The thinkers of ancient times believed it was possible To give rational answers to questions of nature. This idea means that they saw Natural reality as something that was ordered like a cosmos. Cosmos means ‘ordered reality’ in Ancient Greek.
The teleological answer views natural order as the Result of a predetermined plan.
The mechanistic answer states that nature is like a Machine. All the changes that occur in Nature are the result of the necessary action of mechanisms on other Mechanisms.
1.1.INTERPRETING THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE
The general theoretical framework used as a reference by scientists to Carry out research is known as a scientific paradigm.
All paradigms have the following elements:
·A general conception of reality. This Conception is known as a cosmovision.
·A group of general laws and theories Related to the field in question.
·A description of the problems that Need to be resolved.
·A description of the instruments that Scientists can use to carry out their research.
When a whole scientific community adopts a particular Paradigm in a given science, a new specific period begins. This period is known As normal science.
Some of the predictions made can appear to be Incorrect, in these situations, a scientist comes up with an ingenious proposal (new paradigm) in order to address and resolve the anomalies that emerged During the period of normal science.
When this happens, we enter a new period of scientific Revolution. Now, we have two paradigms That offer different explanations for the same facts. Scientists have to position Themselves in favour, or against, one of the two opposing paradigms prevails Over the other one. At this point, a new period of normal science begins.
Aristotle was the first person to attempt to give a Rational and systematic explanation of the ordered Universe, he created a System that incorporated the doctrines proposed by his predecessors in a Coherent way. The resulting Universe had the following characteristics:
·Filled with matter
·Geocentric and geostatic
·Divided into two spheres
Aristotelian physics is not a quantitative science, it Does not include calculations of the movements and positions of planets. However it was obvious to philosophers that the planets were irregular.
During de 2nd century BC, Ptolemy tried to Link the logical perfection of the Aristotelian model with observable facts. He Developed an astronomical model which included precise calculations of the Positions and speeds of the stars in the firmament. The Universe, as conceived And described by Ptolemy, was geocentric, the orbits were eccentric (they were Not perfect orbits and the Earth was not the centre of them), the planets moved In orbits known as epicycles.
The Ptolemaic model of the Universe constitutes the Greatest astronomical work in Ancient History. The Aristotelian-Ptolemaic understanding Of nature has unique characteristics, which differ from those presented in Other conceptions. These cam be classified as follows: