LARGE INDUSTRIAL REGIONS EUROPEAN UNION Origins: • It began in England • Spread to Belgium, France, Germany • It became the most industrialised región (19th-20th) Features: • Industrially diverse • Skilled workforce • Large infrastructure networks ( transport, telecomunications) • Large markets • Improving cuttin-Edge technology Areas: Blue Banana: Urban corridor of industry • From Northwest England to North Italy (London, Frankfurt, Milan) • High concentration of capital, people and industry Secondary Areas: • Mediterranean area (North italy to Northeast Spain) • East of Germany EASTERN EUROPE: Features:-less technologically developed than the countries in the European Union. -Most important industries:• The textile industry • Petrochemical industry • Wood industry • Metallurgical industry (iron and coal) • Metallurgical processing industry Areas: • Saint Petersburg • Moscow • West Siberia • Ural Mountains • North of the Black sea USA/CANADA:Features:• USA is the country with the highest industrial production rate in the world • Abundant energy and mineral resources • The most advanced technology & financial resources • Skilled workforce • Large & Dynamic domestic market Areas:-Traditional Areas:- Atlantic Coast • Boston • Baltimore • New York (comercial & financial centre) • Gulf of Mexico (petrochemical industry) -North-East • Great lakes • Chicago (heavy inustry) • Detroit (Detroit (Automotive industry) -New Areas:• South – west (Cutting Edge technologies in California) • North pacific (aerospace industry) • Canada JAPAN:Features: • It’s the third most important industrial region. (After USA and Europe) • Main industrial centre: The Tokyo – Yokohama megalopolis • Highly productive workforce • High level of competitiveness (electronics, IT and automotive industries) Main problem: lack of raw materials and energy sources. CHINA • It’s the country with the largest population in the world. • It has large miming resources • Industrial activity concentrated in coastal regions. • It became a strong industrial power since 1997, when Hong Kong was no longer a British Colony NEW INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES:• Multinationals transfer industries to these areas • Tax reductions: “Free zones” • lax environmental legislation -Main areas: • Asian Dragons: South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong • Other countries: Malaysia, indonesia, Thailand (technology industries)
2.2. TYPES OF INDUSTRY
There are several types of industry, depending on the Type of products made, the weight and volume of materials and the target Market.
In heavy industry, raw materials are transformed into Semi-finished products that are then used in other industries. Heavy industries Require large capital investments. They occupy large areas near Energy sources and raw materials. Heavy industries include:
HEAVY CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
It uses many different raw materials (coal, Hydrocarbons, sulphur, salts, etc.) to produce raw materials for other Industries (fuels, fertilisers, acids, explosives, etc.).
It transforms non-ferrous minerals into metals (e.G. Aluminium and copper) and semi-finished products (e.G. Laminates, shaped and Molten metals) for other industries.
It transforms iron into steel to make machinery or Rails, amongst other elements required by many other industries.
All industries that produce energy using different Sources, e.G. Thermal power stations.
CAPITAL GOODS INDUSTRY
This industry uses products from hea+vy industry as Raw materials to make the materials and machinery required by other industries. It also requires large industrial complexes, large investment and a Skilled workforce. These industries include:
THE METALLURGICAL PROCESSING INDUSTRY
It makes industrial machinery for light and heavy Industry, and agricultural transportation, electrical and computer parts, etc.
CARGO TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY
It includes the aeronautics industry (aeroplanes, Helicopters, etc.), the naval industry (ships) and the railway industry (carriages, rails and train components).
It makes materials for buildings and public works.
It makes satellites and spacecraft.
This industry makes products for consumers, using raw Materials or semifinished products. It includes:
TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY
It converts raw materials of animal origin (wool, Leather, etc.) or plant origin (cotton, linen, hemp, etc.) into fabric. The Fabric is then used to make clothing. Synthetic or artificial fibres (acrylic, Polyester, nylon, etc.) are also used.
It manufactures all types of vehicles: cars, lorries And motorbikes. This industry is dominated by large multinationals; they share The different parts of the vehicle production process between facilities in Several countries.
It transforms raw materials from fishing, crop and Livestock farming and prepares them for consumption.
LIGHT CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
It makes cosmetics, detergents, plastics, Insecticides, paint, etc.
It manufactures hightech products, such as computers, Audiovisual equipment and domestic appliances.
There are as many industries as there are products on The market (furniture industry, book and printing industry, etc.). The number Of light industries is therefore very high.