VERBS: believe, know,
Understand, remember, forget, think.
ACTIVE: Velázquez painted Las Meninas
PASSIVE: Las Meninas was painted by Velázquez
Present: Grow/ is grown Present Continuous: is Taking/ is being taken Present Perfect: have taken/have been Taken Past Simple: took/ Was-were taken Past continuous: was Taking/was being Taken Past Perfect: had Taken/has been taken Will: will Be takenGoing to: is/are Going to be taken Modal: must/must be taken
CAUSATIVE (HAVE/GET SOMETHING DONE): Have + noum + P.Participle
Ex. The Mechanic changed the oil in my car. I Had the oil in my car changed.
Present Simple: I have my repaired Past Simple: I had Present Continuous: I'm Having Past Continuous: was Having Present Perfect: have Had Past Perfect: had Had Will: will have Future Continuous: Will be having Future Perfect: Will have, Must: Must have, be going to: 'm Going to have
Ability: Can- could – be able to Possibility: May – might – could Advice: Should – ought to Obligation: Must – have to necessity: Need to Prohibition: Mustn't – can't Lack of obligation: Don't have to – needn't
Advice:should – ought to + have + Vp.P Possibility: May – might – Could + have + Vp.P
Certanty: Must – can't + have + Vp.P Ability: can: could/couldn't be Able to: was/were able to Obligation: must – have to: had to Lack of necessity: don't need to: didn't need to / needn't: neednt' + have + Vp.P / don't have to: didn't have to
Tense Changes: Present Simple – Past Simple, Present Continuous – Past Continuous, Present perfect Simple – Past perfect simple, Past simple – Past perfect simple, Past perfect simple – Past Perfect Simple, am/is/are going to – Was/were going to.
Modal Verbs: will – would, can – Could, must – had to
Time Expresions: now – at the Moment, today – that day, tonight – that night, this (morning, Week) – that (morning, week), yesterday – the day before, last (week, month, year) – the (week, month, a year) before, (two days/ A year) ago – (two days/ a year) earlier, tomorrow – the next Following day, next (week) – The following (week).
Place: This – that, these – those, here – there.
Questions: Where are you going: Mum asked where I was going – Are you famous?, he asked her: He asked her if she was famous – Do you like horror films?, she asked: She asked if I liked horror films.
Commands: Form affirmative Commands → to + Infinitive Negative Commands → not + to + Infinitive Affirmative CommandsDirect Speech → Dad: “Do your homework.” -Reported Speech → Dad told me to do my homework.Negative commands Direct Speech → Teacher: “Don't talk to your friend.”-Reported Speech → The teacher told me not to talk to my friend.
Say & Told: say (+that) + reported speech & Tell + indirect object + that + reported and tell + object + to + Infinitive.
Verb + object + to + V.Infinitive: Reminded – warned – invited – ordered- advised – permitted – Persuaded Verb + to + V.Infinitive: Promised – refused – agreed – offered – decided – proposed Verb +Ving: Admitted – Suggested – Denied - Recommended
Verb + preposition + Ving: Apologised for – Inisted on – Complained about – Warned about Verb + object + preposition + Ving: Suspected – Accused sb of – Advised sb against – Congratuled sb On Verb + that + Subj + Verb reported: Explained – Said – Complained – Insisted – Demanded Verb + Object + that + subj + Verb reported: Persiaded – Reminded – Warned - Informed
However: (no obstant això): Sentence 1.However, Sentence 2
Although – Even though: (tot i que): Although-Even though + /subj+verb/, sentence 2
Despite: (malgrat): Despite + /noun-gerund/, sentence 2
In Spite of: (malgrat): In Spite of + /noun-gerund/, sentence 2