Nature of the workforce: There are changes in the nature of workforce. The cultural diversity of employees in increasing, more and more women are trying to get a job. There is an Increasing demand for professionals. Technology: The speed of technological development is accelerating, computer technology, automation, reengineering programs are introduced in organizations. Economic shocks: Restructure the position of economic sectors. Competition: It's take place on global as well as on local level, but at the same time cooperation between competitors is possible too. Social trends: Are changing, young people are delaying marriage, at the same time half of the marriage ending in divorce. World politics: There are also tremendous changes.
2. Types of changes:
There are 4 types of changes, planned, unplanned, internal and external. Planed and internal: Changes in products or services. Planed external: Introduction on new technologies Unplanned internal: external Unplanned Performance Gap: Economic shocks
We can speak of internal and external change, planned or unplanned change. Organizations are able to prepare for planned change and management studies deals with this, but those Which organizations are able to learn how to deal adequately with planned change will also be able to handle unplanned change more successfully. The speed and unpredictability of change in the external environment is generally growing but not in all the business sectors and with the same dynamic.
3. Adaptation methods:
The changes require the appropriate response in management strategy. These include:
Reactive strategy: In which the organizations reacts to changes in the environment after the event. (As a result of natural catastrophes. Even in the company is not directly involved, the consumption can change quickly and can cause big losses. Frequently reactive changes is the result of the convenience of the leaders) proactive strategy: The organization meets changes in the environment, and responds either observe them before they happen or while they happen. (The preparation of process for EU accession) Proactive strategy: When the organization in capable of changing the environment as it wants to. (The Efforts of local governments, when they support selective waste collection. They place containers on The Streets and try to develop a new behavior in inhabitants.
4. Definition, objective and process of change:
Change: The change is the transformation of a previous condition or state to a later state, Which happens to something. The objective of the change is an improvement in performace.Organisations devotes them to change if they experience problems, if performance declines or if unexploited opportunities come to light. There are many ways to measure performance: income from sales, profits, absenteeism ... It is often the case that at the beginning of the change process to decline in performance is experience. During the process of change there are many stages:
- Analysis of the situation. Diagnosis
- Analysis of the factors necessary for change
- Preparation of the strategy and tactics of the change, and drawing-up and action plan.
5. Resistance to change:
- Habit: Source of individual resistance comes from basic human characteristic, such a perception, personality ... Every human being develops Certain habits in order to cope with complexity.
- Security: At the time of changes this behavior becomes a source of resistance. People with high need for security are likely to resist change.
> - Economic Factors: Change can also cause financial loss for people (different position with lower salary, unemployment ...)
- Fear of unknown: At the time of the change people have to begin new activities. They are not sure about the results, they do not know if there are able to solve the new problems and this causes fear.
- Selective information process: Selective information processing is another source of resistance. It we are satisfied with the present situation we will not recognize the signs of necessary changes.
- The structural inertia: Organizations by their nature resist changes. They develop rules, regulations, routines, Which are against changes.
- Limited focus is on change: Organizations have built-in mechanism to produce stability. Rules, regulations, procedures serve as tools to remain stable. It takes time to change these features.
Inertia-Group: is a similar thing. Even if individuals would be ready to change groups to resist norms dictate.
- Threat to expertise
Threat to established power-relationship: Organizational changes can reallocate resources and power relations. This will be bringing out resistance from those who have advantageous situation.
6. Overcoming resistance to change:
Leaders of the organizations can choose from different tactics to overcome the resistance. It can be:
-Education and communication: Is successful tactic if resistance comes from poor communication, but needs time.
-Participation: The involvement of employees is a good tactic Because is very difficult to resist those changes together Which have been discussed before.
-Facilitation and support: With the help of education and support the organizations Which can reduce the resistance comes from fear of unknown.
-Negotiation: Is good if the resistance come from a few powerful individuals. In this case the managers offer specific rewards.
"Manipulation: The advantages of changes are heavily emphasizes but disadvantages are suppressed.
"Coercion: Is an easy way to gain the support, but the power is needed to keep it, and the quality on implementation will be weaker.
7. Change management methods:
During the years several changes management methods have emerged on the basis of the theoretical foundations surveyed above. These methods are:
-Business Process Reengineering
8. TQM (Total Quality Management):
Is a leadership method with continuous change, continuous measurement, and benchmarking look around and try to see other companies how they can solve their problems. If they do it well, try to copy them. Is even more exciting if we are able to copy a total different company) development of performance and quality in the center. TOYOTA was the first company introduced this on TQM and gave each worker 180 ideas each year. There is also a list of nine principles to better explain TQM.
9. Business process reengineering:
This is a radical method of changing functional perspective to process orientation. IF it is used correctly can result in radical performance increases, but at the same time little emphases taken to the human side of the organization. In many cases appears quite strong resistance against this method. That is why in many cases can not be successful.
10. ORGANIZATION DESIGN:
A radical change method, Which design the new structure to better fit the environmental conditions of the organization, in order to reach better performance.
> 11. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT:
A long-term effort needs time Because the changes, led and supported by top management is a difficult task and is important to success, To improve an organization's visioning it means how we see yourself, empowerment (Delegating power), learning and problem solving processes through an ongoing, collaborative management of organization culture-with special emphases on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations-utilizing the consultant-facilitator role (they help bringing their ideas, the consultant never say you have to do this or this, they only recommend Certain methods to solve the problem) and the theory and technology of applied behavior science, including action research.
12. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF DISTINGHUISHING OD:
-Focuses on culture and processes.
-Collaboration between leaders and members.
-Importance of teams: outstanding importance of teams.
-Total system change.
-Consultant 's facilitator role.
"Learning to learn and change.
- Action research model.
-Win-Win solutions (individuals, and organizations).
13. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHANGE SUCCEFUL (EXPLANATION):
Many researchers and practitioner try to define the rules, methods characteristic of successful change:
- Understand the motivation of stakeholders.
- Communicating where we are going: the leaders have to show why they want to change,
- Early successes: Normally the performance will go down, but we have to try on having success Because if not people go down ...
- Calculating with resources: You should calculate because its cost a lot.
- Understanding power: Relations
- Symbolic meaning of acts: is important that the leaders take part in the training.
- Involving Winners.
It is important to understand the nature of change, to know better the mechanism Which processes and the influence the efficiency of changes.
Any of the previously mentioned change management methods can be successful. The important thing is that organizations have to keep their eye open and take steps if it is required.
14. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS (EXPLANATION):
Learning Organization is an organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change. The practice-oriented, prescriptive literature of this field and collects several characteristic situations Which support organizational learning.
STRATEGY: mission directed, rational and intuitive, long-term orientation, open system perspective, shared vision.
PROCESSES: Learning organizations usually have complex, constantly changing working processes, new solutions for problems. That is why they need continuous development and change. System thinking is important characteristic of these organizations.
STRUCTURE: Generally these companies are small and young, close to the structure of adhocracy, so they are modern, flexible structures. Projects and multidimensional learning teams are building blocks of these formations, where problem solving is the primary task. Problems are seen as challenges, interesting indicators of the necessary change.
CULTURE: They have to shared values, mental models belong to deeper layers of the culture invisible, teams get great emphasis in communicating, decision making ... however individuals can preserve their independence, open, sincere communication and confidence are essential characteristics of them, goal orientation is important in performance, determination of pay incentives and in the relationship of the leaders and the Subordinates, experimentation, creativity, flexibility, so errors are not punished by the organization.
Learning Process: Learning systems are available through stories, values and norms not only for current members but for new employees too. The knowledge and the experience built into the memory of organizations is available for everybody, collective learning can happening everybody considers an environment where each other equal partner, conscious double-loop learning are important distinctive marks of learning organizations, consensus in problem solving and as a result of the whole process learn to learn.
> Characterisitcs AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR OF MEMBERS: In learning organizations there are very high expectations towards members. It comes from the culture that they have to have good communication skills, empathy, loyalty, self-criticism, professionalism. Members consider themselves and each others adults, people who have the will and courage to take responsibility for their actions, and expect the same from the others. Also, to remain independent they have to be team members too. These characteristic help learning organizations to reach their goals: to become and remain competent.
15. THE HISTORY OF OD:
The history of OD consists on:
- Laboratory training system: T-groups
- Survey research and feedback system: Resolving actions form specialized research techniques.
- Action research system: diagnostic
- Sociological and Sociotechnical system: How OD emerged at the changes.
16. THE KNOWLEDGE BASE OF OD (EXPLANATION):
- Models and theories of planned change.
- System theory.
- Participation and empowerment.
- Teams and teamwork.
- Parallel learning structures.
- A normative-reeducative strategy of change.
- Applied Behavioral Science.
- Action research.
MODELS AND THEORIES OF PLANNED CHANGE.
Change is a three step process:
We have to bring into the surface the old behavior (Unfreezing), learn the new (moving) and fix it as our new behavior (refreezing).
I detail the model and Lewin's phychological mechanism during etailed the changes:
- First stage: Unfreezing = Creating motivation and readiness to change, or lack of confirmation Disconfirmation, Provision of psychological safety.
- Seconsa stage: changing through cognitive restructuring, Identifying with a new role model, Scanning the environment for new relevant information
- Third stage: refreezing = helping the client to integrate the new point of view.
20. Lippitt, Watson, Westley seven step approach
1. The development of a need for change
2. The establishment of change relationship
3. The clarification or diagnosis of the client system's problem
4. The examination of alternative routes and goals
5. The transformation of intentions into actual change effort
6. The generalization and stabilization of change
7. Achieving a terminal relationship
21. Kilman's five sequential stages
There are five sequential stages:
"Initiating the program
"Diagnosing the problems
-Scheduling the "tracks"
-Implementing the "tracks"
-Evaluating the results
The five tracks are:
"The culture track
The track-management skills
The team building-track
"The strategy-structure track
-The reward system track
22. Streem Poram analysis:
Four classes of variables:
The Indentity Which variables cause:
- First-order change-transactional change in which features of the organization are changed. Evolutionary and adaptive.
- Second-order change is revolutionary however, fundamental change.They distinghs between organization climate and culture.
24. Strategies for change:
- Empirical-rational strategy: Goal Is To Provide information only.
Assume rational, informed actors who can digest and use information in their best interest. Transform the information into knowledge. Make informed decisions. Usually work best if individuals are target of change.
> - Normative-reeducative strategy: Goal is to expose targets (usually individuals, groups / organizations) to new values and norms and the need to adopt these new values and norms. Persuade people to internalize new values, norms, etc ... May be based on rational (such as scientific evidence) or emotional appeals (such as charismatic leaders).
- Power-Coercive strategy: Application of economic, political, and moral power and institutions to make people change attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, values, etc ... Can be legitimate or illegitimate authority. May administer or withhold rewards Punishments to reach goal. Use of money, bribes, payments for complying.
25. Action research
Action research is a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" To improve the way they address issues and solve problems. Action research can also be Undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within Which they practice.
26. Managing the OD process (explanation of the steps)
- THE ACTION COMPONENT: OD INTERVENTIONS
- EVALUATION OF EFFECTS
- PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
27. Diagnosis (questions to answer, methods)
-What are the strength
-What are the problems
-What are the unutilized opportunities
-Are there differences between the desired future and the current state
Questionnaire and instruments
- Physical representation of organizations
28. BECKHARD ABOUT THE DIAGNOSIS
It is essentially important It is necessary to diagnose the system, subsystems, Dyads, tho individuals.It is necessary dyagnose the processes: Communication, Goal Setting, Decision making, Conflict resolution, superior subordinate relationship, Technological system, formulation Vision, Learning Organization
29. Fordyce, WEIL: METHODS FOR COLLECTING INFORMATION
Questionnaire and instruments, Interviewing, Sensing, Polling, Collages, Drawings, Physical representation of organizations
30. SIX-BOX MODEL (Weisbord)
The six-box model is Comprised of the following components (boxes):
1. Purposes: What 'businesses' are we in?
2. Structure: How do we divide up the work?
3. Relationships: How do we manage conflict (coordinate) among people? With our technologies?
4. Rewards: Is there an incentive for doing all that needs doing?
5. Leadership: Is someone keeping the boxes in balance?
6. Helpful mechanisms: Have we adequate coordinating technologies?
Formal and informal aspects are Equally important elements.
31. STRUCTURING INTERVENTIONS
Relevant people are there; Problem, or Opportunity oriented; The goal, and the way to reach it is clear; High probability of success goal attainment; Contains experience-and theoretical-based learning; Individuals are freed up; Learn how to solve the problem , and learn how to learn; Learn about tasks and processes; INgage as whole persons
32. EXPECTED RESULTS FROM OD INTERVENTIONS
Feedback, Awareness of changing sociocultural norms, present or dysfunctional norms, Increases interaction and communication, Confrontation, Education, Participation, Increased accountability, Increased energy and optimism.
34. Intervention Team
35. Diagnostic Group Meeting
> The purpose of the formal diagnostic group meeting is to conduct a general critique of the performance of the group, that is, to take stock of "where are we going?" And "how are we doing?", And to surface and identify problems so that they may be worked on. The leader and the consultants use to discuss the idea first, and if it appears that a genuine need for diagnostic meeting the idea is put into the group.
There are several ways of getting the diagnostic data out:
-A full-group discussion
Sub-grouping, with more intensive discussions
"Pairing discussing their ideas with each other reporting back to the total group.
The primary focus of the diagnostic group meeting is to surface issues and problems that should be worked on and decide how to take action steps. It is good to criticize itself.
36.Group Team Building Meeting
It has the goal of improving the team's effectiveness through better management of task demands, relationship demands, and group processes. The group critiques its performance, analyzes its way of doing things and attempts to develop strategies to Improve Its operation.
The team-building session is usually initiated by the manager in consultation with the third party. The idea is then tested for reactions with the group.
The usual practice for these sessions is to have the consultant interview each of the group members and the leader prior to the meeting, asking them what the strengths of the group are, what their problems are, how they think the group functions and what obstacles are getting in the way of the group performing better. The group examines and discusses the issues. It is imperative to have follow-up meetings to determines whether the action steps that were taken were Outlined and to determine whether or not they had the desired effects.
The consultant will present the interview results in terms of themes. When everyone has understood them, are ranked by the group in terms of their importance. Alternatives are developed.
37. Process Consultation Interventions
It is similar to team-building interventions in process consultation except that greater emphasis is place on diagnosing and understanding and understanding process events.
Process consultation (PC) represents an approach or a method for intervening in an ongoing system. The crux of this approach is that the consultant works with individuals and groups to help them learn about human and social processes and learn to solve problems that stem from process events.
In coaching and counseling interventions the consultant is place in the role of responding to such questions from groups and individuals
38. A Gestalt Approach to Team Building
IT Focus more in the individual than the group. The greatest advocate of this orientation is Stanley M. Herman, a management and OD consultant. Gestalt therapy is based on the belief that persons function as a whole, total organisms. And each person Possesses positive and negative characteristics that must be "owned up to" and permitted expression. One must come and live in the "here and now" and must stop blocking of awareness, authenticity and the like by dysfunctional behaviors.
The primary trust is to make the individual stronger.
The Gestalt Orientation to team building should not be used except by practitioners trained in this method.
39. Techniques and exercises used in team building
40. Role Analysis Technique
Is designed to clarify role expectations and obligations of team members to Improved team effectiveness. John M. Thomas developed a technique for clarifying the roles of the top management of a new organization in India.
A role being defined is called the focal role. The first step consists of an analysis of the focal role initiated by the focal individual role.
> The second step examines the focal role incumbent's expectations of others.
The third step consists of explicating other's expectation and desired expectation of the focal role.
Then, the role profile is written. The focal role assumes responsibility for making a summary of the role as it has been defined.
41. Interdependency exercise
It improves cooperation among the members of the group. In small groups of around ten persons, in a face to face they interview each other about the important interdependencies between their two jobs and / or units.
42. A Role Negotiation Technique
It is used when the causes of team Ineffectiveness are based on people's behaviors that they are unwilling to change Because it would mean a loss of power or influence to the individual.
The technique is basically an imposed structure for controlled Negotiations between parties In which each party agrees in writing Certain behaviors in return for changes in behavior by the other.
The first step is contrast setting. The consultant sets the climate and Establish the ground rules.
The second step is diagnosis issue, where individuals think about how their own effectiveness can be improved if others change their work behaviors.
The next step is the influence trade or negotiation period, in Greenwich two individuals discuss the most important behavior changes they want from the other and the changes they are willing to make themselves.
43. The Appreciations and Exercise Concerns
It is appropriate if interview data suggest that one of the deficiencies in the interactions of members of a group is lack of expression of appreciation, and another deficiency is the avoidance of confronting concerns and irritations.
First, the facilitator ask each member to jot down to three Appreciations for each member of the group.
Secondly, they do the same with minor irritations that Interferes in communication
The third step is when the facilitator make some suggestions to motivate conversation about that problems.
44. Appreciative Inquiry
Is based on the assertion that the organization "is a miracle to be Embraced" rather than a "problem to be solved. It is based on interviews and discussions in small groups or organization-wide meetings centering on core questions such as:
-What have been the peak moments in the life of this organization when people felt most alive in their Involvements?
-Who do staff members value most about themselves?
One of the most important aspects that the approach seems to generate is more attention by the consultant and the client organization to the strengths of the organization and its members.
45. Responsibility Charting
It helps to clarify who is responsible for what on various decisions and actions. Is a very simple technique. Richard Beckhard and Harris Ruben explain the technique as follows:
First step is to construct a grid. Decisions and actions that have to be discussed are written in the left-hand side of the grid and the actors who might play eat part decision making on those issues are identified across the top of the grid. Then, a behavior is assigned to each of the actors opposite each of the issues. There are four classes of behavior (Responsibility, Approval required or the right veto, Support and Inform)
Each decision or action is discussed and responsibility assigned
Group members in one or more organizational groups develop and / or describe their vision of what they want the organization to be like in the future. Visioning Various techniques are used in team building
Step1. On note paper, write down the characteristics you would like to see this organization have one and then two years from now.
> Step2. Using a marking pen, make visible characteristics on flipchart paper and display on the wall
Step3. Report to the group, but no discussion is allowed at this point.
Step4. During a half-hour break, the three people soubgroup extracts of the themes from the individual reports and prepares to report them to the full group for discussion.
47. Force Field Analysis
Is the oldest in the OD intervention. Is useful for understanding a problematic situation and planning corrective actions.
Force field analysis is an influential development in the field of social science. It provides a framework for looking at the factors (forces) that influence a situation, originally social situations. It looks at forces that are either driving movement toward a goal (helping forces) or blocking movement toward a goal (Hindering forces).
53. Comprehensive interventions
OD interventions that are comprehensive in terms of the extend to Which the total organization is envolved and / or the depth of cultural change addressed.
54. "Getting the whole system in the room".
It is about the usefulness of getting all of the key actors of a complex organization or system together in a team-building, future planning session.The kind of rational for inviting all the key actors of a complex system to meet together is congruent with systems theory and an extension of assumptions underlying organization is conceptualized building.The team like a total organization or several organizations in interaction: get all the people with critical interdependencies to work together on matters of mutual concern, so, good things can happend.
55.Future search conferences.
Marvin Weisbord has written extensively about future search conferences and integrates ideas like "when people plan presents actions by working backward from what is really desired, they develop energy, enthusiasm, optimism, and high commitment". One version of Weisbord's Future Search conference model consist on 10 steps, the most important are: The first couple activities fous on the past, focus on present factors, Focus on the future and focus on the next action steps.
56. Beckhard's Confrontation meeting,
Is a one-day meeting of the entire management of an organization in Greenwich they take reading of their own organizational health.In a series of activities, the management group generates information about it's major problems, analyzes the underlying causes, develops action plans to correct the problems, and sets a schedule for remedial completed work.It 'sa quick, simple and reliable way to generate data about an organization and to set action plans for any improvements. It'sa way to get fast results feading toward improvement organizaation . It provides a quick an accurate means for diagnosing organizational health, promotes constructive problem identification and problem solving, enhances comunication upward within the organization, and increases involvement and commitment to action on the part of the entire managerial group.
57. Strategic management activities.
SM: Is the development and implementation of the organization's grand desing or overall strategy for anf Relating to its current and future environmental demands.Schendel Hofer: There is six major tasks that comprise the strategic management process: Goal formulation, Environmental Analysis, Strategy formulation, Strategy Evaluation, Strategy Implementation, Strategic control
58. Survey feedback.
It is the process of Systematically collecting data about the system and feeding back the data for individuals and groups at all levels of the organization to analyze, interpret the meaning of, and corrective action steps desingn upon.This approach is based on the Systems 1 -- 4T "management system". This attitude or climate survey, coupled with a series of workshops Involving work teams at successively lower levels of the organization, can be used to create action plans and change across a wide range of variables in the social, structural, goal, and task subsystems of an organization.
> 59. Grid OD.
Management typology Largely based on measures pertaining to leadership, organizational climate, and job satisfaction. Using Survey of Organizations (a 105-item questionaire), as well as shorter forms, Linkert found that organizations were markedly different in terms of these characteristics. Over the long term, high scores on organizational climate and other dimensions of the Survey questionnaire described earlier Tend to be associated with organizational profitability and excellent work relations.In general, and increasingly, managers and Emplo alike have the expectation that organizations can profitably aproach, including survey feedback, are ways of getting there.
59. Systems 1-4T.
Management typology Largely based on measures pertaining to leadership, organizational climate, and job satisfaction. Using Survey of Organizations (a 105-item questionaire), as well as shorter forms, Linkert found that organizations were markedly different in terms of these characteristics.System 1 "exploitive authorative" System 2 "benevolent authorative" System 3 "consultative" System 4 "participative group"
60. Grid-organizational development.
Is a thoughgoing and systematic organization development program designed by Robert R. Blake and Jane S.Mouton.In a six-phase program lasting about 3 or 5 years, an organization can move from the stage of Systematically examining managerial behavior and style to the development and implementation of an "ideal strategic corporate model." Phases: Prephase, The Managerial Grid, Teamwork Development, Intergroup Development, Strategic Corporate Developing an Ideal Model, Implementing the Strategic Ideal Model, Systematic Review. Grid OD is an approach to organization improvement that is complete, systematic and difficult. Improvements showed up are measures of greater profits, lower costs and less waste.Also managers reports changes for the better.
61. Schein's cultural analysis.
Schein goes on to note that the client system "is fully involved in owning both the diagnosis and the interventions". He further emphasizes that the role of the Od consultant is to Provide the conceptual framework for the analysis and to "manage the process
62. Transorganisation Development.
It is when consultants get "the whole system in the room" and that system is conceptualized as Involving several organizations (getting customers, suppliers, and union leaders together with organizational members). Thomas Cummins: "not simply an extension of OD, but Constitutes a distinct level of practice commensurate with the dynamics emerging at this higher level of social system ". It is an important form of organizational change process for transorganizational systems (TS's). TS's are Comprised of business alliances, consortia, or" Network Alliance "formed for such purposes as coodinating services to the public, conducing joint research and development, exchanging technology, or gaining access to worldwide markets.Power and leadership are dispersed rather than hierarchical, and There may be wide fluctuations in commitment to the collaboration over time.