Polarized covalent bond

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- Hydrogen bonding will be much stronger with H2O because H2O forms a ring like structure due to high ability of hydrogen bonding. In the other hand, ammonia's hydrogen bonding is limited due to having 3 hydrogen atoms. Nitrogen has only one lone pair that cant satisfy all 3 hydrogens. Therefore, H20 has a stronger bonded structure.

- a) magnesium, b) chlorine, c) Vanadium, d) Rubidium

- Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its gaseous phase. Conceptually, ionization energy is the opposite of electronegativity. The lower this energy is, the more readily the atom becomes a cation. Therefore, the higher this energy is, the more unlikely it is the atom becomes a cation. When moving to the right of a period, the number of electrons increases and the strength of shielding increases. As a result, it is easier for valence shell electrons to ionize, and thus the ionization energy decreases down a group. Electron shielding is also known as screening.

- Ionic bond results when electrons are transfered between atoms ex: NaCl, Na. CL with seven dots

- A covalent bond results when there is a sharing of electrons between atoms. ex: methane, C with 8 dots, and 4 h

- A polar bond results when there is unequal sharing of electrons between atoms. ex: water, O with 4 dots and s-, and 2 h with s+

- Intramolecular forces are forces that hold atoms together within a molecule

- Intermolecular forces are forces that exist between molecules.

- Ion-Dipole: Attraction between ion and neutral molecule with dipole

- Dipole-Dipole: Attraction between the end of 1 polar molecule and -ve end of another polar molecule.

- Hydrogen bonding: A bond that occurs between hydrogen atoms bonded to either an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom. Hydrogen bonding is relatively strong force of attraction between molecules, and considerable energy is required to break hydrogen bonds.

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