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Catalan language and literature 4
Theoretical Summary
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What does it mean to argue?
If we analyze carefully the speeches, oral or written, we produce every day, we
realize that we are constantly arguing: when trying to convince someone to
Buy or make a resource when writing to request the withdrawal lAdministració dune
The purpose is to convince largumentació receiver dalguna thing. Therefore, to argue
defend an idea is through convincing arguments.
Elements largumentació
All argue intuitively, but sometimes we do not have the resources
adequate and therefore not achieving The goal: convince.
There are two very important elements that we consider lhora dargumentar: the
context and the receiver. Depending daquests will have two elements stand out a tone, a record
and a reasoning individual.
Given the context and choose a receiver or other types dargument
stories and this will increase the chances of our discourse.
Sender Receiver Arguments
(reasoning used to defend the thesis)
(idea defended)
Schema largumentació
Type dargument s
Different types darguments:
Argument cause or effect: the fact relates to the cause that generated or the LHA
Consequently it causes.
"If there are accidents is because people run too, so if we allow
ordinary people, there will be accidents. "
Pragmatic argument: the fact demonstrated by its success or its implementation.
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"I think it is absolutely necessary in some countries have already implemented restrictions on Shan
this direction and significantly reduced the number daccidents sha. "
Dinèrcia argument: the fact justified by custom or tradition.
"Do not waste time changing things that gets us nowhere. Unfortunately,
people are too fast and is used to run. We will only
increase the number of fines, but the speed and accidents will not shrink. "
Dautoritat argument: the fact shows a prestigious and renowned voice.
'How Victor Oleguer the jurist said, the restrictions encourage people not
are discussed, symposiums. So I think that this is not an issue to discuss
but directly to legislate. "
Argument by analogy: the fact compares with another.
"This phenomenon is similar to what we lived when we banned smoking in some
public establishments. At first everyone saw you strike, now no longer heard and sen
all breathe better. That will happen the same. "
Emotional argument: the fact justifies causing the commotion of the receiver.
"The problem is that any measure phenomenon with figures. But we must not
losing sight of the 1,000 victims of trafficking daccidents have or had a
name, a family that awaited them. So do not talk about 1000 but many
more victims. "
The debate
Lessència dun largumentació debate. In a debate are a number of transmitters / receivers
defended thesis through a series of opposing arguments.
In addition, there is a moderator, who has lobligació destablir the beginning and end of
debate and make explicit the rules which will be developed. You should also make the participants
sajustin the subject of debate is to be shared equitably and speaker
has to fulfill. Finally, it should ensure and maintain the respect and lord
good education during the debate and should withdraw the word to people who do not respect
established standards.
Latro ibut is a supplement called copulatius verbs (be,
be, seem).
Acosta amu to see behind the Apar èixer b.
Expresses a quality or characteristic of the subject loració, which is consistent with
gender and number.
My daughter is softly
My son is faintly
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My children are faintly
My daughters are faintly
Latribut be an adjectival phrase (Saj), a nominal phrase (SN) or a phrase
prepositional (SPREP).
Laia was sad
When I was little, Laia was a very happy girl
I am Reus
Plements as the circumcised stancial s
The add circumstantial (CC) is an oral supplement which expresses the circumstances
lacció occurs when the verb.
Because there are various circumstances, there
Dun type plug has more circumstantial.
If thi fixed, you'll find answers to the questions of Interrogative where, when, as with
Why, with whom, how,
The CC can be an adverb (adverb or two), a nominal phrase or a prepositional phrase.
Laia sings very well
Normally, she goes to a neighbor with Lescol
One day I saw a boy
Here is a classification of major types of circumstantial add:
a) CC Location: lacció explains where the verb takes place. Therefore, answers the question where?
In the morning, Laia went to Lescol
We live far away
b) CC Time: lacció explains when the verb takes place. To answer the question when?
In the morning, Laia went to Lescol
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That day it rained very
c) CC so: lacció explains how the verb takes place. To answer the question how?,
Laia sings very well
Brisk walking
I answered with brusqueness
d) C of quantity: how much explains lacció the verb takes place. Respond to
question about?
That day it rained very
Did not eat much
e) CC Company: lacció site explains who is the verb. Answer question
with whom?
Normally, she goes to a neighbor with Lescol
Exit with a boy very strange
f) C dinstrument: lacció explains why the verb takes place. Answer question
with what?
I hurt with a knife
Write with a pen light purple
The simply as predicates
It is a verbal complement of verbs predicatius expressing a quality or characteristic
subject complement or direct (CD) loració.
In addition, consistent
gender and number with the subject or the CD.
Laia always wore clean clothes
[CD] [CPred]
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The word net complements while wearing the verb expresses a quality of
floor cloth, which is the CD loració. In addition, consistent with this CD.
My husband lives alone
[Subj] [CPred]
The word alone is a complement of the verb live, but also expresses a characteristic
subject of my husband, while he agrees with.
Due to its characteristics sassembla to latribut, but remember that the complement
predicates can never be a complement of verbs copulatius.
Watch, as well as imitating a circumstantial complement.
The plug is a predicate adjective (or Saj) or to participate:
My husband lives alone
I work all day tired
The descendant of the realistic model sta-natural
The Catalan modernist novel looking for a new narrative, a new form descriptura,
different from the realistic model.
This is very clear in the novel The wild assistant of Raimon Casellas, who was the first
modernist novel in Catalonia
Seeing the bottom of the buried hole, the poor priest felt cold in the womb and will
took a vague fear that the rocks around him who tend to be
above. Closed Wound all sides, as if made by Linster searches with
eyes on a place to escape, or at least extend to the eye. But it was in vain,
it was all in vain ... There were no holes or vents to expatiate freely view ...
there was all covered, covered, walled ... there will not be known far outside the hole ...
there did not know what it meant horizons ... Shaver and DALC head upward in order
watch the sky between the hoop and pinnacles of moles
Raimon Casellas, Narrative, Edicions 62, Barcelona, 1993.
The difference between modernist and realist writers lies in the new mission
attributed to lartista: Modernist lescriptor no longer dobservar reality and imitate it, but
they must discover the inner life that Samag behind.
So lartista describes modernist reality through dune emotion. Perceives that there
further and reveals its mystery in all its intensity.
The Modernist not sinspiren in objective reality but lemoció lived. Writers
realistic direct their eyes to the reality outside, the modernists, however, look
inward. In this sense, Modernism has strong connections with Romanticism.
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The novel rural or symbolic
The novel rural or symbolic, m not taking the novel to modern ista
Catal unya, Itza character is unique for each person and a lan ges Guat --
Suggestions and foreign ge idor y. In aq uest types of novels, describes IPC ion is not
VAT sexpresa object but from the point of view of the person and ge
ele ments that are becoming symbols. So healthy kind novel symbolic.
The novel also sanomena modernist Catalan countryside since it runs on the field, especially
The importance of music and painting
Modernist literature is closely related to music and painting. This is
part of the renewal of narrative language: disappearing boundaries between traditional
prose and poetry, and gender appear intermediate.
Many of the novelists were Catalans Sels reveal artistic hobbies: Casellas was critical
Dart, Albert and Catherine and prudence Bertrana draw and paint. His novels
are therefore large dune plasticity.
This piece of SolitudeA very poetic novel, Catherine Albert, is almost
as a poem in prose.
Indeed, under that sky of dull pure virgin blue dun, hill, unsure of
primaverencs green, full of stalls and blondes tight band for glasses plan
pink appearance was more magical fantasy painter luminista than real thing
and true.
Catherine Albert, Solitude, Edicions 62, Barcelona, 2008.
The symbolic character s
The main character of s will vain senfronta modernist novels with his
environment, geographical, social, and will dexpressar their internal conflicts. Characters
daquestes novels usually larquetip of lheroi modernist.
Father Lazarus, assistant priest of The wild, or Cayetano, the pastor explains that loneliness
tales are daquests two characters. Intelligent and sensitive, try to change
their society is all but useless and end up failing to lentorn or social nature.
The female character s
A typical character of the modernist novel is the femme fatale, a woman who
symbolizes the hidden forces, Linster, lerotisme, passions, sensuality, and often the
evil or perdition. The assistant in wild, for example, creates the character of Casellas
bagassa, the prostitute who soposa to Father Lazarus. In Jehoshaphat, Bertrana of the Finet is
woman who will ruin the poor bell.
That was the eternal temptation of all Montmany. By day, in the solitude of the dark
boscúries, young and old do not think about anything else. At night, in the silence of the chambers
full of darkness, all men roll around the couch, dreaming with that
woman. Not a moment to rest, Sels nanava thought lestranya image
the bagassa, those with red hair like copper, with those white carnasses
as cottage cheese, with that skin as llantiosa Boll espurnada of gold. Which witch
it seemed that neither the sun nor the serene colrat had that face, that
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those arms and neck, as is the colren everyone. But it was so estràmbola in everything
the woman of Satan ... [...] I had a look, a laugh, gesture, a kind of thing
all linfern Devils, who had no other wives of assistant!
Raimon Casellas, Narrative, Edicions 62, Barcelona, 1993.
A scenario sugeridor
Lespai of the modernist novel is a suggestive atmosphere, mysterious, with emphasis on the
description of landscapes and dramatic situations, intense and even distressing. Landscape
should reflect the conflicts and struggles of the characters, and for this reason that
striking writers use language that provokes a strong impression.
Daltra hand, the landscapes daquestes novels often attributed characteristics Sels
human. Therefore sanomenen anthropomorphic landscapes. In Solitude, a novel
Victor Catalan, the mountains and Mila are the protagonists:
About She was about to fall and roll down the mountain was the same Mila; dune
tack round had given lesquena to north, and suddenly the earth melted
all sides and the sky like a curtain fell to the feet of women. [...]
It had just seemed to Mila that if given a further step, the declaration would disappear
stooped, in which limit steppes and rosemary sprig ses eneriçaven dark
spikes as thick paint dune view against light. Where was the rest of the mountain?
Where the world of men? Lespai Sels had sucked, and seemed to suck also
idea of his existence that lack visible delements remaining: labim
light in the background, esmotxat the nature of rocks where they were nailed lhome and women.
Deslliurança A feeling of emptiness ever heard, to invade nThis completely.
Victor Catalan, Solitude, Edicions 62, Barcelona, 2008.
Victor Catalan (1869-1966): Life
Victor Catalan is the pseudonym of Catherine Albert, a writer who signs a
masculine name to avoid causing lescàndol that when his works were known to have
written by a woman.
Caterina Albert belonged to a family of wealthy landowners and, although little was Lescol,
achieved through special training lambient cultured and refined breathed
home. Catalan (a pseudonym rather symbolic) he took classes in painting and sculpture,
but as far as the literature had a completely self-taught training. Read
brochure of many novels and works of great realistic writers, especially French and
Russians. It was very important, also, his friendship with Joan Maragall and Narcis Oller.
Solitude: Largument veil of non-facilities
Mila, a sensitive and outgoing little girl, starts lascens a wild and lonely mountain
with at Mathew, lhome who recently married, who is apathetic and
lazy, and has accepted a job in a hermitage.
Then Gaetano appeared in a friendly shepherd that has all the qualities that lacks
her husband. In the mountains, also known lÀnima Mila, a monster hunter daspecte.
Mila is in the midst daquesta struggle between Gaetano, symbol of goodness, and lÀnima,
representing evil and violence. It is a symbolic struggle between nature and beneficent
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destructive forces.
The pastor, Gaetano, slips and falls down the mountain: LHA lÀnima death. Finally, the leaves Mila
lermita and her husband. His descent from the mountain symbolizes freedom and
This is lúltim fragment of the novel, in which Mila sacomiada her husband:
Now, as tho gods think ... I, in there, never again ...! But I did not want to go-men
without saying tho ...
The Dell is dislocated absolutely cadaverous face under new lacció daquelles
What! dune voice whispered terrified. Ten to go? Where ...?
[...] I do not know ... Where God wills ... So far as can daqui!
Then he, like lÀnima hours ago, shaken from head to toe, which also surprised
Lembit for unexpected storm dune. For a moment, seemed to vacillate,
as if to beg or revolt, but suddenly he lacked spirits and
sotmeté without protest, lowering his head [...]
[...] Never again ...! Do not try to follow my step ... Te ... kill!
I resolved, selection worked to fit in fit, as if to make him penetrate to the terrible lànima
threat. After regatell and descended slowly, without adding another word, no lie
face, with nothing but the clothes lesquena, women, and severe èrtica with
no right and gloomy eyes, undertook the single drop.
Catherine Albert, Solitude, Edicions 62, Barcelona, 2008.
Topics Solitude
Mila is a heroine who could well equate to lemma Bovary Flaubert or
Lanna Karenina in Tolstoy's. These characters, doomed to hopeless marginalization
social suffering, struggling to find happiness, but their physical and social environment is so
that is oppressive Sels impossible to overcome this situation.
The theme of the novel takes place around the inner conflict that Mila,
unsatisfied of your life, start a process of personal growth to break the
conventions of their environment. The loneliness is the big issue; Daqu is the title of the novel.
However, she finds the courage to continue. His life and spiritual journey
gives all LOBR Liaison Unit.
The novel was published in the journal Youth brochures. After all brochures
bound resulted in the first edition.
Another writes Ptor s s of the modern Catalan SME: Raymond Casela if Prudenci
S Raymond Box (1855-1910)
It was Barcelona, but his novel The assistant wild (the first modernist novel) tam LANGUAGE
| LESSON 4 | Summary of theory
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well is located in the mountains. I also was published as a series of stories in the press
specifically Voice of Catalonia.
Casellas was one of the most crucial for the consolidation of modernist lestètica
Catalonia. Before describing the wild assistant, had emphasized the critical and dart
LAvenç publications as a journalist, La Vanguardia and La Voz de Catalunya, where
defended and spread artistic trends that were discovered in Paris, cultural center
and intellectual of the moment, on a trip with the painter and the painter Ramon Casas and
Rusiñol writer Santiago, Lany 1893.
Despite the remarkable influence and lèxit LOBR Liaison Sub The wild (1901), Casellas did not return to
write any other novels and, until his death and also of his writings on art, only
published two more volumes of stories, rather cultivated by modernist genre, entitled The
(1906) and Paper dhistòries (1909).
Santiago Rusiñol (1861-1931)
Rusiñol was one of the most fascinating, funny, unpredictable and multifaceted
Modernism and the most popular, both for his turbulent life as for his
dagitador cultural and artist overall slope, although its highest vocation and passion
was always painting. In fact, Rusiñol could be devoted to letters and so lart
belonged to a wealthy bourgeois family in the textile industry. As a young man he went to Paris to
learn to paint and interest in new trends in artistic and intellectual
covaven that in the French capital. The collection chronicles newspaper daquestes
experiences formed his first book, Letters from the Mill (1890-1892).
Rusiñol continue its work darticulista started to do translations, and organized
The first Festival of Sitges Modernist (between 1892 and 1897). In its
literary work early (going through the world of 1896; Prayer, 1897, or sheets of life
1898) showed their preference for Symbolism and Decadence and the synthesis
gender, and became a popular playwright. But his most
was the famous novel titled Lauca Mr Stephen (1907), later remade
adapted for the stage and premiered in 1917. The novel tells, so symbolic lhabitual
lartista conflict between modernist and society into three parts. In the first sexplica
life lEstevet, son of owner of the thread's Spot, Mr. Raymond, from
his birth to his wedding. In the second part narrates the adventures of
early marriage, the birth of their first child in Ramonet. Finally,
the third part, is told in between lenfrontament Ramonet and his father. In Ramonet
lharmonia family was broken when a sculptor decides not to continue the family tradition
Without the resonance which won Lauca Mr Stephen Rusiñol continue cultivating
novels in the genre in which works, basically, he was criticized Noucentisme,
The Catalan as La Mancha (1914), The Fat Girl (1917) or in Josepet San Celoni
Prudenci Bertrana (1867-1941)
Like many other representatives of Modernism Bertrana was a man with multiple
concerns: he tried to be a painter, he worked as a journalist and stressed, especially
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as a writer. He started running very early (the first work was the novel entitled
Violet, 1899). Nevertheless, he began making a name up to Jehoshaphat (1906),
a short novel in which a bell weak, isolated and in certain aspects, bestial,
lassassinat is moved to the impossibility of controlling their impulses and erotic
their feelings towards a prostitute, Finet, which maintained a relationship.
Shortly after he published another novel titled shipwrecked (1907) and finally,
several collections of short stories as The Heroes (1920) or My Friend Pellini and other stories (1923).
During the last years of his life was devoted to dune lelaboració autobiographical trilogy,
entitled Between the earth and clouds, which consists of the following volumes: Lhereu (1931),
The Tramp (1933) and Limpenitent (1948).
Ruyra Joaquim (1858-1939)
While studying law, was soon attracted to lescriptura. He highlighted how
author of short stories collected as the volume entitledMarine and woods (1903).
Later he published two more volumes of short stories, stop (1919) and Between Flames
(1928), with a markedly Christian and close to the twentieth century.

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