Intermediates: species that appear in some steps but not in the net equation
Activated complex-transitional structure that results from an effective collision and that persists while old bonds are breaking and new ones are forming. Activated complex is very short lived molecular complex in which bonds are in the process of being broken and formed
6 factors that affect reaction:
1. Natrue of reactants
2. Concentration of reactants-can only be increased for gases or aqueous solutions-higher concentration faste rreaction
3. Temperature, increase in t, increase in reaction rate bc particles have a higher KE at a higher T and collide more often. Greater fraction of particles have sufficient ke to react, 10c rise in T doubles reaction rate.
4. Catalyst speeds up reaction by lowering Ea
5. Surface area(for heterogenous reactions only), increasing surface area increases reaction rate bc more particles are available for collosion.
6. Pressure(only for gas)-increases reaction rate bc there are more collosions
standard states for measuring entropy, enthalpy, and free energy are 298 k and 101.3 kpa