Classified in Psychology and Sociology

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  • CHANGE: PLANNED EVENT Y  UNPLANNED EVENT. PLANNED EVENT:  Occurs when a change in an organization is anticipated and allows for advance preparation.  UNPLANNED EVENT: Impact on the organization cannot be anticipated and specific preparations cannot be made.  CAUSES FOR CHANGE: Relationships with customers, Relationships with suppliers,  Relationships with employees, Change in technology, Change in market forces, Change in politics, laws . Internal Forces:  Top – down direction Y Bottom – up direction. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: 1. SELF – INTEREST: Employees resist change when they fear loosing something they value, such as economic benefits, status, or influence in the organization. 2 LACK OF TRUST AND UNDERSTANDING: Employees may not trust the intentions behind a proposed change. 3. UNCERTAINTY: Results from fear of the unknown and lack of information about the future. 4. DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES AND GOALS: A proposed change may be viewed through different lenses by employees with different goals and perspectives. 5. CULTURES THAT VALUE TRADITIONS: Some organizational cultures are not supportive of change, valuing traditions and customary ways of doing things instead.ATTITUDES: Evaluating statements or judgments concerning objects, people or events. 3 MAIN COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES: COGNITIVE: The opinion or belief segment of an attitude, AFFECTIVE: The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. BEHAVIORAL: An intention to behave in a certain way Toward someone or something. MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES: 1. JOB SATISFACTION: A positive feeling about one´s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.2. JOB INVOLVEMENT:  The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth. 3. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT:  The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.  4. PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT: The degree to which employees believe an organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. 5. EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT :  An individual´s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does. IMPACT OF DISSATISFIED EMPLOYEES: Exit: directing behavior toward leaving the organization. Voice: Suggesting improvements or improving conditions. Loyalty: Involves passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. Neglect: Passively allowing conditions to worsen. IMPACT OF SATISFIED EMPLOYEES: Job Performance:  happy workers are more likely to be productive workers. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB): Satisfied employees would seem more likely to talk positively about the organization, help others, and go beyond the normal expectations. Customer Satisfaction: Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly, upbeat, and responsive; which customers appreciate. Absenteeism and Turnover: Reduce in the volume of absence per employee and their decision to leave work.

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