There are common features in the literary style of both authors, whose works are myths and metaphors as teaching resources, sometimes even poetic style. Also common to both authors defending the aristocratic sense of existence, although from very different perspectives. In the case of Plato is an aristocracy of knowledge (the most wise and generous are the ones who should govern the ideal society divided into rulers, guardians and producers) and in the case of Nietzsche's aristocracy of the creators of new values (the superman is governed by the"Master morality", typical of high spirits are those who argue that life on earth). The same is evidenced in both writers, from a different perspective when Plato uses the "myth of the cave" to show that what is commonly accepted as true are nothing but shadows and really are very few have access to the knowledge of true reality (the World of Ideas). Nietzsche, in turn, will criticize those considered most exalted values of Western culture, whose origin is in the Platonic-by dogmatic considerations and flawed in its origin for its efforts to establish the rationality at all costs. The Platonic dogmatism becomes the basic error of Western culture, according to Nietzsche.
Since there is more to this world, philosophy is not a preparation for death. If Plato believed that the death freed us from the sensible world and enabled us to know the truth of the intelligible world, Nietzsche, in contrast, believes that the attitude of the philosopher has to be the affirmation of life as it is this that becomes topic of philosophical reflection. Thus Nietzsche defines truth through reason not to platonic way, but from the will.
Plato and Nietzsche represent, therefore, two contrasting ways of conceiving any dimension of reality. In Greek tragedy, the god Apollo represents the values of reason, is the god of light and the proper measure, balance and serenity. The Apollonian man is one in which reason prevails. The god Dionysus, in turn, represents the values of life. Dionysus is the god of wine, the image of the instinctive and passionate force, sexuality, chaotic and excessive. The Dionysian man denies reason and accept the vital impulses.
Nietzsche believes that the pre-Socratic Greece has not forgotten any of the two gods, as evidenced by the contrast between Parmenides (the self is and is not) and Heraclitus (everything flows, the reality is becoming), the only thinker that reverence Nietzsche. Everything changes, however, with Socrates and his choice of reason as a guide to life, later to take his pupil Plato, making it the foundation from which Western civilization was built.
According to Nietzsche, Socrates and Plato began the historical dominance of everything that is logical and rational, ie, the decline began and error. You lose the simplicity of life. Socrates with his eagerness to look for reasons make the most extravagant matching exists, because that puts right in place of life.
Platonic metaphysics of the existence of two worlds: the Ideas and sensible. This is characterized by change, imperfection ... but not real but only imperfect appearance or imitation of another, the real, the world of Ideas world of essences, eternal, immutable ... in short, an intelligible world, where no change or becoming. According to Nietzsche, this is nothing more than "egipticismo", as Plato believes he has found the Truth is not accessible through the senses but only through reason. The reality is terrible suffering, Pain, struggle, death ... make life difficult, but the solution is not to invent another and deny it, the earth, the only one that really count, says Nietzsche. It is the weak-minded who believe another world unlike this a terrible world where everything has been eliminated, where there is no change, no destruction, no death: the world of Plato's paradise or the Christian God. Christianity, according to Nietzsche, is only a Platonism for the people. Christianity has invested values, has created a "slave morality" that fosters resentment against life and the values of the flock, such as humility, obedience ... In front of it, Nietzsche promotes "master morality" itself Superman, moral improvement and affirmation of life, typical of high spirits. To do this, God and the values it represents must die. With the death of God is possible for man to live.
Another error of the metaphysicalnstitute Platonic concepts is to use too broad, too empty (being, essentially, perfect ...). The concepts and in themselves are misleading because the claim are used to express what reality is, however, the reality is plural, concrete, moving and changing and the concepts are general and abstract meaning. Therefore, as Nietzsche did not serve to express what reality is. Instead of using the concepts of metaphor, which is more faithful to the world.