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1. Describe Vroom Yet ton’s contingency model of leadership.
Contingency model of leadership shows best ways to lead in specified situations and the styles of making decisions.
- He gave us 5 types of Management Decision Style:

AI - autocratic (you solve the problem or make decision by yourself, using information available to you at that time)
AII - autocratic ( you obtain the necessary information from your subordinates than decide solution to the problem)
CI - consultative (you share the problem with relevant subordinates individually, getting their Ideas and suggestions, then you make decision, which doesn’t have to reflect their influence)
CII - consultative ( you share the problem with subordinates as a group, collect ideas and suggestions, then make decision, which might not reflect their influence)
GII - group ( you share the problem with your subordinates as a group, then together make decision; your role is more like chairman)
3. Define how charismatic leaders influence followers.
The evidence suggests a four - step process:
1. It begins by the leader articulating an appealing vision. A vision is along - term strategy on how to attain a goal or goals, provides a sense of continuity for followers by linking the present with a better future for the organization.
2. Once a vision is established, the leader then communicates high performance expectation and expresses confidence that followers can attain them. This enhances follower self- esteem and self- confidence.
3. The leader conveys thorough words and actions, a new set of values and, by his or her behavior, sets an example for followers to imitate.
4. The charismatic leader engages in emotion- including and often unconventional behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision. There is an emotional contagion in charismatic leadership in which followers unintentionally assume the emotions their leader is conveying.
The key properties of a vision seem to be inspirational possibilities that are value centered, realizable, and imbued with superior imagery and articulation. Vision should generates possibilities that are inspirational an unique and that offer a new order that can produce organizational distinction.
4. Explain the characteristics of transformational and transactional leader
Transactional leaders
Contingent reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments
Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes correct action.
Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met.
Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions.
Transformational leaders
Idealized influence: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust.
Inspirational motivation: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts and expresses important purposes in simple ways.
Intellectual stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving.
Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.

5. Contrast leadership and power.
Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. Leaders achieve goals, and power is a means of facilitating their achievement. How do leadership and power differ?
Goal compatibility. Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. Leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led.
Direction of influence. Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one´s followers. It minimizes the importance of lateral an upward influence patterns. Power does not.
-Research emphasis. Leadership research, for the most part, emphasizes style. It seeks answers to questions such as these: How supportive should a leader be? How much decision making should be shared with followers? In contrast, the research on power has tended to be broader and to focus on tactics for gaining compliance. It has gone beyond the individual as the exercise of power because power can be used by groups as well as by individuals or groups.
6. Define the five bases of power. What kind of power your team members have?
Coercive power, base is dependent on fear. One reacts to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one failed to comply.
Reward power, the opposite of coercive power, which accrues when people comply with the wishes or directives of another because doing so produces positive benefits, therefore, one who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power those others( financial and nonfinancial)
Legitimate Power: in formal groups and organizations, probably the most frequent access to one or more of the power bases is one´s structural position. It represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources. Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers.
Expert Power: is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill or knowledge. Expertise has become one of the most powerful sources of influence as the world has become more technologically oriented.
Referent Power: is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I like, respect, and admire you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you.
7. List and define at least five from the nine power (influence) tactics. Which influence tactics do you use in your life? Give concrete examples.
Legitimacy: relying on one´s authority position or stressing that a request is in accordance with organizational policies or rules.
Rational persuasion: presenting logical arguments and actual evidence to demonstrate that a request is reasonable.
Inspirational appeals: developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target´s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations.
Consultation: increasing the target´s motivation and support by involving him or her in deciding how the plan or change will be done.
Exchange: rewarding the target with benefits of favors in exchange for following a request.
Personal appeals: asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty.
Ingratiation: using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request.
Pressure: using warnings, repeated demands, and threats.
Coalitions: enlisting the aid of other people to persuade the target or using he support of others as a reason for the target to agree.

8. Explain the conflict process
the process have got 5 stages:
1. potential opposition or incompatibility: is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. they need not lead directly to conflict, but one of these conditions is necesary if the conflict is to surface. this conditions are into three categories:
-communication: represents the opposing forces that arise from semantic difficulties,and noise in the communication channels. the potencial for conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place. too much information, as well as too little, can lay the foundation for conflict.the filtering process that occurs as information is passed between members and the divergence of communications from formal or previously established channels offer potencial opportunities for conflict to arise.
-structure: include variables such as size, degree of specialization in the task assigned to group members, jurisdictional clarity, member-goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward systems and the degree of dependence among groups.
-personal variables: as practical experiencie has taught us, some people are conflict oriented and others are conflicts aversive. the emotions can also cause conflict. in adition to personality tries differing values can explain the conflict. value differences are the best explanation of diverse issues such as prejudice and disagreements over one's contribution to the group, as well as the rewards one deserves.
2. perceived conflict,awareness by one more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise.
felt conflict emotional involvement in a conflict creatinf anxiety, tenseness, frustration or hostility.
conflict definition:----------negative emotions
--------positive feelings.
3. intentions:
are decisions to act in a given way.
dimensions of conflict-handling intentions there are 2 dimensions:
- cooperativeness: attempting to satisfy the other party's concerns.
- assertiveness: attemping to satisfy one's own concerns.
we can identify 5 conflict- handling intentions:
4. behaviour: in this stage is where the conflicts become visible. the behaviour stage includes the statements, actions, and reactions made by the conflicting parties. these conflict behaviour are usually overt attempts to implement each party's intentions, but they have a stimulus quality that is separate from intentions. this stage is a dynamic process of interaction.
5. outcomes
functional outcomes from conflict:

. increased group performance
. improved quality of decisions
. stimulation of creativity and innovation
. encouragement of interest and curiosity
. provision of a medium for problem- solving
. creation of a an environment for self- evaluation and change.
disfunctional outcomes from conflict:
. development of dicontent
. reduced group effectiveness
.retarted communication
.reduced group cohesiveness
. infighting among group members overcomes group goals.
creating functional conflict:
.reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders.
9. Describe the five conflict-handling intentions. Which ones were used in the role play?
- Competing: Assertive and uncooperative
- Avoiding: Unassertive and uncooperative
- Collaborating: Assertive and cooperative
- Accommodating: Unnasertive and cooperative
- Compromising: In the middle of Assertiveness and cooperativeness

I would use competing or controlling because this is a emergency situation, and have the characteristic of competing:
• When unpopular actions must be implemented
• When your family or organization’s welfare is at stake
• When your authority and responsibility are unquestionable
Bargaining characteristic:
à GOAL: In Distributive Bargaining is get as much of the pie as possible, while in Integrative Bargaining is expand the pie so that both parties are satisfied.
à MOTIVATION: In Distributive Bargaining is: Win-lose.
In Integrative Bargaining is: Win-win.
à FOCUS: In Distributive Bargaining is the position(“ I can´t go beyond this point on tjis issue.”). By contrast in Integrative Bargaining is the Interest (“ Can you explain why this issue is so important to you?”).
à INTEREST: In Distributive Bargaining is: Opposed.
In Integrative Bargaining is: Congruent.
à INFORMATION SHARING: In Distributive Bargaining is low (Sharing information will only allow other party to take advantages). In Integrative Bargaining is high (sharing information will allow each party to find ways to satisfy interest of each party).
à DURATION OF RELATIONSHIP: In distributive Bargaining is: Short term
In Integrative Bargaining is: Long term.
11. Describe the seven primary characteristics that capture the essence of the organization`s culture.
a. innovation and risk taking: the degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovate and take risks
b. Attention to detail: the degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis and attention to detail.
c. Outcome orientation: the degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve those outcomes.
d.People orientation: the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
e. Team orientation: the degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals
f. Aggressiveness: the degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing
g.stability: the degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth.
12. explain the visible and invisible signs of culture in theory and on the example we discussed in class.
Culture is transmitted to employees in a number of forms, the most potent being stories, rituals, material symbols, and language.
Stories such as these circulate through many organizations. They typically contain a narrative of events about the organization´s founders, rule breaking, rags-to-riches successes,reductions in the workforce, relocation of employees, reactions to past mistakes, and organizational coping.
Rituals are repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization: what goals are most important, which people are important, and which people are expendable.
Material Symbols
These material symbols convey to employees who is important, the degree of egalitarianism desired by top management, and the kinds of behavior that are appropriate.
Many organizations and units within organizations use language as a way to identify members of a culture or subculture. By learning this language, members attest to their acceptance of the culture and, in so doing, help to preserve it.
13- Characterize the customer-responsive culture.
1- The type of employees themselves. Successful, service-oriented organizations hire employees who are outgoing and friendly.
2- Low formalization. Service employees need to have the freedom to meet changing customer-service requirements. Rigid rules, procedures, and regulations make this difficult.
3- Widespread use of empowerment, an extension of low formalization. Empowered employees have the decision discretion to do what´s necessary to please the costumer.
4- Good listening skills. Employees in customer-responsive cultures have the ability to listen to an understand messages sent by the customer.
5- Role clarity. Service employees act as “boundary spanners” between the organization and its customers. They have to acquiesce to the demands of both the employer and the customer.
Organizational citizenship behavior: Employees are conscientious in their desire to please the customer.

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