Pedagogy

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ITEM 1 - DIVERSITY AND DIFFERENCE
1. THE DIFFERENCE IN RESPONSE TO DIVERSITY
1.1. The difference
The analysis of reality involves detecting similarities and differences. On this basis CATEGORIZED that same reality.
1.1.1. Difference, value and language. Categorization
The analysis of the situation leads us to classify the same reality once we detect similarities and differences. In these classifications we apply certain values or preferences, concluding in certain consequences (prejudice, racism, sexism, bigotry ...).
Language is the way they express their differences, is used to divide, exclude, discriminate from words whose content should be examined (the term "working mother" is opposed to "non-working mother," who works at home without pay ).
Identify differences and similarities serves to divide the world: man / woman, black / white, Gypsy / bumpkin, Catholic / Moslem ...
This process of differentiation is also SIMPLIFICATION in which traits predominate over others. Using a feature as a justification for excluding someone, saying "it's different".
1.1.2. Labels
Tags are stereotypes, conclusions-values on a group or culture. Therefore, the labels imply value judgments.
Involve the identification allocated on the basis of a difference.
They are stable and never used that we apply to others to describe oneself.
People are not recognized, excluded or removed from the labels of gender, sex, race, weight, family, sexual orientation.
1.2. The nature of the difference
The principles underlying difference without considering whether they are valid or not:
The differences are not intrinsic, normally are social constructs.
Should be discussed what is taken as a reference point to differentiate.
There is never a perspective other than to differentiate.
1.3. Dilemma of Difference: definition of the difference
Dilemma 1: our culture officially condemns the difference, but in practice the sentence.
Dilemma 2: should be treated differently to achieve equality (affirmative action) or be treated equally in favor of a just attitude.
The difference is defined and socially constructed as a relationship between groups. The meaning given to a difference changes when individuals are repositioned in a different situation and relationship.
1.4. Dilemmas of difference: the treatment of difference
"Special treatment or integration?
It is a pseudodilema, problems are resolved the difference separating both mainstream subjects.
1.4.1. School segregation
School segregation is the history of the school: boys / girls, black / white, by race, class, culture ...
The integration should ensure that the majority is made aware of something and change its power structure, accepting minority members as equal.
1.4.2. Bilingual education
The school supplants the culture and language of immigrants.
It is claimed that the child can be taught in their native language until they learn to express themselves well in the second language, to develop their self-respect and confidence.
1.4.3. Special Education
The school has traditionally considered uneducable children with physical or mental disability. Only after 1960 this separation was considered illegal.
The solution is integrated with special programs or affirmative action.
1.4.4. Types of programs
Bilingual Education Programs:
- Structured teaching the dominant language as soon as possible.
- Teaching in mother tongue to achieve a good level of official language.
- Bilingual-Bicultural Education, or mixed in both languages.
Programs for individuals with disabilities:
- Identify individuals with disabilities
- Protection from discrimination
- Integration with special support
- The largest group should be clear that anyone, simply because they differ from the norm is lower.
1.5. Design of programs for individuals with difficulties
Programs should be directed to optimize the educational situation of subjects with difficulties:
§ Well with special tools.
§ Good planning situations where the class meets the different subject.
1.6. History of normal / abnormal
The division of members of a society by the parameter of normal / abnormal with different treatment and assignment of individuals to one group or another are linked, in part, on the medieval practice of assigning fixed relations from status. Today, this assignment remains in effect on the levels that locate and place the person so immutable in either category.
This form of division has been and remains of great significance in judging the capacity or competence of certain persons to what binds the allocation of rights and duties and responsibility for their actions.
The incompetent are subject, even today, certain restrictions, and require legal protection to ward off the abuse of others or to save others from the abuse.
The definition of what is normal and abnormal have been linked to a social hierarchy in which the order was set looked as natural and eternal.
Mental capacity has served as a dividing line. The rights were still different to normal people and the mentally incompetent. Although there were differences among the mentally retarded, these variations were less important than the fact that these people had a reduced ability to function in everyday life. There was still the notion that the differences were based on mental competence were natural, real and immutable and actions stemming from such differences were legitimate.
At his appearance the modern formulation of human rights applied to all people. Any individual was entitled to be free of restrictions or undue discrimination. The rights should apply to each individual to be free from any interference by the State and be treated like other individuals.
The notions of inferiority based on race, gender, or ethnicity could not continue defending.
2. IDENTITY
2.1. Concept
The identity implies a classification system that shows how divided are organized and social relations (us / them, Serb / Croat ...).
Identity is the symbolic identification within a group.
The identity gives persistence and uniqueness of the self.
2.2. Relational nature of identity
There is no identity without the other.
We can distinguish:
PERSONAL IDENTITY, lets me be who I am.
SOCIAL IDENTITY, I said to belong to a group.
The nature of identity is relational in that it be "Tutsi" is not "Hutu".
The identity is marked by difference
2.3. Identity and meaning-making
2.3.1. Identity and Representation
The identity is created, manifested in form and function of cultural meanings (ie, cultural practices, symbolic systems and social status)
2.4. Types of identity
2.4.1. Essentialism / non-essentialism
Essence identical with no possibility of change.
Nonessential identity with possibilities for change.
2.5. Construction of identity
Speakers places, spaces, times: ethnic, cultural, racial, minority institutions, lifestyle
2.6. Ethnicity and identity
Ethnic identity are those who share the same cultural and social heritage (language, religion, customs, history and common ancestors. Even those who share some common physical features)
2.6.1. The reification of ethnicity
Ethnicity is a social construct, but is still seen as property acquired by birth.
The reification of ethnicity involves making an autonomous factor in the social order, constituting a natural and not a result of the socialization process.
Reifying concepts is to make things, natural or social processes.
2.7. Models of ethnic identity development and racial
Ethnic identity: the way an individual according to their ethnic origin, place yourself in relation to other social groups perceived others to situate him in relation to that system.
Ethnicity gives the individual a sense of belonging and community, uniqueness and historical significance.
2.8. Crisis, Identity and Globalization
The growing concern with identity in times of crisis or rapid change.
§ Globalization application:
§ Equality of goods and services
§ Labor and labor market structure
§ Immigration workforce for economic reasons
§ Impact of migration on source and destination countries
§ New product identities of migration
2.9. The negative social identity
Occurs when the social group of reference of the subject is a social group constructed from negative social images.

Individuals from disadvantaged groups internalize their inferiority.

2.10. Cultural Shock

It is intensely personal encounter of a different culture. It involves:

§ Disorientation to values, norms and expectations.
Anxiety § not dominate the environment.
§ frustration of not achieving the desired objectives
ITEM 2 - EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

1. THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE CONCEPT OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES

How much social interacting conception of the individual as subject of education and social justice?

1.1. Equality and justice

Two opposing theoretical positions concerning the fair distribution of wealth in society represent the positions of Rawls (Theory of Justice.
State interventionism) and Nozick (Anarchy, State and Utopia. Liberalism exacerbated). They represent two opposing poles in the treatment of social inequality.

Rawls Rawls Nozick Nozick
Part of what is right or wrong in the social distribution of goods Part of what is right or wrong in the social distribution of property claims that most of these inequalities are not the result of action by the authorities, but the innate or acquired differences of individuals
The only justification is the inequality that benefits the less advantaged or socially weaker inequality The only justification is that benefits the disadvantaged, the socially disadvantaged or justice does not emanate from the equality or inequality, but the right each person exactly what he has acquired by his own efforts, and that has nothing but a voluntary transfer
Resources are distributed to the community and individuals. Both the community and individuals are entitled to them. The resources are distributed to the community and individuals. Both the community and individuals are entitled to them.
The authority has the right to distribute the fruits of labor of the whole society. Equality is the result of a fair distribution authority has the right to distribute the fruits of labor of the whole society. Equality is the result of fair Every individual is entitled to enjoy the fruits of their work and to have them
EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES The supposed erase all differences arising from the birth, providing more opportunities for some people than others in relation to education EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES The supposed erase all differences arising from the birth, which provide more opportunities to some people than others in relation to education to reduce education imparted in private. Education must be supported by individuals according to their means. Each family must meet the cost of educating their children according to their resources and therefore, according to your preferences
The individual loses liberty and walks to a central authority that imposes equality The individual loses liberty and walks to a central authority that imposes equality advanced to the individual to individual freedom and equality while lost in the differences seen increasing birth
1.2. Equal opportunities: election / results
If the person who independently choose his life and activities, the result is the product of these elections. Equal opportunities should arise as well as equal possibilities to choose.
If so, that is, if one identifies the principle of equal educational opportunities with the freedom of choice, you must remove impediments that restrict the freedom of choice.
To make the election valid, the subject should be: information on the potential and possibility of success in the chosen (in the result).
1.3. Gender equality formal versus current
Means formal equality of opportunity equal access: quality center, adequate resources, physical facilities ...
The current interpretation goes further and requires intervention to mitigate the disadvantages: equal educational opportunities exist if the results are equal.
1.4. Equality of results

Liberalism utilitarianism
utilitarianism liberal egalitarianism Egalitarianism
For Nozick, the mixed results among subjects not justify taking resources from one individual to promote the good of other education policy should be evaluated through its impact on economic output Rawls, with the difference principle, think of a better distribution the situation of individuals belonging to disadvantaged groups
The Equal Opportunities are identified with respect to freedom, its function is not equal results, is to ensure the freedom to choose the form of education Educational Opportunity to be designed and distributed resources from the proposed development of skills that have value to the economic market A just society is one that tries to level the uneven results of those individuals are not responsible for the Equal Opportunities are identified with respect to freedom, its function is not equal results, is to ensure the freedom to choose how to Education Educational Opportunity to be designed and distributed resources from the proposed development of skills that have value to the economic market A just society is one that tries to level the uneven results of which are responsible individuals
The natural range, unfortunate for some individuals, it is not unfair. The fair distribution of goods is the product of free exchange between consenting adults want them to do, even though some leave with benefits The objective is to maximize the productivity of individuals is an equal partner with knowledge and skills to create effective citizens and democratic. Party people are different and that the elections act cumulatively
The results are explained from the history of elections, just always made without coercion. Recognizing the unfairness of departure for some subjects, draws on the merits as a means to distribute educational opportunities. However, one must understand that individuals have not been able to achieve the same credit for their different starting points
Incorporates attention to interpret the results to equal educational opportunities, but this equality of opportunity can be rolled back when the goal of maximizing productivity, conflict with their own equal opportunities. For example, spending money for students to learn computer science at the expense of students who need basic learning is developing a proposal for which you can derive a proper interpretation of equality of opportunity, combined with vision COMPENSATORY The results are explained from the history of elections, just always made without coercion. Recognizing the unfairness of departure for some subjects, draws on the merits as a means to distribute educational opportunities. However, one must understand that individuals have not been able to achieve the same credit for their different starting points incorporates attention to interpret the results to equal educational opportunities, but this equality of opportunity can be rolled back when with the objective of maximizing productivity, conflict with their own equal opportunities. For example, spending money for students to learn computer science at the expense of students who need basic learning is developing a proposal for which you can derive a proper interpretation of equality of opportunity, combined with vision COMPENSATORY
Egalitarianism in the presence of three interpretations: 1. FORMAL, equal opportunities by identifying the formal structure of educational institutions. It requires only the absence of formal barriers (racial, resources, barriers to disabled children ...). 2. COMPENSATORY, match results for offsetting disadvantages experiences of different groups. The overall objective is to provide children with educational opportunities that will enable educational travel route. May perpetuate the status quo of the society in which is inset. 3. PARTICIPATORY, links the concept of equal opportunities with DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE. - Participation for equal educational opportunities should involve not only the distribution of resources but also in decision-making processes and negotiations on what has value to one's equal educational opportunities. It is necessary to build from the views of all groups, keeping their identities, respecting them and taking them seriously. - EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES The must derive from the interaction between the needs of individuals and society. It is not a social stratum imposes the tour to follow, but the route itself resulting from the interaction of education of different groups over which it applies.
2. HISTORY OF THE CONCEPT OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES
1. In the preindustrial stage, in Europe, the boy in the class of artisans and peasants, grew, developed and was immersed in the family. The family was the business school and a dual role in enabling and ensuring the continuity of the livelihood of individuals in her lifetime. The basic unit of organization was the extended family. Social mobility was almost nonexistent. In this context there was the idea of equal educational opportunities.
2. In industrial society the economy was outside the family and required that children begin to learn outside the home. In the factories are required subjects that the family was unable to train or educate. In response to this need was born public education to achieve certain levels of society industrial development.
The community begins to provide free education with the same resources and the same facilities up to par every age level which is the start or entry into employment. This facilitated the emergence of ideas about equal opportunities.
3. The public school was characterized in its beginnings, its egalitarian proposals and for being financed and controlled by local authorities.
The family sought outside the school environment as homogeneous with family status and changing schools, changing area, if the difference between the school and the family was great.
4. Aided schools, that is maintained with public funds but are governed by non-state bodies, mostly dependent on the Church, are another element of distortion.
5. The measures for allocating children to schools by the central authority for all schools having a composition class and / or similar racial, depending on the environments in which the proposal is made.
6. Children from disadvantaged strata attending schools in that mix children from different environments outperform those where they are schooled only disadvantage of the environment.
7. In the case of reservation of seats, any child of a particular city environment would be entitled to attend a school of their choice if the school maintains a certain proportion of students from the smaller group it belongs. The school must receive these children until they have completed the share which corresponds to and which can be determined by the authorities.
3. DETERMINATION OF THE CONCEPT
The concept of equal opportunities, occurring in the democratic tradition with concepts such as liberty, democracy, choice, opportunity ...
Among their most common meanings we find:
§ Equal access
§ Countervailing Measures
§ Equal results
§ Equal treatment of students
§ I try different students in response to their needs
The Coleman report (Report commissioned following the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in USA, with the objective of understanding the inequalities in educational opportunities because of race, religion and national origin) are five meanings with emphasis on inequality:
1. Inequalities defined as a result of the segregation of groups.
2. Inequalities resulting from the difference in school system resources in different schools.
3. Inequalities derived from intangible resources such as morals, values and teacher training.
4. Inequalities resulting from the resources of different kinds of weight on the effectiveness of teaching.
5. Inequalities in outcomes as important to demonstrate the inequality of opportunity.
3.1. Postulates on equal educational opportunities
1. The first postulate justifying actions that promote equality of opportunity is this: EVERY SUBJECT THAT REACHES THE RULES OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, TO THINK THAT THE MEMBERS OF A CERTAIN COMPANY CAN EASILY IMAGINE THEMSELVES CHANGING YOUR PLACE WITH ANY OTHER MEMBER SYSTEM.
2. The postulate of compensation, assistance and economic justification to situations involving harm some and help others. The compensation policy is sufficiently justified if they improve sufficiently to offset losses benefit of those who do not benefit.
3. A third premise for a successful equal opportunities is that THE SYSTEM IS FACING Individualism. For a group-oriented society, praises equal opportunities standards are secondary.
3.2. The analysis of inequality. School and sources of inequality
One approach to equality of educational opportunity is to measure inequality.
It has sometimes been interpreted as a form of equal time, equal opportunities for participation in one part of all curriculum subjects. A further extension, more opportunities. The performance of the institutions to be reduced by extending the duration in years of schooling compulsory and free.
1. However,
a primary source of inequality comes from the concept of FREE SCHOOL: many families can not afford the child attends school more than a specified number of years or days per year, because from a certain age, household economy needs of their work. For many families the cost of attending school is not zero cost. Equal opportunities in terms of entry does not imply equality of opportunity.
2. Another source of
inequality stems from the very structure of the school and the knowledge that she imparted. Sometimes, going to school means to remove the child from social learning and knowledge of their environment. The middle school curriculum is directed substantially to the professions, is not in learning necessary for students. The school trained for tasks that are defined in the workforce of the middle class and not in oto kinds of occupations.
3. Equality is also confronted with the definition of the curriculum for compulsory secondary education, in many cases heir of another curriculum designed to access higher education. We need a more flexible curriculum that responds both to pursue higher studies and those who do not. The unique curriculum concept is easily applied in primary reduced to basic learning, but in high school raises the problem of different ways out.
4. The composition of the school in relation to different groups of students who attend it is another feature to consider when analyzing inequality. The segregated school is inherently unequal.
5. Intangible factors such as teacher morale, teacher expectations on students, level of student interest and motivation in learning also explain inequalities to be considered.
6. Inequality can also be defined in relation to the consequences of school in individuals of different backgrounds and abilities. In this case, equal opportunities are measured by equality of outcomes, given different starting points. It is real that the environment does not affect the level attained and maintained by the subjects when one of the groups analyzed is middle class and the other is culturally deficient.
3.3. Stages of the concept of equal opportunities
a) At first it was part of the idea that all children should be exposed to the same curriculum and one school.
b) It is assumed that different children will have different future as regards the occupation and equal opportunities required to provide different curricula.
c) return to the previous notion of separate but equal. It takes into account the basic principle of one school for all.
3.4. Meaning of equal opportunities: equal input versus equality of results
The core dispute is whether the interpretation should be as equal opportunity for input or output.
Educational equality is related to adult life. Equal educational opportunities concerning the life after school youth or adult. It goes beyond the educational process.
ITEM 3 - bias and stereotyping
1. STEREOTYPES
1.1. Meaning
The word has both the interpretation of involuntary repetition of a gesture, action or word or image as the commonly accepted idea of a group or society with immutability.
Stereotypes are beliefs held by individuals or groups of individuals or groups, created and shared. Inaccurate generalizations and maintained without a sound basis. Erroneous ways of thinking that do not match reality.
It is also the tendency to attribute characteristics and simplified generalized to groups of people in the form of verbal labels.
Stereotypes are considered the cognitive component of a particular attitude and are developed from cognitive mechanisms that simplify reality, imposed for reasons of economy of mental effort and thus contain the danger of distortion.
The stereotype can lead to prejudice and discrimination occur.
The formation of the stereotype is due to:
§ The need or desire to have an opinion about others based on what other people say, and
§ Lack of interest or facility to base opinion on direct observation or personal experience. In the background are produced at the moment is a certain insecurity.
1.2. Source
All subjects developed and utilized stereotypes. You can not function without them. Stereotyping accompanies the process by which all human beings become individuals and it has to do with the early stages of development.

The stereotypes are and respond to instabilities that may result from the perception of the world. There is great variety among them and we can tell one would call good or bad and some negative.

In the individual can co-exist the tendency to create and use stereotypes with the ability to do without them. If dispenses with the stereotype, can distinguish between the individual and the stereotyped class and respond to the individual.

1.3. Evolution theory

LIPMANN
LIPMANN ALLPORT ALLPORT
Mental image or preconceptions that guide perception, imposing features to the data before they reach the intelligence. Pose economic and perceptual simplification of reality. Reduce complexity through categorization carried out and have a defensive function. There are aseptic or neutral. Some groups use them to dominate others. Exaggerated belief associated with a category whose function is to justify, rationalize our conduct in relation to that category. It relates to the notion of "scapegoat."

ADORNO CAMPBELL
It's the thought process that uses rigid categories, typical of some intolerant and authoritarian personalities Those external factors that correspond to the characteristics of the group described and project that describes it. The origin of a stereotype would be in conflict within the group or outgroup threats
1.4. Criteria for the definition and characteristics of stereotypes

Criteria for defining the stereotype:

CRITERION DEFINITION
Generalization Stereotypes are part of the world and beliefs are the cognitive component of an opinion already made which imposes itself as a cliché to members of a group. It is a belief that generalize to a group to justify attitudes and behaviors in relation to the group
Distinctiveness Distinctiveness For distinctiveness understand the extent to which a feature is associated to a group and not others
Differentiation Differentiation categorial categorial The stereotype understand the extent to which a feature is associated to a group and not others
They are consensuality
consensuality and show more social consensus that individual attitudes. There is a widespread view on the characteristics of a group

Characteristics of stereotypes:

§ There is innate, but acquired, learned in social interaction.
§ They may disappear with time.
§ They are the product of a social situation and tended to stay while no cause or encourage change.
§ The most common are those related to gender, race, ethnicity and nation.
§ deprive the subject of their individual character and homogenize it with the group.
§ The opinions derived from the stereotypes are realized in actual behaviors that respond to the stereotypes.
§ Not necessarily negative.
§ Negative stereotypes are the result of conflict situations that create barriers to communication.

The stereotype environment divides the
ingroup / outgroup. ENDORGRUPO are applied to the positive characteristics and negative outgroup.
1.5. Types and functions of stereotypes

The types are marked by the prospect:

§ From the psychosomatic perspective, the stereotype is the result of certain
defense mechanisms such as the displacement or projection.
§ For the psychology of learning, stereotypes are
responses to certain stimuli.
§ The cognitive perspective in the stereotype is the
result of processes of categorization and bias acting on the process and the information on individuals and groups.

The
tasks can be highlighted:

§ Defense and protection of self through mechanisms of displacement and projection.
§ Justification of attitudes and behavior towards stereotyped group, which facilitates the maintenance of social order.
§ justify privileges and social differences.
§ Economy cognitive and predictive: to provide knowledge and predict behavior.
§ Facilitate the individual's social identity or identification and social integration.
§ attribute to particular subjects the alleged characteristics of the group.
§ Ordered to some extent the complex social universe. Simplify reality and allow to classify phenomena without detailed analysis.
§ Facilitate and classification of persons and events.
§ define the limits, the virtues and vices of the group itself.
§ Influence unconsciously, even when the conscious orientation of the individual may be another.
1.6. Stereotyping and order structure

The deep structure of the stereotype recurs in adults in response to anxiety, which has its roots in the possible disintegration resulting from the representation that the individual has created and internalized.

In stereotyping the world use social models whose election does not occur randomly or in a archetypal.

Stereotypes, once created, affect the perception of the members of the group, so that stereotypes can be defined as folk beliefs about attributes that characterize a social category on which there is substantial agreement.

1.7. Stereotypes and gender discrimination

Among the features included in the stereotype of the male are the objectivity, independence, activity, dominance, competition.

Among the features of the feminine, emotional side, warmth, expressiveness, sensitivity ... The stereotyping of women are more differentiated than those for men.

1.8. Cognitivism and gender stereotypes

The Cognitive defines the stereotype as a tendency to classify according to some, not all the features relating to a group. The stereotype is an internal component inherent in the subject, which has existence in itself, regardless of social reality. There are different models that attempt to explain how it takes place the mental representation of stereotypes:

DEFINITION MODEL MODEL DEFINITION
Prototypical
prototypical representation is considered an average similarity between the individual and their corresponding prototype
Schemes do not take into account the feature above average, but the memory stores abstract representations about the characteristics of human groups and individuals belonging to them
Associative network associative networks are networks of stereotypes related attributes (traits, beliefs, behaviors, or the sum of behaviors)
Basis of average of average base stereotyped thinking comes into play when there is sufficient information available individual
Examples examples are represented as mental images of cases given as a symbol for the collective





2. PREJUDICE

2.1. Understanding Prejudice

Prejudice is not exclusive to any group of people, but can occur in any group. According to the groups that received different names addresses. Racism, ethnocentrism, sexism ...

Should clarify some important concepts:

Concept Definition Concept Definition
Breed biological classification system of people from their physical characteristics, genetic. The established relationship between physical characteristics sometimes by others such as intelligence or personality, resulted in the discrediting of the term
Ethnicity Ethnicity classifies men into groups with the same cultural and social heritage
Culture Culture is sometimes used synonymously with race and ethnicity
Minority or minority groups or minority groups minority group people by their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out and differentiated from other groups of the society in which they live through unequal treatment, differential and exclusionary social life. They lack political influence, economic and social
Ethnic Minority
Ethnic Minority Community formed on a common cultural traits passed down from generation to generation and is in the minority in relation to another. They have difficulties in relation to the majority group and usually conflicting
Majority or Majority or Group Parent Group Parent Group which has the power, influence, wealth in society. The operation of the majority, dominant or majority group, you need to reference the existence of the dominated group or minority
2.2. Prejudice: meaning

Prejudice, or trial, is a hostile or distrustful attitude, without sufficient justification, to a person belonging to a group.

Prejudice is based on the stereotype, implying an unwarranted negative evaluation from others, for belonging to a group.
It is believed that prejudice continues to stereotype and while it may be positive or negative bias is in the negative trial map.

Prejudice is not based on observation, experience or direct knowledge, first hand, but on opinions or ideas previously formed indirectly,
ie are not of knowledge but of opinions from the environment.

Prejudice directed behavior and relate to discrimination. Assume attitudes of hostility and antipathy toward other groups, or opinion or attitude is not based on facts, wrong, wrong in a trial held.

In the fall prejudices cognitive components (thoughts or beliefs), emotional (values and emotions) and behavioral (willingness to act), we can say that are characterized by inflexibility, organization and coexistence of attitude and belief.

It is therefore a concept deeply rooted, negative human groups culturally different from a "we" referring to the ingroup and the outgroup, and involves perception, value, opinion and attitude.

For example, racism, sexism and ethnocentrism come from the transformation of race prejudice, gender and culture through the exercise of force and power against groups defined as inferior.
The purpose of the bias is to put the group in a position prejudged disadvantage not merited by his own conduct.

We can also say that they
can be directed against an individual against a culture or be of institutional origin.

2.3. Training, causes and consequences of prejudice

Prejudice can be seen either as something based on instinct and therefore universal, either as a product of socialization:

§ If we understand it as something based on instinct, we would be talking about the instinct of aggression or hostility, rejection of strangers ...
§ If we understand it as a social origin, we think that the family, school, peer group, neighborhood ... are key to the formation of prejudices. Education itself is of great importance in the development of prejudice, in that the first years are critical for the acquisition and social attitudes.

The prejudices are passed from one generation to another, and that subjects tend to have prejudices have a personality prone to feel threatened and insecure.

The consequences of prejudice in the group which suffers the same would be:

- Concern obsessive.
- Denial of belonging to the group biased.
- Isolation and passivity.
- Increase of cohesion in the group discriminated against.
- Self-hatred of the group.
- Violence against members of the group itself.
- Protection from the group.
- Self-pity.
- Militancy for social change for social change group.
Symbol Lookup - differentiating the group.
- Self-fulfilling prophecy.

2.4. Evolution theory of prejudice

- Around 1920 the bias is established on the concept of race.
- Initiated a second period when he questioned the primacy of some races over others.
- In the 40s there is a change and sought the source of bias in the subject's internal psychological processes.
- In 1950, Adorno analyzes how certain forms of parenting lead to bias, typical of authoritarian personalities.
- In later years shows that prejudice, as a social norm cultures makes for more prejudiced than others.
- Since the eighties the studies has been leveled against the cognitive paradigm and mindful of the fundamental psychological processes, the result of the categorization process necessary for the survival of individuals (Allport).
2.5. The prejudice and discrimination

In the stereotyping involved interactively various psychological processes, cognitive, emotional and motivational.

The way to avoid or modify behaviors of discrimination against individuals of the opposite sex from a different culture, social context ... is knowing how to develop discrimination or prejudice.

Discrimination is the expression of prejudice, the action involves an unjustified unequal treatment. It results in an exclusion of "others". The discriminator thinks the group on which the required discriminated.

Ethnocultural discrimination also takes different forms and degrees: ethnic cleansing, INSTITUTIONAL spatial segregation, social domination, political oppression.

2.6. Development of prejudice and discrimination

The development of prejudice takes place from infancy and puberty:
- At age 4 the child knows the words used to categorize and classify, which have an emotional character, but is not aware of its meaning.
- Between 7 and 8 years, there is social awareness of words, applying the tags to social groups.
- During puberty occurs a progressive differentiation.
2.7. Prejudice, and competition group

The bias has to do with social cohesion. The child is developing the slogan to respond negatively to group members 'funny'.

The normal social development follows the following phases:

Age Age FEATURES FEATURES
1-2 years 1-2 years Builds the attachment to their primary caregiver and other family members. Develop positive social ties to the adults with whom they have frequent contact. Emerge a personal identity. Begin to understand the rules of social interreacting. Acquired speech and social understanding. You begin to have specific roles to appropriate behaviors.
3 years 3 years developed a keen understanding of social roles. Perceived changes in their roles in relation to diverse groups. Surge attracting play and interact with peers. It identifies the self with social roles and status.
4 years 4 years Start the process of group identity. Learn to see yourself as a member of peer groups.

Among the processes that strengthen and stimulate the development of prejudice we can highlight:

- Unpleasant experiences are widespread.
- The perception helps consolidate previous prejudices.
- Need to maintain self-esteem and security.
- Maintenance of the social structure based on criteria of race, class and ideology.
- Ignorance of groups.
- Rapid social changes.
- Decrease in social status.

2.8. Prejudice and social identity

IDENTITY-CATEGORIZATION THEORY Tajfel-Turner
CATEGORIZATION THEORY IDENTITY-Tajfel-Turner
SOCIAL IDENTITY: belonging to social groups with the emotional meaning and values involved. The self-image and self-concept are developed within the group and depend on how the subject relates to it. Categorization and social comparison facilitate homogenization within the group and differentiation from others. The greater the perceived differences with other groups that the similarity within the group.
2.9. Theory autocategorización

The self-concept is a cognitive structure, an outline of all representations of itself available to a person.

Precedes the development of prejudice and discrimination from the other. The identity of the group starts at age 4, growing to 5.

Between 5 and 7 years if the children are identified as members of a group, act more humanely with the members of the group.

3. PREJUDICE AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

3.1. Racism

Racism is a particular form of prejudice that is based on construction of race. It is a discrimination that can occur at individual, cultural or institutional.

The underlying philosophy expresses the superiority of some groups over others, the result of an ideological discourse that seeks to establish oppressive power relationships.

Meaningful definition of racism as we can highlight that which refers to systematic behavior of an individual or group by which they are inferior or are denied opportunities and privileges of individuals or social groups.

3.1.1. Racism as ideology

For racism is defined as the set of beliefs, ideologies, social processes that discriminate against some groups by their racial identity. The genetic nature of racism attributed to additional features that are considered together with phenotypic characteristics, without being able to demonstrate that nature.

3.1.2. The biological racism

Peaked in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Part of the assertion that biological inheritance transmitted physical characteristics together with intellectual and cultural characteristics. The term race defined human groups from the list of phenotypic characteristics with intellectual and moral attitudes.

3.1.3. Differentialist Racism

Links to each person with their culture and from the existence of different cultures provides incompatibility between them. All cultures are equal in value but can not be mixed.

Racism differentialist uses cultural identities and the praise of the difference and results in segregation. There remains, more subtly, the idea of the superiority of their own culture, in this case, which is to be maintained uncontaminated.

3.2. Levels of expression of racism

Racial discrimination takes place at different levels: interpersonal, political and economic and civil rights.

On a scale from more to less racist, we can sort the different types of racism:

Features
Features Type Type
Biological Racism Racism Biological differences are innate. Own-group superiority. The mixture degenerate race. The other group has no rights. The other groups should be excluded. Physical segregation is needed. The ideal society is that of pure race.
Symbolic
Symbolic Racism Racism is learning differences. The group itself is culturally superior. There is a cultural problem in the relationship with the other. The others have the rights they deserve. They can live as they wish but in limited areas. Cultural separation between groups. Must master's own culture and be accepted by the other groups.
Racism Racism ethnocentric ethnocentric differences are learned. The group itself is culturally superior. There are cultural problems in relation to the other. Others must comply with our group. Cultural separation. Must master's own culture and be accepted by the other groups.
Aversive racism
aversive racism are learned differences. There are no superior races. The contact is threatening, as a social problem. There are equal rights for different groups. One's culture should dominate and be accepted by others.
Racism Not Racism The differences are not learning. There are no superior races. There is no threat, the other rich. There are equal rights.

We can talk about political racism, institutional racism, social racism, overt racism, covert racism. Today we talk about culture that values Eurocentric or Western European or Western culture as dominant.

It is difficult to detect racism in:

- Distribution of groups in different areas or neighborhoods of cities.
- Denial of entry of certain groups in schools.
- Denial of rental housing to specific groups.
- View normal to live in subhuman conditions for certain groups.
3.3. Consequences of racism

Racism brutalizes and dehumanizes, ignoring other groups, double consciousness develops psychological and double standards, conformity group produces ...

3.4. The development of awareness, racial preferences and racism

Racial attitudes of adults and in particular prejudices are shaped in childhood.

3.5. Development of racial attitudes

The formation of attitudes can be analyzed from the perspective of the development of cognitive processes.

Katz describes the development of racial awareness through a scheme of eight levels.

- By 3 years produced the first observations of racial indices (hair, skin color ...).
- Basic concepts are formed on other groups whose labels can provide adults.
- The differentiation of concepts. The subject is able to classify racial concepts as positive and negative.
- Recognize that the traits or indices are intractable.
- Between 3 and 5 years consolidates the group concept.
- The group is categorized by distinguishing between "us" and "them".
- Cognitive Development: conceptual attitudes become racial attitudes by school experience.
- Crystallization of attitudes become stable, socially maintained.

3.6. Constancia in the categorization

The constancy of racial categorization is reached at 7 or 8 years.

3.7. Sources of racism

The child starts a process of categorization of the environment by comparison, is integrated into your group and distinguishes it positively. The need to understand the complexity of the social world and placed himself in an acceptable condition within it, is what leads children to meet adult social categorizations and associate with them.

3.8. Attitudes and behaviors

The infant, in principle, does not seem to racial hostilities. The separation between groups is increased from 8 to 16 years. The subjects show a tendency to choose friends among the group itself, a trend that is growing with age.

3.9. Learning racial attitudes and behavior

There are two types of learning: some refer to attitudes and behaviors. Learning racial attitudes is guided by the cultural attitudes of parents and peers, also by emotions and affections, and also, in a more abstract and verbal than real.

Moreover, the behavior may vary according to contexts: studies suggest that friendship choices with subjects from other groups decrease with age. Elections become more integrated and more differentiated.

3.10. Problems of studies on attitudes, preferences and ethnic or racial consciousness

This section will address some of the causes that explain different results in the analysis of racial attitudes and behavior.

3.11. Ethnocentrism and Eurocentrism

Ethnocentrism is a form of prejudice that implies the attitude, the feeling that one's own cultural group is the scepter of what is reasonable and correct in life, and where culture is valued the same group or ingroup over the other, considering the group center of the question. Others are judged by the standards group's own group.

Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism
FEATURES FEATURES ideological discourse ideological discourse
- Thinking in terms of endo / outgroup. - Each group is perceived as homogeneous reality. - Rejection and sense of threat from outgroups. - The key to social discourse is the difference between ingroup and outgroup.
- The difference is valued hierarchy and inequality. - Appear contradictory attitudes as analyze the endo or the outgroup. - No account is taken of the subjective nature of judgments, values and attitudes. - He thinks in terms of categories. - Segregation of other groups. - It is thought that groups and individuals are organized into hierarchies defined in terms of power and weakness. - The group is cohesive relative to the outgroup. - The outgroup is threatening because it is eager for power. - The ingroup is more important or culturally superior. - The individual submits blindly to the ingroup by idealization. - There is a hierarchical perception of the group and individuals in the group.


The EURO-CENTRISM some features:

- V linear trajectory from Greece to USA.
- Europe is presented as the engine of progress and historical change that is democracy, class society, capitalism and industrial development.
- Is credited with developing democratic institutions.
- It takes into account the traditions of non-European and undemocratic actions hidden.
- Minimize the oppressive practices carried out, understanding them as accidental.
- No analyzing or culturally appropriate masking non-European countries.

4. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION TOWARDS THE OPPOSITE SEX

Stereotyping in relation to the opposite sex are generalizations about gender-related behaviors in which there are considered to be accurate.

The discrimination-separation of boys, girls play groups is a common phenomenon. Between 2 and 4 years, boys and girls appear to learn what is appropriate or inappropriate in reference to the conduct of sexual or gender role.

5. PREJUDICE AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

5.1. Nonverbal communication

For non-verbal communication is understood gestures, postures, orientations of the body, natural or artificial somatic oddities, organization of objects, relations of distance between individuals through which some information is issued.

It is estimated that between 50 and 90% of communication between people takes place through nonverbal channels.

Nonverbal communication is characterized in that allows humans to make adjustments to their behavior in the presence of others. This setting is used for all the sensory equipment.

Not all cultures allow or perform the same gestures.

Features include:

- It is constructed as the verbal.
- The subject can not communicate.
- It is not always intentional.
- You can not have intended to convey what is communicated.
- Nonverbal communication answering behaviors that need training.
- There is often nonverbal communication in the presence of others, although there are activities under vacuum.

5.2. Classification of nonverbal community

5.2.1. Preverbal communication

Activities on the child as the singing, yawning. Is concerned with the human face that provides answers. This is proto.
5.2.2. Communication paraverbal

What is paraverbal accompanying verbal and refers to how something is said. We discuss the behavior of speech, including voice qualities and vocalizations. Aspects such as breaks, sounds intrusion errors ...
5.2.3. The proper nonverbal communication

This is a communication received through the senses of sight, touch, smell, and includes all kinds of conscious and unconscious human behavior can be interpreted as a carrier of information.

Unspoken messages express conscious and unconscious feelings, emotions, relationships and even personal values and culture.
5.3. Source of non-verbal communication

Some believe that it is inborn and other fruit from the environment. Perhaps a more reasonable approach is eclectic:

In the non-verbal language can be distinguished:

- THE GESTURE ITSELF
- Those who CAUSES
- The meaning in each culture GIVES

5.4. Functions of nonverbal communication

- Communicating attitudes and emotions.
- Complete the meaning of verbal utterances.
- Provide feedback for language.
- Keep the focus.
- Check timing.
- Replace the verbal language.


5.5. Types of nonverbal communication

We talk about the cinemas or KINESICOS when talking about communication based on ways to move and use the body.
5.5.1. The visual channel

Many of the nonverbal messages are perceived through the visual channel: postures, gestures (body and face), rhythm.

Each person gesturing in a way, reflected themselves and their culture. Many times the gestures are not only inseparable from the words, but are markers of language itself: make education level, fatigue, relationship beginnings and endings ..

Within
gestures can be distinguished:

BADGES: such as the V for victory with his fingers.
ILLUSTRATOR: accompany speech, for example, the gestures we make with their hands when we talk about "whole group".
Share the Luv her face and body posture.
REGULATORS: to facilitate the conversation with the other person, indicating that continue, stop ...
ADAPTERS: scratch, make drawings as we speak or hear ..., fold paper or use the pen ...
The distance is very important: each person knows their minimum distance interpersonal and feels uncomfortable when someone is approaching and penetrate it. The close-ranges from 45 to 75 cm. The distant from 75 to 120 cm. The public distance used for formal ties with groups from the 3.5 m.
Mark the spatial orientation system relationship. Placing a greater height is an indicator of dominance.
Posture indicates friendship, hostility, indifference, self-confidence, distrust.
The smiles and laughter can serve to insult, a sign of friendship, shame, happiness, ridiculous, acceptance ...
The physical appearance, clothing, skin, hair, are sources of communication.
Physical attractiveness is related to the perception of social-antisocial behavior.

5.5.2.Touch

In this communication involves many factors: location, cultural and environmental context, relationship, sex, family ties, intent and duration ...

Some cultures more tactile than others. Any classification of contacts from lowest to highest is:


- Contact functionally professional.
- Social contact-polite.
- Contact warmth of friendship.
- Contact loving intimacy.
- Contact sexual arousal.

5.5.3. The taste

The food tastes culture to culture are varied. Also within the same culture we can find big differences.

Perhaps the most clear is that eating habits are the result of socialization. Each culture establishes what food is acceptable and what is not.
5.5.4. The smell

Every culture has acceptable and unacceptable odors. They are also the result of the customs and how they themselves are prone to change.
5.6. The community's cultural context nonverbal

Each culture develops its own signs, codes and language objects associated with body movements, including kinetic behavior and physical characteristics, distribution of space and objects and people in it.

Moreover, each culture gives a different value to honor, to work, time, care for the elderly subjects, the intuitive reasoning.
5.7. Injury and nonverbal language

The misinterpretation of nonverbal communication is a source of misunderstandings and ethnocentric bias, reaching a value of one culture to another as rare, strange, bottom and even primitive.

This ethnocentrism can lead to intolerance, disapproval of the other group.

6. PREJUDICE AND differentiated framework

6.1. The stigma

The Stigma is often a distinguishing body marks of others think something wrong with the moral status of the person who presents.

We speak of individuals discredited, "abnormal" in their social identity.

There are three types of marks:


- Physical deformity: blind, lame, lame, dumb ...
- Defects of character: dishonesty, alcoholism, drug addiction, homelessness ...
- The ethnic, racial, religious, nation.

6.2. Action taken against stigma

Stigma is a generalization, a belief in that they think that whoever owns that property is not fully human, is lower, reducing the life chances of individuals who carry it.

6.3. Ways to address the situation of stigma

Individuals often face stigma and carry them:

- Trying to fix it directly with surgery, psychotherapy.
- Indirectly trying to show that one may pursue inaccessible because of the deficiency.
- Use the stigma or failure to obtain secondary benefits.

In situations of encounter between a bearer of stigma and one "normal" in the latter can give insecurity, avoidance behavior, morbid curiosity ... The aggressive behavior may be stigmatized, boastful, untimely, of complete inhibition.

6.4. Steps in building the stigmatized identity

The views vary:

Since they share the same difficulty support or shelter.
Depending on the level and time that is stigmatized.
Since associations or support groups.

If the person reaches stigmatized social status, economic policy, some standing, serves as an example to their peers.

Under the terms of those normal people who professionally serve them: nurses, social workers, doctors ...

According to the viewpoint of people with friendship or kinship with the stigmatized.

6.5. Standardization

For standardization means within the standard meter to a group that was previously considered, namely the acceptance of a stigma on the part of the normal group. Although difficult to complete integration of these individuals.


6.6. Stages in the conceptualization of the self

The types of socialization in which they are immersed stigmatized the subject vary widely depending on the type of difficulty or deficiency under which categorizes him.
Initially learning to incorporate the views of normal subjects, but later known the consequences of possession of stigma.
ITEM 4 - DIVERSITY AND CULTURE

1. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND EDUCATION

Addressing issues of cultural diversity in education is controversial, as there are different approaches: from its negation to its assessment as an educational resource.

First we approach the concept of culture:

- The collective memory, the common language, products and social achievements and materials received from birth and live in your mind (Feher)
- Educationally is a system of concepts and values, including beliefs, patterns and custom created, maintained, used and modified by a group. It is the knowledge needed to survive as a group and facilitate communication. Includes adaptive products, subjective dimensions (valores. ..), interactive (lenguaje. ..) and materials (artefactos. ..).

There are several considerations to make regarding cultural diversity in education:

- Avoid a superficial view of culture and distinguish it from terms such as race or ethnicity (culturally elaborated concepts).
- Although it is questionable monocentrism of Western culture, the perspective that is emerging is a new global discourse at risk of invasion and cultural erosion.
- Education must look to other forms of cultural diversity (youth, elderly ...) apart from the traditional (immigrants, ethnic groups ...)
- There are key cultural components representative of the culture (language, religion ..), and we must question what the most important educationally.
- Cultural differences must be considered socially constructed relations, might otherwise be entitled to distributions and unequal resources.
- Every culture is undergoing constant change, and education is ongoing cultural exchange
- Culture is not an individual, shared, and provides courses of action, although it gives more influence behavior

1.1.Approaches and paradigms
Educational responses to cultural diversity are synthesized into nine major paradigms:




1 .- Adding ethnic and multicultural studies.

An integrated curriculum including units, lessons and traditions of different cultures.

2 .- Human relations and positive cultural identity

Inclusion in the curriculum units that highlight the contributions of different groups and communication skills to improve relations.

3 .- Linguistic Paradigm.

The failure of the minority is due to instruction in a language different from yours.
Advocates the use of mother tongue and specific programs for learning the second.

4 .- Multicultural Education.

He advocates cultural pluralism and richness of diversity. Educationally, the aim would be to introduce programs that reflect the learning styles of different cultures.

5 .- antiracist education.

Racism as a cause of educational problems of minorities. It aims to reduce racism in school and society through specific activities and materials for this and changing teacher attitudes.

6 .- Cultural Deprivation.

Posed behavioral and intensive remedial education, taking the view that school failure is caused by the inability to cultural achievement of someone belonging to a minority within a larger group.

7 .- Genetic.

Opinion that the failure of the minority culture is biological and can not be eliminated. The aim would be to create a meritocracy based on intellect as measured by test.

8 .- Radical.

Believes that the school should educate the person to accept their social status. The aim would be to raise awareness and capitalist class to demand social and economic reforms.




9 .- assimilationism.

The ethnic identification prevents full participation in mainstream culture, therefore education should liberate them to allow them to acquire the dominant values. Western nations are still dominated by these goals (UN 1985).

Educational paradigms based on social theories, ideologies and relations between cultures:

Conflict Theory
Social Theory Social Liberal Psychosocial Conflict
Liberal Conservative Ideology
Ideology Critique
Cultures Cultures contact contact pluralistic relativism Interaction Ranking Identity Integration
Paradigm Paradigm education educational ethnic Deprivation assimilationism Adding Human Relations Radical Anti-Racist Multicultural

Holistic-intercultural

1.2 Differences cultural and social inequality

Often cultural inequalities justify social injustice and vice versa. There are several models explaining educational differences because of the social characteristics, such as the deficit model, USA, 60, handle cultural diversity with genetic or environmental deficits, which still has validity in part, assuming that the school is not responsible for the failure of some students, but the genetic differences, cultural or environmental.

The differential model / adaptive considers education to be considering the differences as manifestations of adaptation processes and must meet the family environment / community of the student to develop educational interventions to facilitate their access to resources workers and overcome their social exclusion .

It is known that children from diverse cultures and social classes receive from their families a different understanding of the school, causing behaviors classified as unsuitable, and not infrequently these children are ascribed to specific programs, defined not by the student but by the school environment, which is what sets goals according to "official culture".

Against this research related to educational activities effective in the treatment of socio-culturally diverse cultural groups reveal that:

- Rarely minorities are consulted in the decision making process
- We must overcome the deficit model and use multicultural perspectives combined with compensatory instruments
- We must pay particular attention to the acquisition of language and communication in general
- No addresses the cultural differences in the development and acquisition of knowledge
- Developmental psychology suggests paying attention to the potential development area
- It is necessary to redefine the concept of "school success"
- Unable to none of the above without time to train and support teachers

Any educational intervention should begin with identifying the needs of a community and meet their cultural and social, if not the response of minority groups may result in lack of effort, lack of confidence about school and even cultural investment (good results = despised for theirs).

The models are executed in compensatory educational programs targeted to conceive as rising educational progress of a lower to a higher level, establishing groups by ability levels, personal tutorials, specialist appointments.

The accumulated research recommends the use of specific measures with minority groups, in response to affective variables, promoting transfers, exercising resources to resolve conflicts ...

The remedial action is invalid if deemed appropriate after a needs analysis, along with other dimensions of intercultural approach and involving social action beyond the educational context, a proposal without further adapting to a group they can not undo inequality.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the most common today is to believe that students come to school with inadequate skills can not benefit from your offer.

To achieve genuine equality of opportunity are essential permanent structural changes in financial resources, school practices and teacher training.

The schools reflect a context in which elites oversee the existing order, controlling changes, resources, etc.. giving high status to certain cultural aspects and de-legitimizing others. The question that arises is how far a society can respond to the needs of diverse cultural partner groups, legitimized by reference to all democratic ideologies, with the population as a whole, including the hegemonic groups? The answers so far (models of deficit / compensatory and differential / adaptive) is inadequate.

We need to promote creative activities and life choices that are dependent on educational credentials. The schools provide the skills that allow access to higher education, employment and vocational training. It is therefore essential to ensure that all cultural groups access to a fair and effective school system for all.

1.3. Spanish Context: education policy and school population
Currently attention to cultural difference is associated in our country of immigration, receiving from North Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe.
We can establish an approximate figure of 800,000 immigrants, or 2.2% of the population. Most of the foreigners Courses Early Childhood Education students, and its increased volume, though reduced in importance in the overall education system. Clearly the lack of administrative measures to curb the flow of migrants, and, moreover, still has the marginalization of the Roma minority.

We must also consider existing cultural groups in our country (autonomous regions, rural / urban, etc.). And addressing cultural patterns resulting from the rapid social evolution.

The LODE refers explicitly to the right of foreigners to LOGSE education and introduces in the Preliminary Title principle of respect for fundamental rights and freedoms in democratic principles of coexistence and the exercise of tolerance and freedom, while pointing to education as a vehicle for combating discrimination and inequality based on race, gender, creed or ideology.

Some of the principles laid down are of interest to the multicultural perspective: autonomy of schools, parent and community involvement, social and cultural contextualization, compensatory education inequalities.

However, the model of cultural identification that underlies the curriculum design is restrictive and limited basis. The Education Reform left to curriculum adaptations treatment of cultural diversity. Intercultural Education is collected as a dimension of a crosscutting theme in Primary and Secondary Education for Peace, being absent interaction issues such as cultural, social identification as transcultural criteria, and so on. and take aim construct cultural meanings for everyone from intercultural approaches.

The treatment of cultural diversity through her out of the hidden curriculum, addressing the real needs of the groups, developing appropriate materials, with more than compensating holistic models and initial training of trainers.

2. TOWARDS A MODEL OF INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION
We will have to define an educational-cultural as a set of recommendations that affect all aspects of school. Set theory and conceptual lines of this proposal is what will be covered in the following paragraphs.
2.1.
Bases theoretical - conceptual

We have the conceptual framework provided by the Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology and Pedagogy, link it with the school issues the task is to enhance research and educational practice.

1 .- From an anthropological perspective:

- Develop key concepts such as culture, ethnicity, subculture, minority, marginalized.
- Identify cultural invariants, to study the socialization of education, the formation of cultural and social identity.
- Proposals that emphasize the dynamic interactionist and exchange.

2 .- From a sociological perspective:

- Studies on cultural, social and individual descriptors and models of social relations between groups.
- Models of conflict, for its dominant role in the socio-educational process.
- The structural model - functional, to overcome the dichotomy between models of conflict and socio - psychological.

3 .- From the psychological perspective:

- Analyzing the process of contact between cultures through two key concepts: social forces and crosscultural exchange.
- Cognitive processes involved in the formation and maintenance of attitudes and stereotypes and the cultural construction of individual and social identity.
- The role that culture plays in shaping and psychological development through the internalization of cultural tools, educational action should involve meaningful activities for the teacher and student.

4 .- From a pedagogical perspective:

- Model-adaptive differential that defines the characteristics of individuals and groups as dynamic relationships, not to label. Academic problems are not due to disabilities, deficiencies or differences.
- Analysis of critical pedagogy that advocates collective improvement and structural equality against the current trend of promoting individual

These are the theoretical framework that fits the educational attention to diversity, which entails some fundamental principles for practice and research in schools:

a. - The ultimate goal is to achieve reform school for a fair and equal education opportunities
b. - The changes in the educational system should include not only changes in the curriculum, but in all aspects of the process (attitudes, strategies, materials, etc.).
c. - Address the integration of content and processes through which knowledge is constructed
d. - The education received in schools must ensure not only equal opportunity of access to education, but equality and empowering experience efficient
e. - Overcoming racism and discrimination requires an analysis of the racial attitudes of students and teachers

On this basis an educational proposal is formulated to meet the diversity inherent in democratic societies, which consider cultural pluralism as wealth. The multicultural education goes beyond assimilationist and compensatory alternatives in this sense the denomination, would be the most consistent for Intercultural Education, emphasizing the interaction, communication, negotiation and cross-cultural enrichment.

2.2 A proposal for intercultural education
It is defined as an "educational approach based on respect and appreciation of cultural diversity, addressed to each and every member of society as a whole proposes a model of intervention, formal and informal, holistic, integrated configurator all the dimensions of the educational process in order to achieve equal opportunities / outcomes, overcome racism in all its forms, communication and intercultural competence "(Aguado, 1995)

Equal opportunities are supposed to consider the skills, talents and experiences as a starting point for further schooling. Take measures to encourage it tests our tolerance and appreciation of diversity as a strength and not as valuable to overcome weakness.

Would be basic objectives of any proposal for intercultural education:

- Recognize and accept diversity and to advocate for equal opportunities for all
- Principles of social justice by promoting democratic participation
- Facilitate the success of all with an equitable education
- Offer all the opportunity to be critical and productive members of society
- Promote social action against racism, discrimination and xenophobia
- Valuing diversity as a positive
- To facilitate contact between diverse groups within and outside the school to function effectively in a multicultural
- Support ideological, economic, political and educational affecting all areas of daily life
- Promoting cross-cultural strategies in the teaching-learning processes and train teachers multicultural
- Extend the proposal to all areas of society and in education to all its stakeholders
- Respond more to the quality of the relationship to the means used
- New strategies in the classroom, methodology, teacher training, school climate and relationships with parents and community

The effectiveness of this ambitious proposal Intercultural Education will depend on the actions are consistent with the needs analysis of the context in which the implant is combined with structural measures beyond the school environment. If not, could be used to mask inequalities and avoid adopting diversity-friendly initiatives.

3. MIDDLE SCHOOL INTERCULTURAL
Middle school is all-formal educational context of any educational level, intercultural school environment is assumed to educate school groups doing the same and comparable, taking into account the distinguishing features.

The school environment as a whole is a system composed of a number of identifiable factors, like attitudes and characteristics of students, staff and community, learning processes, assessment procedures, overt and hidden curriculum, teaching materials and contents (table). In an intercultural school environment each reflecting social equality, cultural and ethnic diversity.

The reform must extend to each of the variables for all to live a similar environment. Teachers and students should assimilate perceptions "the other" to enrich and improve academic performance of diverse cultures, helping to operate effectively in the mainstream culture and to / from other cultures.

MIDDLE SCHOOL MIDDLE SCHOOL

School personnel have democratic values and attitudes linguistic pluralism and diversity are valued and promoted

The school reflects and legitimizes diversity of teaching styles are used by cultural groups
The procedures promote equal opportunities and outcomes Students in different groups enjoy the same status school

The curriculum and materials have cultural perspectives on concepts, results and problems Acquire necessary to recognize different forms of racism and take action against him

The investigation of the relationship between school-specific variables and cultural diversity has focused on four dimensions: school climate, hidden curriculum, guiding process (diagnosis and evaluation) and outcome of the implementation of specific programs.
3.1. Dimensions and variables

3.1.1. Intercultural School Climate

A school with a well-articulated intercultural looking for more good results than punishing misconduct gets low levels of antisocial behavior. Teachers maintain high expectations for students and avoid harm. However, the assimilationist schools have poorer levels in those variables, face additional problems, such as the formation of ethnic gangs, higher level of stereotypes and teachers blame the students for academic failure.

In assessing the cultural climate in the educational environment, has focused attention on three dimensions:

a) overall quality of educational environment, specifically intercultural agenda, considering the more meaningful interaction aimed at achieving. The instruments used are the guidelines for observation and questionnaires. Using that data we can evaluate and make timely decisions about needs and wants.

b) Attitudes of students and teachers. Measuring them we can develop appropriate proposals to the needs of the context in which they wish to apply an intercultural program. Measuring instruments would be the semantic differential, observation guides and various behavioral indicators.

c) Participation of families and communities, assessing the quantity and quality of contacts. Aspects to consider are language, communication difficulties, volunteers ...

Some basic recommendations for communication to be effective mediators parents is to use the native language of parents, develop an interview script, bicultural personal use, or using an open questionnaire to identify concerns and suggestions in order to reach agreements on policy school.















INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION: 3 POSSIBLE COURSES OF INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION: 3 POSSIBLE COURSES OF ACTION

Education Curriculum Development Project Proposals for the area

General objectives: Objectives:
Analysis of the cultural diversity of the curriculum context analysis: critical review of methodological Styles

Areas: Areas:
Notes required for an intercultural approach. Contextualization Applying Reformulation and contextual adaptation, adapting and developing curriculum materials

Intercultural approach Translation: Translation of the intercultural approach to:
Objectives for intercultural (contextualization) Intercultural Education and Educational units intercultural mainstreaming


3.1.2. School culture and hidden curriculum

The hidden curriculum, teaching, understood as tacit social norms and expectations and economic inequality which explains in minority groups. Thus, intercultural educational action must be based on these hidden aspects that affect the culture transmitted and legitimated by the school.

We found school practices that exacerbate inequalities, including:

a) Classification or clustering in groups "homogeneous" as classes, activities ...
b) Diagnosis and evaluation by tests that do not adapt culturally to minorities
c) Methodology / Curriculum objectives and styles with little flexible and responsive to the variety
d) Organization spacetime, with lack of local and inflexible timetables for the needs of minorities
e) Participation of students and poor families in developing standards of conduct, the minority felt that their traditions, and so on. are excluded from school.

Concerning participation, studies show positive effects when minorities are involved in school governance. Initiatives arise "antideficitarias" (parents alike) and Deborah Meyer alternative schools that take seriously the idea of cultural democracy. To achieve adopt measures such as structural changes in school organization, teacher training, use of community resources, etc..

3.1.3.
Diagnosis and Evaluation

Research shows the importance of variables such as multicultural sensitivity and strategies used in the guidance to achieve multicultural goals.

Often diagnosed subjectively student ability through indicators such as physical appearance, language and social factors (income, family size, etc..) Case that the lower class or minority group ascribed to levels below their capabilities, leading accentuate the differences.

So the normal practice of diagnosis and evaluation has some racial bias, since they start from a single standard, regardless of class or culture of origin. The tests take into account the product, not the process and do not help to optimize the qualities of the learner and respond to real needs of education.

Diagnostic procedures and evaluation should take into account that there are emotional and cultural variables that affect the educational performance of minority students, and are not traditionally associated with academic success, including:

a) positive self-concept in relation to individual and cultural group
b) Understanding and ability to handle racism
c) Self-assessment realistic minority students believe that their successes and failures are due to causes external to it (external locus of control)
d) they perceive their own control over their lives in long-term goals
e) Households with high expectations about their results (usually an adult has great influence)
f) Sense of belonging and critical thinking
g) Linking to the home community and participation in extracurricular activities
h) Knowledge and interests beyond the academic

Regarding the first variable, ethnic identity is possible in a multicultural society, the problem from a multicultural perspective to address the conflict is taking that personal identity when he was in the minority.

The ethnic identification should not be considered as a separate culture, what happens is now identified with the defense of economic and social interests, and people accept or change their identity if is an advantage for them. It relates the cultural self-interest, psychological, economic and social.

With regard to motivation and perceived control (d), the different perceptions about the controllability of their academic modulate attitudes, expectations toward school.

The challenge of multicultural education is to encourage personal identity / social partner, to recognize different interests, the need for minorities to maintain self-esteem, to harness the resources of the majority culture and interact effectively in society.

3.2. Recommendations for educational practice

Research on the effectiveness of certain practices is weak, it cites two examples:

a) The instrumental enrichment program based on cognitive modifiability and learning potential has achieved positive results, manifested in increased test scores not intellectual, behavioral improvement, self-reliance, adaptability to the task.

The objections are because it is made from the idea that we must correct certain minorities deficient functions (patterns, vocabulary, etc.). And affects motivation and self-perception in achieving academic success. No results are available about the duration of the improvement, and monitoring data on minorities.

b) In the Spanish context, highlight two recent studies. The first intervention that encourages school adjustment of students at a disadvantage (in this case Roma). The results show that favors adaptation, interaction, self-concept and attitudes ethnic group. Also evidence lower levels of motivation and understanding of minority group school

The second, focused on identifying and evaluating models to obtain information about the actual educational practices, and assess the effectiveness of the models according to the achievement of multicultural, and designing programs according to identified needs.

Studies conducted in places with multicultural programs in place, warn of the need to adopt measures to promote a consensus in resolving conflicts arising from diversity:

1. Tips multicultural orientation in all sectors (students, teachers, parents ...).
2. Involvement of all students in developing the rules of the institution.
3. Encourage participation in extracurricular activities.
4. Review of materials and resources used, from diagnosis to evaluation.
5. Training teachers and staff in intercultural relations
6. Meetings with families.
7. Participation of minority teachers in conflict resolution.
8. Measures to promote participation, leadership and prestige of minority students.

Action should be aware of cultural differences in ways of learning (cognitive development), which are made compatible with more or less institutionalized education as it is learned in terms of contexts and previous values. The evidence accumulated in this area allows us to establish that:

- Cognitive development occurs in a cultural context, and therefore should be valued according to their degree of adaptation
- We must take into account cultural considerations such as probability of sufficient understanding to occur in a particular cultural milieu
- There is no cultural group showing cognitive development faster than another
- The change in context occurs by interactions between the individual and the environment

The research has focused on cognitive variables associated with cultural differences, and that more attention has been devoted to cognitive style, which relates the socialization / education with the interpretation that people make of their environment and have established :

- Dependence and independence of the independent field represents a more abstract and impersonal thought the clerk, more concrete and context-bound
- Levelers and configurators first tied to the categories of perception / opinion and tend not to change them to a new evidence
- Impulsivity and reflectivity as the degree of one or other action associated with cognitive
- Structured vs. non structured according to the anticipation that demand learning content
- Urban versus rural the former requires more capacity for complex information, but at the expense of losing sensitivity to people and events in country style

Teachers can reconcile the school experience with learning styles reaching a cultural compatibility. We can give some recommendations related to cognitive variables relevant to a teaching-learning process that aims to be culturally significant:

- The use of strategies appropriate to the student and the task produce improvements in the implementation and results
- The cultural milieu of the teacher's behavior does not determine significant cultural
- The planning and organization of the student during class often differs from that of Professor
- Students need flexibility in the rules of conduct
- The individual attention, positive or negative, is not desirable
- The school communication structures should forge links with home and community
- The effectiveness of the teacher is as much about his personal capacity and with its academic rigor
- Minority students respond better to teaching relaxed rhythms
- We must strengthen education directed to the interaction between minority and majority groups
- We must teach "other ways" to everyone, not just minorities
- The educational design must have the significant social and cultural context for students
- We must use different combination of learning patterns (logical analogy ...)
- No isolation made of meanings, encourage exploration, curiosity, and so on. in thought
- In areas of science interdisciplinary studies are needed, thinking not only what is taught but also who and how

Obviously, an education which does not provide the cognitive variables related to cultural proper training will not provide culturally relevant, since it would not meet student needs that they address.

The following is a summary of what has been said here, it outlines the significant variables in the treatment of cultural diversity in education and preparing proposals for exchanges:

PRODUCT ENTRY PROCESS VARIABLES PROCESS VARIABLES INPUT PRODUCT
Males Females Age, sex, abilities, attitudes, social environment, cognitive style, learning, communication skills Attitudes, self-concept, implementation, multicultural competence
FAMILY
FAMILY expectations, needs, communication skills participation, attitudes, acceptance attitudes, expectations, multicultural competence
COMMUNITY
COMMUNITY Needs, language, cultural distance participation, acceptance, relationship attitudes, multicultural competence, access to resources
CENTER
CENTER goals and objectives, school culture, language strategies, materials, space-time, discipline, evaluation, attitudes, interaction average academic results
TEACHERS TEACHERS Age-sex, attitudes, learning style training, participation, attitudes, multicultural competence
There are two tables on the dimensions that should influence for effective development of multicultural education (pp. 279, 280 of the textbook).

4. NEW PROPOSALS FOR INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION
In four fields arise programs to develop the concept of multiculturalism in educational settings both formal and informal: intercultural education as a central focus, as intercultural communicative competence, intercultural mediation and training in citizenship. In the previous sections explained something about the first two areas, we will now focus on social mediation and intercultural citizenship.

4.1. Intercultural social mediation
It is understood as involving a third party to assist parties in conflict. This mediation depends on the level at which incorporates the variant cultural (ethnic, religious, etc..) Or party (the mediator culture contained the conflict ...).

Mediation by a neutral person can help resolve conflicts and lead to an agreed solution and also understands that conflict is inherent to man and not necessarily negative.

Mediation helps resolve in a constructive and positive, not to mention respectful. And school mediation is important in preventive and educational level (individually and collectively).

One can distinguish two models of socio mediation:

- He who does a person outside the Center
- The way that the educational community in techniques to resolve conflicts themselves

It is fundamentally a connection between family, school and community in four major areas:

a) The school: leadership, students, equipment orientation, etc.. and AMPAS
b) occupational workshops, etc. Social Guarantee Programs.
c) Civil society: NGOs, Unions, Associations, etc.
d) Institutions: Municipalities, Educational Inspection, Police, etc.

What will mediation in specific socio contexts?

- Promote positive conflict management
- Provide constructive arrangements
- Pacific and to reduce tensions between parties
- Create a school environment where peaceful and constructive development:
- The assertion and self-esteem
- Mutual trust
o The ability to share (feelings, information ...)
o A positive and optimistic attitude towards life
- Promote effective access for all to community resources
- Promote the understanding of differences and mutual enrichment
- Helping to overcome prejudice, racism
- Prevent or regulate situations of conflict
- Facilitate communication between community workers
- Include significant elements of different cultures

What basic features should be a mediator in a context in addition to those defined?

- Be aware of your own values, prejudices ... (self-analysis)
- Manage a broad concept of culture
- Possess knowledge of working groups
- Understand the parties between which the middle keeping the fairness
- Know the context and available resources, and suggest appropriate to each case
- To master techniques of conflict resolution
- Avoid taking cultural relativism of human rights (respect is not equal to "anything goes")

One of the pioneer programs in the social mediation training in Spain is the School of Social Mediators for Immigration (EMSI) 1995, which aims to build spaces in which cultural exchange is possible, is the focus of educational activity.

4.2.
Education for Intercultural Citizenship

Currently we are experiencing a period of rapid change that we must learn to be participating citizens in our city, Autonomy, State or Community. Even the phenomenon of globalization has involved us in decisions that go beyond Europe.

What that leads us to give new meaning to the concept and practice of citizenship? Why is it important to consider these factors in education?

- The processes of integration of minorities in our country. Both coming as those who are must learn to live with diversity, respect and values.
- We see the need to overcome situations of exclusion and marginalization of groups, through participation in social and political life of their host countries. And the educational system is to facilitate access to basic social minority.
- There is increasing concern of communities and groups who see their identity threatened. You have to base your sense of belonging to a human community inclusion and not exclusion (danger of radical nationalism)
- The socialization processes related to education must be enriched by participation in public and institutional dimensions. We must overcome many cases of impermeability educational issues of their own environment.
- The development of the concept and practice of citizenship must include the third generation of human rights. These have evolved: freedom prevail (1st Generation), equality and justice (2nd generation), solidarity and dialogue (3rd generation). The latter emphasizes the need to exclude anyone from the political and social processes of decision making. So, teach responsibility which involves the realization of these rights is a major goal of education today.
- In a changing world where teens are constantly bombarded with messages, often contradictory, concerning the rights of individuals and peoples, intercultural education has been giving way to an education for active citizenship and intercultural criticism.
ITEM 5 - DIVERSITY IN RELATION TO SEX AND GENDER
INTRODUCTION
SEX:
refers to basic physiological differences between men and women. Differences in primary and secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive capacity.
GENDER: specific patterns of social and cultural behavior. It refers to the social characteristics of being male or female in particular social and historical circumstances.
1. CONSTRUCTION OF SEX
1.1. Ontogenesis of sexual difference
We distinguish several stages:
Genetic level in establishing the genetic sex by the combination of chromosomes.
Level endocrinology: gonadal sex is determined by the formation of the gonads and hormones.
Level anatomical / physiological: when determining the external genitalia.
Neurological level: period in which the sexualization brain occurs.
The result of this process is the dimorphism / sexual polymorphism.
Sex-linked Traits: All those traits are controlled by genes on sex chromosomes.
1.1.2. Genetic Sex
Human beings have a genetic endowment of 23 pairs of chromosomes, of which only carries a couple sexual characteristics and is represented as
XX (envelope female) or XY (male endowment). The remaining autosomes contain no information or sex-linked.
The
X chromosome contains most of the genetic information while And now you are only aware of their importance in sexual differentiation (sexual dimorphism).
Sexual dimorphism is the phenomenon where humans have two forms or two different aspects according to gender, ie women and men.
Speaking of
sex-linked inheritance, we must bear in mind that there are genes dominant or recessive nature and this refers to the intensity of each inherited character.
The information that appears externally on the subject is
dominant while the recession is hidden.
Many of the genetic alterations act in a recessive, however the benefits do so for genetic dominance.
1.1.3. Sex Hormone
It is the result of hormonal secretion of sex hormones. Hormones are also responsible for the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics.
? male sex hormones or androgens, testosterone stresses produced in the testes.
? female sex hormones are estrogen and progesterone and are produced in the ovaries.
Both men and women produce all kinds of hormones, which varies among them is the rate at which occurs every one of the hormones.
1.1.4. Sexualization brain takes place when the vascular system can lead to brain hormones. There is a critical period for brain sexuality.
Or
critical period of maximum susceptibility, those in which the hormones act causing differentiation. In humans, these periods are extended from gestation until puberty.
Brain sexual differentiation comes down to differences in reproductive function and does not affect cognitive or affective.
1.2. Sexual polymorphism 1.2.1. Turner Syndrome Chromosomal Changes: A default chromosome. In women implies a lack of one X chromosome in the XX pair. It is denoted by X0 and results in: subjects do not develop sexual characteristics or develop poorly. These female subjects, although flawed. Usually identified at puberty.
Women who have more than 2 X chromosomes: women tend to be tall and gangly. Suffer alterations in their mood. If a no more X chromosomes subjects had profound mental retardation and serious problems in their anatomy.
Klinefelter syndrome XXY allocation type, XXXY. Males are high. Male hormone levels low. Secondary male characters lack Probability of normal life.
Anomaly doubling, tripling .... the Y chromosome: Subjects morphologically normal, high, with poor coordination of movements and early hormonal problems.
1.2.2. Changes due to hormones
Sexual origin syndromes are due to hormonal secretion and insensitivity or sensitivity to certain hormones.
Syndrome of testicular feminization: Subjects with XY karyotype but morphologically female. Have testes and secretion of androgens and develop a female phenotype. No bleeding nor are fertile. Because of its appearance are assigned the female sex.
Adreno congenital syndrome or pseudo-hermaphroditism: Subjects with male external genitalia and gonads and female hormones. Female subjects are identified as males. Normal intellectual capacity.
- The subjects that result from these syndromes are those that lead to talk of a sexual polymorphism.
- The appearance of the genitalia at birth determines the sex that applies to the newborn subject.
- Between 18 months and 3 years down the role of gender, period from which it is difficult to change.
- The above syndromes occur in small proportion and show the importance of sex allocation of educational and culturally.
1.3. Sexual polymorphism 1.3.1. Puberty and adolescencePuberty: The period that begins to manifest in the subject of sexual maturity. Stage in which the body takes the adult-like.
Adolescence refers to the psychological aspects that accompany puberty, implicit to it. Adaptation is carried out subject to abrupt changes that are taking place in it.
Spermatogenesis: The process by which sperm are produced.
Ovulation: The process by which eggs are produced.
PUBERTY PUBERTY
MEN WOMEN MEN WOMEN
Increased weight, height and size of the testicles. Pubic hair growth. Lengthening the penis and ejaculation occurs 1st Growth of pubic hair, breast development and menarche or first rule. Growth in stature
In analyzing the biological differences between men and women, from the point of view of the genetic similarities predominate over differences, should take account of differences arising out of the sex chromosomes.
Example: A woman usually produces one egg a month while the male ejaculates regularly in normal quantities.
The woman can become pregnant only once during the cycle while the man's ability to fertilize a number of times.
1.4. Social construction of sex and gender
There is some confusion between both terms refer to the same biological reality. Sex and gender are not synonymous because they refer to realities that have areas where they overlap and where there is autonomy.
SEX: refers to those aspects of the individual who clearly have a biological basis and are linked to reproduction and sexuality.
It refers to genetic sex, chromosomal, hormonal, or sexualizing processes that occur before birth.
GENDER: is a social category, develops in the socialization process and includes those aspects that have not been shown to have biological causes. It is a social label that distinguishes 2 groups of people and whose components are learned relatively independently of the biological information underlying them.
Living things are grouped into 2 genders, male and female.
All societies have classified subjects according to this measure, two sexes, which has been called
sexual dimorphism.
But to assume the number of variables that appear with a definition of sex irregular along its development, now has been taken as regards the term polymorphism.
The confusion between sex and gender is present because there are aspects of both systems that result from a complex interaction between biological and social influences. Sex and Gender are two natural springs and biological one social the other of the same reality.
1.5. Evolution of sex and gender studies
In the late nineteenth century are initiated studies 1. They are made from the intelligence perspective. They research and studies from developmental psychology and differential, consider the sex variable as a source of potential individual differences in this case intelligence.
1.5.1. First Period
From 1884 to 1936. We must find and justify differences in intelligence between men / women in terms of biological sex.
Psychometric tests and measures used.
Measured from the assumption that
intelligence is that which both groups (men and women) can perform equally well. But they did not control a set of important variables to consider such differences.
1.5.2. Second period
From 1936 to 1954. It changes the direction of the studies.
It discusses sex and gender through a series of personality traits. Psychometric scales are used to measure the characteristics of masculinity and femininity.
There is a tendency to use gender stereotypes to the subjects ranked according to their sex.
1.5.3. Third period
From 1954 to 1966. Is analyzed from the gender roles in which male and female social categories appear as differentials.
The studies are conducted, usually, given exclusively to one of the two groups and the results are extrapolated to another group.
In 1966 appears Maccoby study "Development of sex differences" in reinforcing ideas about social learning and gender constancy.
Important period for developing the concept of gender identity.
1.5.4. Fourth period and stage, from 1966 to 1974. Kohlberg developed his theory from cognitive learning. Mischel made their studies from the social learning analysis.
In 1974, Maccoby and Jacklin are reviewing previous studies.
From 1974 to 1982 served to explore the differences of cognitive, emotional and social. It starts using the word fuck as an alternative to the masculinity and femininity.
At this stage, we reach the concept of sex as a social category and replaced by the term gender. Making new value analysis of the differences between sex and gender.
None of the stages can be considered separately from one another.
1.6. Sex and intelligence Evolutionary Theory
Since evolutionary theory provides complementary psychological functions of women to men from morphism. The difference is necessary to defend evolution and natural selection. For Darwin the change / difference acts allowing development.
As a feature that was addressed for the differences between the sexes, was the intelligence through psychometric measures.

Period functionalist

Found differences between the brains of women and the male, the lower the average woman.
Galton argued the inferiority of women in all intellectual abilities. This is joined by the idea of maternal instinct, her influence on women and the evils of female education.
1.6.1. The verbal According to Maccoby and Jacklin:
- Or there are many differences between the sexes in verbal reasoning tasks.
- If there are some differences in some verbal production tasks.
- Decreases the differences along the life cycle by changes in educational practice.
- The brain seems less lateralized women which may explain small differences.
1.6.2. The mathematical ability Differences are not so great. The analysis of the various tests showed that:
- The mathematical ability was not a unitary concept but different meanings and hidden was measured with different types of tasks.
- The kids excel in tasks related to: cartographic map reading, solving complex problems and tasks that require visual skills. - Girls obtained better scores in tasks requiring numerical skills. - Take into account the variables self-confidence and emotional / motivational .
- It also influences the type of problem to solve and the age of the subjects.
1.6.3. Space capabilities
When there are differences between the two genders occur between 11 and 13.
The study by Maccoby and Jacklin, unscientific highlighted the many previous investigations on differences related to sex / gender. They concluded that the similarities were greater between groups than differences. And on those variables where differences appeared, its magnitude was small and its relative consistency.
1.6.4. The meta-analysis
From the 80's. This method is used to analyze the body of research.
This method gives greater ease in handling data. It is a statistical procedure that synthesizes information from many different and independent studies that seek to test these hypotheses.
It takes place in several steps:
1) Find as many studies as possible on the question of interest.
2 º) Make statistical analysis of the results of each investigation.
- By this method it was found that no significant differences between men and women or in verbal ability or math.
- The differences in spatial ability found in previous studies was reduced to differences in the strategies used to solve the tasks.
- The spatial ability was the only ability that continued to show significant differences.
Cognitivism raised the need to analyze not only the results but also the processes underlying the decision task, which was both psychometric and experimental tasks.
The differences from cognitivist proposals, be explained by the manner of performing the tasks and the way they are sorted.
The differences found are small.
In future research should be geared to understand the mechanisms underlying plan to allow educational strategies to try to lower these differences and their effects.
1.7. Other variables 1.7.1. Distribution of subjects with extreme scores Terman, in his studies found a higher # of kids between the subjects that reached more extreme scores.
Later he saw that this was not true because there were various errors caused by:
- How to identify the most able subjects in these studies.
- The social definition itself, the demands on these kids would appear more than girls.
Benbow, in his studies found they were more occupied by men.
Hyde and others, also found correlation between class, gender and achievement in mathematics tasks.
Pearson, refuted the idea of greater variability of men questioning the methodology used.
1.7.2. Differences in academic performance
- It is noted, generally, the better performance of girls throughout primary school.
- For the same performance, boys have higher intellectual abilities.
White Zazzo explains this by the intelligence of a situation that is more adaptable, more control of the situation and of themselves that leads them to better performance. This potential is diluted to reach the adult stage.
- Studies show that while in the case of men is no correlation between the level of employment and the IQ is not the case among women.
1.7.3. Social Behavior and Personality
Maccoby
and Jacklin (1974) only found differences in the aggressiveness variable in which boys scored higher than girls.
The meta-analysis of research focused on variables such as:
-
Nonverbal communication, women show better performance regardless of any stimulus.
-
Shape and influence, further research to Maccoby and Jacklin are greater conformity in women.
- Assertiveness, the man presents scores.
-
Locus of control, men scored higher on internal control.
- Anxiety, men scored lower.
- Leadership, the differences are small, but women are more oriented to practice democratic leadership.
2. CAUSES OF GENDER INEQUALITY: DEBATE IN NATURE / SOCIALIZATION
2.1. Different theories Theories of biological determinism

Explain gender differences in gender attitudes, skills and temperament to be derived from biological factors: chromosomes and hormones.
They also derive from gender identity and gender differences in cognitive skills and personality. There is no evidence to allow formal unequivocally prove this.
Sociobiology
It is the study of social organization in different animal species from which man is included.
Influence the ideas of biological determinism, but this approach takes into account the nature and socialization. A continuum between biological and social factors involved in the process of socialization of gender roles.
There is a basic nature to man the other for women, resulting from the different roles that they share in reproduction.
Both sexes perform different jobs, tasks and roles.
Theories of gender socialization
They argue that the subjects acquire the concept of gender identity and gender stability, or idea that gender remains fixed throughout life.
Social learning theory cognitivist theories of social learning theory cognitivist theories
They assume that the child is a person who agrees with everything they say They assume that the child is a being active in shaping their experience
Observational Reinforcement Learned The child is motivated to acquire and develop skills Develop categories that explain their world Ananlizan learned behaviors that appear to be appropriate for each gender in a given society
Attach importance to strengthening and Dan punishment greater emphasis on imitation
2.1.1. Learning and gender the child from the birth place of learning among the many who find the genre.
There are several theories to explain how learning takes place. For social learning theories, the reward lies in the satisfaction he feels himself to make the learning subject.
Bandura (1977), to conduct this author has both biological and cognitive origins.
The motivation for learning in humans derives significantly from cultural factors.
For him, the imitation is the tendency to reproduce actions, attitudes and emotional responses from real or symbolic models.
LEARNING BY MODEL (STAGES) LEARNING FROM MODELS (STEPS) - Distinguish between the various patterns of behavior - Generalization of learning - practice the new behavior is learned
LEARNING MODEL FOR OBSERVATION (CRITERIA) LEARNING MODEL FOR OBSERVATION (Criterion) - Submit a higher status - be like - should be perceived as friendly - perceive rewards for the resulting behavior
LEARNING BEHAVIORS GENDER (STEPS) LEARNING BEHAVIOR OF GENDER (STEPS) - Socialization from tampering - Directing attention to certain objects highlighting aspects - verbal treatment of adults - Exposure to encourage activity where or discourage certain behaviors
2.1.2. Learning cognitive and gender. Kohlberg CLASSICAL THEORIES OF LEARNING, (theories defined within behaviorism), the basic identity is the result of learning models of sexual behavior socially typified by a system of reinforcements.
Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the basic identity is the incorporation / identification by the child and parental figures.
Kohlberg (1966), according to his theory learning occurs in a world of sexual offense. Attributed to children learning a role in the intellectually active, organizing, their interaction with the environment.
Identity is installed first and only later identifications occur when the consciousness of being child indicates with whom to identify.
The parents' role is to stimulate or inhibit sexual role behaviors.
STEPS TO ACQUIRE THE ROLE OF SEXUAL IDENTITY STEPS TO ACQUIRE THE ROLE OF SEXUAL IDENTITY
During the 2nd year of life during the 3rd year of life From the 4th year not before 5 or 6 yearsDuring the 2nd year of life during the 3rd year of life From the 4th year not before 5 or 6 years
Be verbal child classifies piecemeal Constancia systematized classification of sexual identity
The origin of the stereotypical perception of gender is the result of a general inclination of humans to a particular symbolic thought.
The taxable value on stereotypes more often, which is similar to me.
The social value of male and female seen more masculine.
Individuals who develop their identities without discordance reach an identity without inconsistencies. Individuals have sought solutions known as ambiguous body remodeling or take one of the two models.
From the 80 published theories (within the cognitive) that assume the plural dimension of sex and gender identity. These are based on:
- Capture of oneself and others, issues related to sex / gender.
- So it is classified in a particular group.
- Get the features typified.
The family influences the development of identity, though not to be the only nuclear family model. It is important to know the important role of family and society in the development of the identity of the subjects.
2.2. The interaction
The genre is built on relationships between people in relationships.
Festinger (1954), seeks to know the process of interaction.
Tajfel and Turner (1986) speak of the interaction from the social comparison theory.
The interaction has the characteristics by which comparisons are valued runlevels.
The need for comparisons is at the base of the formation of groups with similar subjects. Belonging to a group creates a personal image or social identity is to assume the characteristics of the group. Humans continually performs comparisons.


2.3. Gender and interaction
In the interaction act:
The act interaction:
Behaviors and expectations of the subject who initiates the interaction behaviors and responses of the 2nd person interpretation of the 2nd response by the person who initiated the interaction
From stereotypes and personal experience are elaborated gender schemas.
Self-fulfilling prophecy, when an interaction is the subject brings up certain behaviors that elicit responses in the 2nd ranging in subject line confirming the expectations of the first.
People tend to remember what is consistent with the stereotype itself, forgetting what is not consistent with it.
In a situation of interaction, behaviors of the subjects are influencing reciprocity. In the interaction come into play issues such as maintaining self-image, social value, etc. ..
The subject in the interaction also evaluates the risks of action.
2.4. And Gender Identity
According to Fernandez (1999), each subject, from his morphism, using reflectivity, forms an identity. That identity is constructed and changes over a lifetime. In the first age perceived differences are observable in 2 styles of behavior by sex.
Reflexivity Reflexivity
Integra components cognitive, metacognitive, affective and body makes the subject aware of itself has holistic
By reflexivity each subject elaborates throughout his life appropriate images of their identification (sex and gender).
The identity is the result of continued treatment with the other in the different groups in which the subject relates.
Social identity: it is understood as the personal image arising from the in-group characteristics.
Self-knowledge: people compared to other, generally similar to well known.
Self-test: a need that has any taxable to maintain and strengthen the idea he has of s
Self Appraisal: the desire for positive comparisons to maintain a high level of self-esteem.
Social gender identity, is the part of self that derives from membership in the social category of gender. The individual group member feels that occurs from this feature.
Humans consolidates their sense of belonging to a group. It relates to people of the same sex that serve as reference in their behaviors, skills and opinions.
A positive relationship with the group she reinforces her part.
The subject fits, accepted social and cultural norms.
Group behaviors arise from: Group behaviors derived from:
The social value within the group's classification of all individuals in the classes that are perceived as different
Sex as a variable stimulus acts in 2 fields: towards the subject for its own construction and subject to others.
2.5. Does sex as a variable stimulus?
In a gender interaction is important for various other reasons: The importance that society gives you and for being an easily identifiable feature.
The split male / female is universal and culturally learned, varying in their content in time and space.
Universal is the existence of two different categories are not universal but the specific contents of such assignment.
The distinction set from dimorphism / sexual polymorphism has played an important role in structuring society.
The distribution of roles by gender offers a considerable disparity in different societies.
Gender acts on the subject of a binding. The society has been structured on the basis, establishing a hierarchy in which it occurs, generally worth more than the masculine than feminine. This structure maintained throughout the time comes to crystallize in the belief that its origin is natural, not cultural.
Currently and widely in many societies conduct that are accepted as women are valued less than those assumed as masculine.
Most societies have a clear consensus on the behavior that corresponds to either gender.
2.6. Socializers
Sex influence on the creation of distinct patterns of behavior.
In the family, first socialization environment of the individual is treated differently to boys and girls from birth.


FAMILY ACTION PERFORMANCE OF THE FAMILY
With regard to the social construction of gender typing discipline in the expression of emotions
The parental influence is exercised early. It is believed that schemes that transmit in the first moments can be related to future conduct.
The educational process is more consistent with the boys when developing the role of gender.
The expression patterns of attachment are different depending on the sex of the subject.
Belonging to one sex or another resulting in a differential effort through which internalized personal qualities associated with sex / gender.
The difference family behavior toward the child and the child from the earliest years, and even more the younger the child.
2.7. Other related groups
There is a tendency to join groups of equal age and sex in relationships of friendship, are called
peer groups. In developing different games and interactions within the family.
Boys and girls are perceived as different groups with different objectives and standards. Although the interaction processes are similar in both groups vary the methods used or the strategies and behaviors are different.
In mixed groups is usually the guy that a greater number of occasions takes control by the difference in strategies. The girls in these groups are the most change their behavior.
If this type of group conflict situations, girls may be more aggressive.
In mixed groups whose behaviors are more concerning is gender.
The presence of an adult influences interactions among individuals in the group.
2.8. Gender discrimination and education
Discrimination acts more or less subtle in education.
Taking into account different cultures and countries worldwide, women do not have the same educational opportunities. Literacy rates are still lower for women across the world.
The specific nature of gender discrimination in education making is affected by variables such as ethnicity, social class, context, etc ...
Discrimination exists and it may provide both formal and informal domains of education.
Often both teachers and text material such as perpetuate inequalities in society. Pupils are sometimes subtle messages of great power but unequal opportunities based on gender.
Currently women are more visible and appears in performing roles that previously did not appear, if this is treated as exceptional shall continue to perpetuate inequalities.
Appear less stereotypical images of women as docile and passive, helpless and have been removed from the books sexist messages.
EDUCATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN GENDER DIFFERENCES IN EDUCATIONAL GENDER
Are younger than previously thought persist in certain subjects, skills and abilities over academic advantages are provided to men Differences in carrying on the physical, vocational and personal

2.9. Causes of gender discrimination in education
Some causes of differences in opportunities are: strategies, innate intellectual capacity, brain lateralization and sociocultural conditions.
Sociocultural
Sociocultural - Cultural attitudes contrary to the participation of women in education - Under some societies value given to female education - Teaching methods used
Other Factors Other Factors - Lack of female role models - Characterization of materials, skills, etc.. in male and female - Students are socialized into gender roles and behaviors
SCHOOL SCHOOL - Repeat what the society where it is inserted - reflects the values and expectations - teaches and reinforces the cultural expectations
Patterns of attribution of success and failure are also differences between the groups.
Were considered masculine sciences like mathematics, problem solving tasks related to the mechanics and have been seen as feminine literature, fine arts and human relations.
When women achieve success in fields like eg: the mathematics, is attributed to effort or luck. These allocation patterns prevail even when no real differences in achievement or ability.
Students learn in school to conform to gender structures operating in society. They are therefore necessary strategies that balance this state of affairs, through educational policies, staff training, changes in the material, etc. ..
It should raise awareness and choice of instruments and actions to take to develop the skills required for equality.
2.10. Coeducation and gender construction
Male category serves as a reference to a universal cognitive refers to both the male and the female and the Male category refers only to one group, membership of one or another identity has a big difference.
The influence of the school for the transmission of stereotypes of sex / gender can not forget the influence of the
hidden curriculum, through which is to turn on a certain conception of male and female. This makes certain materials are collected sexuadamente without a sufficient base of support.
There is a tendency to take a picture and behave according to gender to which one belongs. Behaviors male / female are fundamentally in mixed groups.
The sex ratio occurs in mixed relationships as power relationships. The presence of both sexes in mixed groups, impacts on gender identity. It also reinforces the sense of belonging if sex / gender.
The effect of the mixed group of girls is fairly constant and the mere presence of children acts trigger the activation process of categorization.
ITEM 6 - DIVERSITY AND STRATEGIES FOR ACTION
1. Teaching, learning, diversity
· When analyzing the education for diversity must be taken into account: (these are the essential points that develops the theme)
- An understanding of children which means diversity.
- The meaning and the importance of interpersonal and intergroup relations subjects.
- The practices of teaching and learning related to the above.
• A diversity education involves:
- Take into account and see the diversity.
- Involve all subjects.
- Not limited to what happens in each country.
- It includes attitudes and beliefs toward all people.
• In relation to school:
- Assist the subject to have confidence in their perceptions despite the discrimination that may prevail socially.
- Support the development of social skills, taking into account individual styles, cultural orientation and linguistic environment.
- The practice and educational content should reflect the environment of every child to be more effective in equal opportunities.
- Must work to promote effective interrelationship between social groups.
• In relation to the subject:
- Developing a positive identity, accepted and recognized as a member of various groups and accept others in equal measure.
- Facilitate relations between groups.
- Develop communication skills to other groups and flexible social behaviors.
- Knowledge society and positive sense of social responsibility.
1.1. Perception of diversity early in children from three to four years are capable of observing human differences and their ideas about the differences reflect the adult attitudes prevailing in the environment.
The child in the preoperational stage (features)
- He lives in a concrete world of experience nearby.
- Organize information into specific categories, there are complex features that are meaningless to him (eg, national origin)
- Make groups rigid, polarizing the ends of the standings.
- It focuses more on simple attributes to complex.
- When you set two groups are different is difficult to perceive that share characteristics.
- The ego prevents them from objectively differing points of view or interpret actions from the context of the other.
- Not having developed the inclusion of class or reversible thinking is confused if it receives new information that conflicts with that already have.
But this time there are capabilities that can be used to understand the diversity:
The emotional involvement, while children can not understand abstract social concepts (prejudice, racism, nation ...) can predict human responses to situations that have meaning for him. This ability to tune into others is the way they form emotional bonds.
The interest in the other, so again, the child creates his identity from social attitudes prevailing in their environment, creating distance with the other groups but their interest in the new, so unfamiliar, well managed, allows you to build bridges between himself and others.
Throughout this period the child performs a cognitive restructuring, continuously organizing social and physical world, in a continuous process of information assimilation and accommodation of the same. Experimenting with new dilemmas and answers the world can be a stimulus for cognitive development is from this perspective that education must be designed for diversity.
The child and racial differences
· From 3-4 years children have a rudimentary concept of race (remember notion Item 3) and can match items based on them.
When the child focuses on one attribute (often the most prominent: the color) the other will go unnoticed. The teacher must orient toward other attributes and characteristics.
The term race is a category that children use depending on experience, previous social contacts and their environment.
• The concept is developing and differentiating along the infantile stage. Children develop their identity now with the group itself which leads to minimize the differences with the group itself and exaggerate the differences with the outgroup. However observing the choice of friends at this stage has been that "racial preferences" are not in the foreground, whose site is occupied by sex. There is however a tendency to play with the subject's own group.
· Then established the concept we / they and accentuate differences between groups (given the zoning of the groups within a city, school contacts between subjects of different groups are rare)
At the end of elementary school, feelings toward other groups have crystallized the feeling that relations between different groups are practically impossible.
The child and the socio-cultural
The abstract concept of culture is for the child so fails to understand. You can identify the visible differences (dress code ...) but not behaviors. Also due to egocentrism can not interpret the behaviors of others.
In the case of children belonging to different minority groups may occur in these stages feelings of shame or rejection of the group itself. It is important that the teacher or adult who comes into contact with these groups, recognize the signs, rules, styles of behavior of groups that works to prevent tensions and improve communication.
Although the child is focused on his own point of view, which has assimilated the cultural environment the teacher can show different social conventions as such, helping you to understand the relativity of cultures.
2.
Learning Styles
Learning style is a pattern of behavior and consistent performance through which an individual approaches a job or educational experience. It is rooted in the neurological structure of the individual and is shaped by development (changes with age and experience), cultural experiences (learning styles differ among different cultures) of the family, school and society.
It is useful to know and discover the important differences that affect learning to design instructional strategies and materials appropriate to individual learning styles, thereby responding to all subjects.
Students learn best when they encounter environments that reflect their way of learning. And so it is important to involve individuals in their own learning, to learn to learn.
2.1. Learning Styles: dependence / field independence
1) Characteristics of the subject
Field Dependent:

- Sensible in harmony with the social environment. Highly developed social skills.
- So enjoy working with colleagues and collaborate with the teacher, seeking to guide, model and motivation for learning. Respond to social reinforcement.
- Facilitate learning: global issues, humanitarian or historical concepts related to their interests and experiences.
Independent field:
- Individualistic, insensitive to the emotions of others. Poorly developed social skills.
- So enjoy working independently and compete, have a formal relationship with the teacher and like to work without help and finish first. Looking for non-social rewards.
- Facilitate learning: Focus on details and concepts, math and science concepts through discovery and like approaches.
2) Teaching Styles
Field Dependent:

- Personal Conduct: To approve and give confidence to the student. Guide, encourage cooperation and development group feeling.
- Conduct in relation to the curriculum: Emphasize the global aspects, Personalize and humanize the curriculum.
Independent field
- Personal Conduct: figure of authority, to adopt role of consultant, giving importance to individual effort, encouraging learning through trial and error.
- Conduct in relation to the curriculum: attending to detail, emphasizing the mathematical and scientific abstraction emphasizing inductive learning and discovery methods.
3) Curriculum
Field Dependent
- Content: attraction to scientific knowledge and depersonalization.
- Structure: focus on details, requires independent activity and discovery.
Independent field
- Content: The curriculum is humanized and personalized.
- Structure: emphasis on the global, cooperative work explicit rules classmates and teacher.
2.2. Learning and Structure
Subjects who require a lot of structure
Poor attention, little social, poor self-image, are literal (unable to make inferences or interpretations, see things in black and white) do not assume their responsibilities, work for which the teacher says and find it difficult to organize themselves or their materials, require approval.
Subjects that require little structure
They are capable of abstract thinking, imaginative and able to see alternatives to tasks, design their own strategies and need little supervision. They are often self-centered and without relating to others.
2.3. Relations between culture and learning styles There are five factors that appear to be important in learning style:
u The socialization process: the more control of the company in parenting practices, more dependentiente is the child.
v sociocultural pressure, more pressure to conform to the individual, it is more dependent.
ecological adaptation factor w, where survival depends on the observation of the environment, this leads to the further development of the skills of perception.
x biological effects: nutrition and physical development. (eg lack of protein makes children more dependent on field)
and language, learning varies between societies that emphasize written language, the oral ...
Members of a group have common patterns of perception and learning styles are associated. This school tends to be
monocultural and designing the curriculum from the perspective of a single cultural group, does not get equal success for all groups. When the instructor's teaching style is not consistent with the student's learning style shows the lack of efficiency in the process and for the teacher is uncomfortable and often causes fatigue.
Therefore, the knowledge and understanding by teachers of their own teaching style is of benefit to the teacher and students:

? Task-oriented
Professor demand specific outputs on an individual basis. Learn how each student is meeting expectations.
? Cooperative Planning
Learning Plan with the help of students, guide them, listen and encourage their participation.
? Child-centered
Provides structure for students to achieve what they want to do or what interests them. Always take into account the interest and curiosity of students.
? Centered on the subject
Focusing only on the content.
? Focused on learning
Assists students in their learning capacity by developing key objectives and autonomy.
? The exciting and their opposites emotionally
They show their emotional involvement in education and produce an exciting atmosphere in class.
So when teaching students according to their own learning style improve their academic performance, attitudes toward school and reduces discipline problems.
This
theory of learning styles rejects the idea that a teacher remains a teacher even when students do not learn. The teacher competence should be measured by the level of student learning.
In each class, given the differences, there are a number of students with different learning styles. The equity required by the class teacher of combining different styles of teaching so that the number of learners is the maximum possible.
Similarly, the teacher must avoid teaching the same way he learned it this way only address the needs of students in their own cultural background.
Not known how the knowledge and human sensitivity can be learned, but it has been found that teachers take into account individual and cultural forms of learning from students, achieve greater success.
Among the issues to consider to be sensitive to the different styles of knowledge include:
- Be aware of your own styles of teaching and learning.
- Determine to what extent can leave their own ways of teaching and learning without feeling frustrated or uncomfortable.
- Begin to implement other than their own, first with few individuals (those who have more difficulty learning)
- Learn about the different learning styles that seem to characterize different groups.
- Build flexibility own ways of teaching.
- Use all forms (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic) when teaching concepts and destrzas.
3. Cooperation, competition The subject lives immersed in different social groups compete for social resources, economic. The competition between groups is necessary and sufficient condition for the attainment of conflict and discrimination. In these situations of competition the following occurs:
·
Intragroup Cohesion: attraction establishing ties between members of the same group, these ties are reinforced perceived as similar to the ingroup and increasing competition with outgroups.
· Appearance of discrimination and rejection of other groups: the appearance of prejudice.
To overcome prejudice is required to appear
common goalsand important for both groups and whose achievement depends on the collaboration of both. Just thinking about models of intervention which aim to encourage prosocial behavior and avoid discriminatory attitudes and conflict between groups, taking into consideration the activities of cooperative / competitive. (It should reflect that in normal subjects prefer competitive activities and although not reflected the competitiveness comes naturally. In contrast with the behavior of cooperation should be encouraged to occur)
The groups, from the distribution (although this is arbitrary) address:
- Maximize the differences.
- Attaches to the other groups negatively negative qualities and values their actions.
- The subjects show less desire to interact with members of other groups with their own.
This process of behavior within the group contributes to
conflicts between groups, to which there are the cultural differences and stereotypes that are applied around the groups. To succeed, contact between groups must be done through activities that require cooperative interdependence:
1. Common goals.
2. Equal and shared rewards.
3. Achieving a shared social identity, of the total group and disappeared after the dubious distinction between the groups. (Need to strengthen both the identity of each individual, but is weakened and including interest decreases the activity)
4. Sharing responsibility: the objectives can not be achieved only when all groups acting together.
The results of the activity will affect the group dynamics so that the
success of the group produces greater cohesion and this decreases if the group fails. The success shared between groups increased their ties, though previously he has competed. Controversy exists about the rewards, although groups varied component skills is more skilled or less positive reward to the group, while if the result depends on the most skilled individual rewards work best.
3.1 Equal status
The status is related to power differences and these differences can threaten the identity of the group and increase competition.
- The most powerful groups have more prejudice.
- Groups with low status are seeking ways to change the way they are assigned the status when they perceive that this assignment is illegitimate.
- Groups of equal status, have more prejudice when perceived as stable status and seek ways to assign the group a higher status through evaluation.
To avoid this we must consider:
? The form of group assignment
- Not divided into classes based on external characteristics, since it categories and thereby reinforcing stereotypes.
- Must be balanced and avoid any minority group around him in a group.
- Recomposition frequent groups for varying experiences, multiple crossings between members of different groups.
? The allocation of roles within the group
- There are groups in which roles are assigned identical, so the results of such group is the sum of the results of the members.
- Where the activities are more complex and require division of labor might happen: that the division responds to external categories or status and / or displayed leadership and they seek to increase their level.
- The best situation is one in which the roles are similar in terms of opportunities for participation of all team members and participate in their results.
? Maintain balance social identity-personal identity
- If social identity is weakened or threatened begin prejudice.
- If personal identity is threatened can reduce group interaction. (pag.387)
3.2. Groups of cooperation and Prejudice As we talked on the issue of prejudice, prejudice is the result of ignorance, so that knowledge should lead to positive changes in relationships. Also to correct bias condition is that there are possibilities of contact and interaction between individuals or groups.
In seeking to establish a model for this correction of stereotypes is questionable whether it is better to act on the individual or the group.
On one hand it seems easier and effective the
dyadic relationship as it provides more data and more positive. Thus bias decreases, but with that guy, that can be perceived as different from your group or as an exception. So after personal meetings (two subjects in two groups or small groups) should facilitate the spread of experiences to the whole group, thereby acknowledging the falsity of the prior prejudice.
3.3. Effects of competition versus cooperation
The cooperative interaction can be contrasted with the competitive interaction in which subjects are opposed to each other, trying to obstruct and frustrate the efforts of others or no interaction in which the subjects were unaware of each other. Cooperation increases the perception of mutual interests, mutual trust, friendship and makes it appear favorable disposition toward members of other groups. Also compared to the competition,
cooperation is given:
- More effective communication between members and between groups.
- Verbalize more ideas and have greater trust and acceptance in the ideas of others.
- Greater coordination in relation to the effort, better division of work and thus greater productivity.
- Increased knowledge on a personal level, are evaluated positively. Improving relationships and prosocial behaviors.
- Enhanced group cohesion, best climate in the classroom.
3.4. Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning refers to a set of instructional strategies on a subject and which include cooperative interaction as part of the learning process student-student. Involves dividing the class into small groups so that students work together and maximize their own learning and that of others.
Cooperative learning provides opportunities to understand a concept that must be learned through group discussion and joint problem-solving. By this method students can learn communication skills and social skills they need to live and participate in society. To achieve this goal requires planning knowledge and skills of group dynamics.
Cooperative learning has the following objectives:
1. Make that subjects are more receptive to sharing resources, ideas, skills, interests, feelings, time and space.
2. Fostering social integration (although it has been shown to be more beneficial for shy and retiring people that aggressive people)
3. Increase cooperation between different subjects in the activities.
Cooperative learning is also useful for:
- Encourage prosocial behaviors.
- Reducing or reject discriminatory attitudes towards other subjects.
- Improve interpersonal relationships.
- Increase communication and language skills (in fact it is recommended in cases where there are subjects whose mother tongue is different from the one used in class)
- Increase self-esteem.
- Enhance learning skills.
3.5. Cooperative learning methods
Objectives:
-
Reducing prejudice
- Raising self-esteem
- Achieving cooperative atmosphere in the classroom
- Improve academic performance
Features:
-
Methods highly structured
- Relatively easy to use
- Applicable to different subjects and grades.
- Easily integrated into school without traditional resources.
- More effective than traditional methods.
Highlights include:
1 .-
Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD).
- Training heterogeneous groups of 4 or 5 members.
- Introduction by the teacher to students
- Once submitted, the teacher asks
questions to individual group member
- Evaluation: The progress of each student by assigning a single score.
2 .-
Teams Games Tournaments (TGT).
STAD is similar to, but both
the individual questions as the scores are substituted for academic games (tournaments) in which students in each group compete with others of like to pose score level at baseline, thus contributing to the score of team.
3 .-
Team Assisted individualization (TAI).
They combine the use of cooperative teams with individualized instruction.
They form heterogeneous groups of 4 or 5 members, working with self-instructional material at their own level. Students take responsibility for all controls and help each other with problems.
Weekly certificates are given to each team if all members respond to the number of units given.
4 .-
Jigsaw and Jigsaw II.
They are heterogeneous groups of 6 members each.
The information provided is divided into 6 paragraphs, assigning each member of each group a part of written material. Each paragraph corresponds to different issues eg. History, geography, mathematics, etc., and distributes that information to each team member, which is consistent with the characteristics of each member because they will be experts in the field.
Each subject-specific expert eg. History (from each group), meet to form a panel move to check the information that each possess.
Then each group member returns to his home to share the information obtained and the states (each member must know his part perfectly and pass) this way each member gets to know the complete information.
Subsequently questions on the subject and all students receive individual scores.
This method proposes that each member go through the different status over time. By having each member of the information each of them is a vital part of the group that leads to increased self-esteem.
The relationship between groups is between individuals who have the same information as part of the story. The Panel is of great importance to less experienced individuals (for that matter). The time that is usually given to the expert group is 10 to 15 min. for displaying information in common. After that time they return to their original group, so that each individual in the group communicate their knowledge to the rest. The teacher gives about 20 or 30 min. the time elapsed will be asked about the issue.
This method helps students learn to listen and teach on a topic.
Jigsaw II.
They form heterogeneous groups of 4 to 5 members. The teacher gives students a chapter or story but each member must be set in a topic on which expert you become. These topics are discussed in the panel and then in the initial group. As you can see is very similar to above but with the difference that the score of the questions made the team and not individually.
5 .- Method Johnson (David Johnson and Roger Johnson 1975)
Students work in small heterogeneous groups being rewarded as a group. This is the least complex of all and which is closer to pure cooperative model, as it
contains no individualistic or competitive elements.
6 .-
Research groups and Sharn Sharon (1976).
Students work in small groups using group discussions, planning and collaborative projects. Groups elect subtopics for consideration by the whole class. After breaking these subtopics into individual tasks necessary for preparing activities teamwork. The group is exposed to the whole class and is evaluated based on this sharing.
7 .-
Method Weigel and others (1975).
Combining cooperative learning, which includes storage of information, discussion and interpretation of materials in heterogeneous groups. Estimates are made based on the quality of group work.
8 .-
The complete instruction.
It is a way of instruction designed to academically heterogeneous classes allows teachers to teach to a very high level despite the wide range of variability of skills among students. It is a kind of education that considers the
differences among students as a resource for learning.
These strategies work in heterogeneous groups in order to achieve optimal participation of all students. These strategies have implications for both the student and the teacher.
The main features of the complex instructions are:
- A heterogeneous group.
- Concentration for the mixture of status. The status often determines the level of participation in learning processes and the impact on school success.
- The tasks of problem solving in small groups require multiple intellectual abilities.
- Learning occurs through interaction so that students learn to cooperate with each other.
- The teacher is responsible for organizing learning activities. Learning activities are directed to:
o The development of skills (reading, writing, arithmetic, foreign language, social skills including cooperation, problem-solving skills, learning). The skills are learned by practicing and reflecting on practice.
o The acquisition of knowledge as such conceptual understanding.
o The development of attitudes, including responsibility and respect. Attitudes are developed through understanding, creabilidad of those who are responsible for education, experience and reflection on new experiences.
o The teacher must organize from the perspective of group work, pose new questions for group discussions, make comments, produce feedback to the group ...
3.6. Comments on the various methods of cooperative learning results of studies on cooperative learning suggest that when members work in groups, more friendship among individuals of different groups, whether ethnic, cultural or otherwise.
There are methods that provide better results than others. All have their advantages and disadvantages. Involve a high degree of interdependence between individuals.
Unless the
jigsaw (eliminate competition from the outset but may persist if it continues to conduct individual tests), which uses only cooperative strategies, others mix it with other racing from around the groups thus promoting intra-group relations.
The
STL method evaluates the group individually as well as fostering competition as cooperative group work.
When cooperative groups include members of minorities with low performance for various reasons, the group shows no aversion if they perceive they are making an effort and doing the best they can.
An essential element of cooperative learning is to facilitate the contribution of all students at the group's success.
There are many subjects that refuse to work if they are not cooperative offers instead some sort of incentive. This incentive may be the recognition of the group, praised ...
It has become apparent that in classes where the method used cooperative strategies are better and more successful academically than those used in competitive methods, and develop positive relationships between groups.
It should be noted that the goal of cooperative work is not to eliminate the competition, but it's alternative methods to develop in students other skills, too useful and important, and which carry a greater appreciation of individuals from different groups. Therefore, cooperation and competition must coexist if we want to prepare the subject for a real society.
It is desirable that each child gets to know as many children as possible, thus broadening their knowledge and experience by preventing a reduction to meet a limited number of subjects.
3.7. Formation of cooperative teams
The distribution of students should be based on common characteristics, and they should not from physical differences, cultural or intellectual.
Teachers should not assign roles to converge with the social category of members. The role of the leader, when given, must pass by all students since all must assume this role in order to develop the skill to lead the group on an assignment.
Keep in mind that the form work teams are looking to strengthen cooperative relations between individuals who originally belong to different social groups. Activities should focus the group on the common things between the different members, the similarity of the problems that each one meets the aspirations of each. The revelation of common challenges can be the foundation for mutual respect and trust.
Cooperative behavior needed to be strengthened, adequately rewarded for inducing cooperation, support, respect for others, their opinions and viewpoints, and introduce all within the reward system.
The adult plays an important role, should know and be trained in the use of cooperative learning methods.
Positive relationships between groups are increased through structured discussions and resolution of conflicts that make their appearance in such debates.
On the other hand, competition between individuals or individual work, leads to a lack or proper communication. It operates from self-centeredness. There are feelings of rejection, low self-esteem and expectations of future opposition.
When analyzing the interpersonal or intergroup relations must take into account that both are based on different domains, controlled by different psychological processes.

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