INTERIOR MONOLOGUE Also called the "stream of consciousness". Used in the novel after the publication of Ulysses (1922). This technique has the highest degree of subjectivity in the novel, because it is missing the voice of the narrator who adopts the standpoint of character and see how thinking emerges and excel.
The creator of the interior monologue is a nineteenth century French, Dujardin. This gives us the best definition of this technique: "The inner monologue, as every monologue is a speech by the character in question and is intended to introduce directly into the inner life of that character without the author's explanations involving or dialogues. "
It is the closest to the subconscious, is a speech prior to any logical organization, that reproduces the thought in its nascent state. It is performed in direct sentences, syntactic minimized.
There are two types of monologues:
- Monologue ordered or logical flow of the consciousness of the character is ordered logically in writing.
- Chaotic soliloquy: the writing faithfully reproduces the spontaneous mental associations of the character.
Counterpoint is to present several stories in the novel that combines and alternates. The term applied to music counterpoint applies to literature from the novel entitled Counterpoint, Huxley. This technique gives greater momentum to the novel, introducing simultaneity of times, places or people without warning, which can cause confusion in the reader is unfamiliar with this technique.
CONDUCTISMO OR BEHAVIOR is based in the objectivity of the story. The narrator disappears completely and are the characters in the novel with his conduct or action that we send the message. The narrative is a strict time this without the slightest reference to a past or future. Desdecía individual's character is in favor of the collective protagonist, for example Jarama.
TECHNICAL PERSPECTIVE OR RELATED MULTIVISIONAL narrative consists of the same event from different perspectives, different characters, each of which gives us the interpretation that he can give for their partial knowledge of the facts. Thus, the sum of partial interpretations gives the true meaning of a story, and this avoids one-sidedness of a single narrator. The most successful example: As I Lay Dying, Faulkner, where the story is narrated by the consciousness of seven children, whose interior monologues form the novel.
FLASH BACK is used in film to designate one or several retrospective sequences. Applied to the novel, this technique is when it breaks the chronological order and linear narration to evoke events in a time before time is history. This technique has been extended so that we find even in today's more traditional novels.
THE CHRONOLOGICAL DISORDER It has become one of the strongest features of the contemporary novel. In the traditional novel, the most common structure was linear and chronological order, ie there was a perfect fit between the sequence of chapters, events, pages and timing. If there was a jump in the past, this was justified by the author in a number of clarifications. The contemporary novel is characterized by the interweaving of different temporal plans, that is, it distorts or compresses the time as required by the story. When it appeared theUlysses, one of the things that drew attention was that the action of the novel little one days duration, despite possessing a length of 900 pages, this leads to a complexity in the novel (large condensation of large condensation time = history). Also in the nineteenth century Spanish novel are particular ways of dealing with the time factor, and in the judge's wife, Clarin, the first half of the novel covers three days and the second three years. Also to be collective protagonist novels The beehive, Cela, makes it compresses the time because in a short time period can be found better model character possessing these novels.
SPACE The transformation over time has resulted in a change in the concept of space. Although now spaces are limited and sometimes more, are but one house, one room, or even the protagonist himself indoors, without interest the framework within which it operates.
The "nouve novelle" is able to devote an entire page to the description of a window.
EXTERNAL STRUCTURE OF NOVELS Often, the chapter is completely free and the novel consists of a series of sequences (a term borrowed from the film: the uninterrupted succession of drawings on film refer to a part or aspect of the argument. Sequences separated by spaces, not numbered, such as time of silence, Martin Santos, and even the traditional division into chapters is transformed into a single phrase throughout the book, such a meditation, by Juan Benet, The leak saga JB, de Torrente Ballester.
It tends to blur the separation between poetry and prose. The novel, in some cases, looks like a poem, the sentence is broken into several lines, used various types of letters, punctuation, inserted engravings, newspaper articles, ie leads to the novel as well understood as a game.