially Christian, weaknesses and human misery. His works have a tone of anguish, but of deep compassion and respect for the human soul. Among his most notable works are The Idiot, Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov.
Lev Tolstoy (Yasnaya Gaiter, 1828-Astapovo, 1910) Their ideology is infused with an idealistic humanitarianism, the desire for social justice, love of the humble and the argument that humans should live according to their conscience are characteristics are very relevant. Among his works are War and Peace, a brilliant evocation of the Napoleonic campaigns in Russia, and Anna Karenina, of contemporary and tragic end. He enjoyed immense popularity in Europe at the end of the century and helped give literature a tone of spirituality.