Politics

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1.1. ISTORICAL d emergence of political and extnsión logographic 100cia.
the policy 100cia discipline the 1st s ks d dsarroya the sgunda DSPU World War. tma antriors sobrl studios existn pro yama ks what political 100cia stricto sntido pole nac mdia2 s.XX. dl 2 scnarios dífrnts dbmos dstacar d d dspliegue the political 100cia:
- Occidntal Europe: the Europe s political 100cia star caractriza x muxo + kx institucions intrsada x ls x ls political comxtamientos INTRES to prstar spcial ISTORICAL data in dtrimnto ls d ls exos contmxános; enya analysis imponl d s what happened last enl.
- STA2 1Ì2 d America: the political 100cia d STA2 1Ì2 put emphasis enl studio muxo + d ls ys political comxtamientos exos concntran in contmxános. ad +, prsntan to the 1st couple dspliegue d propnsión or exprimntals empirical techniques in their studios.
In conclusion the 100cia podm dducir k sntido strict policy on STA2 sa dsarroyado + 1Ì2 k occidntal in europe.
1.4. d objtivos the policy 100cia
- Dscubrir irrgularidads and somtrlas to vrificación
- Obsrvación d dsarroyar rigorous techniques
- Ls quantify data.
- Sxar valors and exos.
- Ls sistmatizar knowledge.
- Facilitate intgración d ls 100CI socials.
1.5. principals 100cia probl + d the policy.
- The policy 100cia defects exigl dspliegue d ls d dscribir, explain and prvr. s arto k ls frcuent political scientists with contntn s 1A D stas ised defects, gnralmnt the dscripción, not 3 to the vz ls.
- The problme s sgundo the other ncsidad d d srvirs the sabrs k complmntn:
1. sociology, political sistma l dl s 1 subsistma gnral sistma. 100cia sociology k s the studia s sistma gnral and valuable data proxciona 1s dl xal subsistma studio politics.
2. economy: we live in sociedads in rcursos ls ls k sn l Scase distributed knowledge d s how s life.
3. istory: Origne d dl l our special knowledge helps us calibrate institucions.
4. drxo: nustra dsarroya s social fabric in lys.
5. psychology: individuals sn ls ls dífrnts the notif 1ión sist +.
the policy 100cia tien k translate into his own knowledge lnguaj kl ls proxcionan stas disciplines and so is not always the 1st s snciya tare.
- The objto d t is the policy 100cia in prmannt mutation. dificultads production stablcr sto xa k explikn his 1ivrsals lys comxtamiento.
- Dntro objto d dl the policy 100cia umano stål sr 1 sr compljo with animal traits idológico own d 1, symbolic and ontological:
1. the animal s 1 sr ontological umano. s comxta conform to fins k no sn evidnts always. objtivos the dtrminación d ls s not always snciya.
2. s 1 sr umano the symbolic animal. used símbols, entr cuals ls, l + sl ImxtanT lnguaj. k d is the mean dtrminación símbols hese s not easy.
3. the animal s 1 sr idológico umano. t is influenced Opran d k x comings complja form without easy dtrminar sa k sn ls rsulta2 d cuáls sa opración.
- The maximum cornering ncsidad d ls valors subjtivos. Both the 1st 100cia s + As + 100cia get dsprndrs d valors subjtivos. however, if s away soslmntos, l rsultado pued irrlvancia sr dl the studio. s can enter it if s subjtivo INTRES kl dl xa ncsario studio.
- S ncsario distinguish notif futuribls and Utopia. 1 futuribl s the 1st prvisión future asntada dl in 1 examn rigorous and the turality 100tífico d prsnt utopia while the 1st k s dl the 1st prvisión future part 1 examn k 100tífico dl prsnt. ls futuribls dntro d s framed the policy 100cia while k ls filsofía utopias prtncn the policy.
1.6. d dfctos the policy 100cia
- Provincialism excsivo suppose emphasis enl 1 studio d lo k s + us next. Studio will not evil stá s + k we next examined pro so only if s s state loses oxtunidad lys d d caráctr + gnral. - the dscriptivismo: only when ay ay dscripción policy 100cia, explanation and prvisión. muxas vcs s tend to only ls exos dscribir without explaining or prvr and xyo, muxos studios prsntan Solol dscriptivo complexion. - formalism: s is d 1A atnción excsiva the studio for + d ls to ls variabls strictamnt formals.
1.8. d rstos preferentially gives the policy 100cia l:
1. PROGRAMS d ls in quantifying data. As + s able to quantify the 1st d discipline snciyo s + k sa seems to us capable méto2 d ls d ls apply empirical 100CI. xk sto s 1 rto ra + d ay muxas the policy 100cia k puedn not quantify their data (ejmplo: studio d laslits policies)
2. dsarroyar new Tories k + + prmitan analyze gnrals probl. sto suppose antriormnt cited suprarl provincialism.
3. PLnO d acr 1 use the istoria. Probl + 1 d ls d ls d the policy 100cia was STA2 1Ì2 k where gnéricamnt suprior, s D studio forgot what happened last enl.
4. db ls ncsidads star atnta to Drive D cotidiana.l political scientist political life has k vr ls ls probl + and their society condicions d xa focus well their studios.
5. the ncsidad d rcurrir to spculación. cm the policy 100cia probl + s meets to pray the 1st 100cia d dmostrar ks, k tend to assume their limitacions, adkiriendo imxtancia the spculación xa rflxions d ls ls oxignar political scientists.
2.2. political and supustos ls ls tate caractrísticas dl modrno
2.2.1. caractrísticas dl ls tate modrno or absolute:
1. tate certain modrno RPO 1idad trritorial.l something lo k + solid srvid d abía Fudala mdieval support. 2. stablcimiento d 1 may cntral strong. 3. rducción and suprsión d ls d ls podrs fudals.l fortalcimiento monarchies rducción entailed podrs fudals d ls, k exprimntaron the 1st rconvrsión. 4. dl d rducción Podr the iglsia. 5. cración d d infrastructures as armies, bureaucracies, financial or srvicio srvicio diplomats.
2.2.2. political supustos dl ls tate modrno:
1. tate cm dl the 1st round emprsa rational. l sa tate not given in or been naturalza d objto divine cración but artificial ks 1 product umano k sr dl objtivos and rspond to mdios racionals. 2. d prcpción justice. at age s asntaba mdia justice in 1a Christocentric society in the justice emanated d k god. enl rnacimiento, Christ-centered society with k sta prviv another concpto d surg asntado justice and enl enl drxo sabr d ls secular jurists. 3. d 1A the way public administration. fundamnto l kl r s initial fundamnto d sl only justice, pro cm can not star in all parts tien k part d dlgar his faults in others; ls DLGA in public administration. the public administration existncia d 1A s tate 1lmnto main connecting modrno ks dl caractriza x: - body existncia d 1 d asalaria2 officials. - birth d diplomacy embajadors k ls rprsntan enl extrior Stade d 1 salary in exchange. - the emergence d ls armies prmannts- The fiscal dsarroyo d 1 sistma articles. xa d mantnr leather army officers withthe DINR pagarls abía k ks ls rcaudaba in impustos. muxas prsnas art linked to the world dl, cm vlázkz or crvants, s made a living prtn100do a st group d staff. 4. dl on tate monopoly dtntador cm d violncia lgítima the trritorio given in 1. tate xl enl controlled trritorio other violncias pued April, the only pro lgítima the ejrcida xl s tate. 5. ls subjects. modrnos in to2 ls ls STA2 iguals d sn subjects such Manra k ls tienne same drxos and DBRS, and an ls dsaparcido sos privilgios caractrísticos d d podrs intrmdios own Fudala stage. however, muxos privilgios s remained standing on the bas dk ls gnrosamnt eral Sobrano rconocía kien. in terms of commonality, the situation here was not changed, only the 1st abía difrncia, oral ka Podr sñors fudals dbía d ls xl sr rconocido Sobrano. 6. condition d clas. engls k ls said STA2 modrnos eranl product d 1 d clas ekilibro notif old ls intrss d ls d noblza Fudala and the new urban Burgusio. dl noblza vien Fudala the past and the group emrgnt Burgusio s 1. Marx in his txtos d muxos he said was 1 kl stado modrno d Instrumnt the Burgusio hands. however, most say k d ls istoria2 the prdió not noblza their Propertys Fudala, remained the ruling class and its gnéricamnt used provxo ls STA2 modrnos, SPCI convirtiéndols in 1a to srvicio d d MAKINARIA sa noblza Fudala. 2.3. O-dl ls tate modrno: makiavlo, Bodine and obbs.
2.3.1. makiavlo
sl political pnsador + intrprtacions with marx. Italian dl s 1 d S.XVI and author's work The Prince. makiavlo fell into his dsgracia dbid controvrsia d florncia the monarchy and the arrglarlo kiso scritura d st k enl alaga book monarchy.
makiavlo stablció or Maxi + k dbn rglas YKS guiarl political comxtamiento extracted dductivamnt d the d the expriencia prsnal istoria. in his work any istoria d rlat the classical antiwedad out the 1st rgla d dya comxtamiento. SL may xyo PIONR considrar 1 dl dductivo method.
tate the 1st cm dfiniól structura gobrnada x rglas d their own self-righteous in terms dsarroyo YKS d success. he argues not end justifies kl ls mdios but success kl k Snal gobrnant db d 1 d opinion judge his people, even if dtrmina2 mdios can conducn as excusars if successful.
xa k makiavlo claims 1 Príncipe s prfribl mantnr his word and live with intgridad and no deception.
2.3.2. obbs
English philosopher lived notif k ls S.XVI and S.XVII. trnzó s life around 3 grands oposicions: notif dispute rpública monarchy, l notif Podr secular conflict Podr eclsiástico and collision of effect inglatrra yl continnt Europo.
k obbs he argues, in Djado naturalza tate d, l sr umano s poor, nasty, short, brutish and solitary form k d s behavior conforms to lma "the wolf xal ame ame s 1. ant as the 1st position the dsafortunada cm antrior, ls srs rnunciar his puedn umanos autodfnsa and justice in the hands djar d 1 k lviatán Sobrano or substituted but may sr ls expctativas dsadas satisfaction. cml tate d naturalza not ofrc 1 scnario alaweño, ls d ombrs Podr CDNL justice to Sobrano.
comings in obbs axtó monarchy provxo pus d tare dfiend Sobrano dl, pro also examine the way rpública pus sil d 1A Sobrano ejrc not Podr solvntmnt the tare db sr replaced. Not the 1st monarchy erditaria parc satisfacrl critrio d obbs x rvocabilidad invoked.
2.3.3. Bodin
the dl castyanización s name d jan Bodin Bodine. lived in France S.XVI ys dl d 1 book author yamado "ls the rpública d 6 books. Bodin rflja the 1st síntsis notif the mdieval scolastica umanista rnacntista yl.
ay k vincularl pnsamiento withthe concpto d d Bodin Sobranie. mdial in age, the Sobranie rmitía a 1a suprioridad rlativa (s entndía kl r was 1 intr pars primus, s DCIR, Primroses eral notif iguals ls). Staba x l r d ls sñors fudals above, the pro after all were iguals, staban same scalafón enl.
sgunda one way the Sobranie s 1 sk trait Podr sncial dl dl tate, tate no ay ay unless Sobranie. xa Bodin, the Sobranie s akl k subjects I will be ls ls caractrs d roon suprmo, suprlativo and absolute, K can not withthe skma d dscribirs pars primus intr. to pray to and 1 may stá x suprmo yl Sobrano above subjects k ls d sn iguals notif yes yes.
the concpto d sobranie bodiniano to yegado unscathed (inaltrado) asta oy, even though nurse significativamntl sujto sobrl changed rcae k, k r Siñol sl no people or nation.
2.5.l dsarroyo capitalist and deliver it rvolucions ls-Burgus.
enl trrno d the economy, the illustration could Toriz capitalism according to 1 k formalmnt existed. however, worked enl k ls ilustra2 policy trrno Carcia d d rfrnts matrials and tnían k limitars x strength to make trips complexion d torus. s DCIR, ls k pnsadors ilustra2 staban condna2 formulated policies to propustas Toriz and STA2 modrnos ls k in place here was not political practices illustrated xa. to Studio as we pray in istoria ls irrumpn new ideas Snal several educational websites:
1. rvolución inglsa d 1688 was the 1st protorrvolución deliver it. In practice, it was 1 ks rgistro of effect the covenant and noblza Burgusio had blasted k muxas d ls librals inicialmnt exprsadas trips, kdando and deliver it truncadol procs.
2. STA2 birth d ls d 1Ì2 America in 1766: s proclaimed x Primroses vz ls dl drxos gnrals ame.
3. rvolución francs d 1789 s same year in France enacted ls s ame drxos gnrals dl and dl citizen, ls k in 1791 followed the 1st constitution rprsntativa.
4. nineteenth-century Europe: enl continnt Europo ubo modls dífrnts d 2 d ls acontcimientos.l Primroses dsarroyo Dyos ks gave fuel in France, 1 modload with ups and downs. ubo stages ascndieron k ls ls librals and other goings on goings ls ls k ascndieron Monarka. sto had its constitution in rfljo mjor d Blga 1831, illustrate it compact k l notif monarchy alman parlamntarismo.l sgundo modls sl ks caractrizó x dbilidad in the 1st extrma irruption d ls librals comings and consrvación d muxos privilgios tradicionals. in the 1st gave spaña s ls 2 modls combination of effect, with stages asu librals (constitution d 1812, rvolución d 1868, i rpública, etc.) and stage d + stabls and bringeth them not + long. xyo, s can also DCIR tent + kl modload spañol twitch Alman.
2.6. division dclaracions d ls d podrs and drxos.
Modload 2.6.1.l deliver it ejrcicio dl dl podr.
1. tate dl organization:
the Burgusio s felt compelled to dislocate the 1st rducción x progrsiva dl d ls Sobrano Podr absolute. Primroses objtivo his control was ACRS withthe Podr lgislativo dl xa advance, + AdLaNt, dl Podr ejcutivo.l control twitch was the main institution parlamnto d dl action bringeth them. s inception in entndía kl dl parlamnto rprsntaba to all people, so k d of 1 d ls dl diputa2 rprsntaba the whole village. AdLaNt s + k izo evidnt the common Bienstar dl dtrminación Staba sujta to idológicas very dispars visions, thus k k rsulta + razonabl conclude each deputy dtrmina2 sgmntos d rprsntaba to the population. sto s rfljaba in existncia d 1 vote cnsitario or RString 1ivrsal not. dl throughout the nineteenth century was a100do s evidnt each condition vz + d k corrspondía to rprsntación Reduced-Flow Serie parlamntos ls. durantl s.XIX s produjron 3 changes in concpción parlamntaria:- The people aprtura ls ssions dl parlamnto d, d k from entoncs had caráctr public. - The public aprtura d ls ssions judicials - cheaper costs d d ls prnsa prmitió alimntar the public the 1st each vz + ImxtanT.
2. the justice rgulación d: l
the 1st SRIA starting point d max d fras webbr in capitalism kl k said ncsitaba d 1 drxo which operate outside prvisibl, d smjant form a 1a makina. sto concpción xoca with drxo mdieval dl, k s enl 100cia knew some ls conscuencias lgals d 1 event: there was no legal sguridad. brought forth new sta 3 conscuencias: - db type d dsaparcr cualkier RUTH dl privilgio past. - may publish himself tien k ls meet lys. - justification lgal d lgislación the new doctrine axtó naturals drxos d ls dl ame, aunk enl Burgusio trrno concrto d the ant tried everything drxos k dfndr kept rlación with intrss prcisos, cml drxo to private property or contract librt d Comércio.
3. ensñanza information motherland and idología d: l
starting point d k rcuerda us the Burgusio rclamó the librt in to2 ls imaginabls areas: ld f, pnsamiento, con100cia, ensñanza ... sto k izo the Burgusio s enfrntara with iglsia. enfrntamiento st ay 3 in rlvants circumstances - the Burgusio s ak opposed the iglsia s finances with impustos rcauda2 xl ls tate. iglsia dbría financiars the basis of their own rcursos. - the apusta d provxo the Burgusio in sistma d d 1 x ensñanza the iglsia uncontrolled. entoncs horn Staba education in the hands d iglsia. - the civil marriage cración d 1 kd new dbía scapa d the iglsia control. s.xixl Astal imaginabl eral rligioso only marriage.
4. librals the goings on economic rgulación d motherland:
the way to bringeth them cntral dfndida xl economic motherland latter Snal k + s dsarroyará much as + s dj left to its own natural course, Cancl cualkier intrvnción extrna and type d singularmnt the stado.l dl dsaparición bringeth them the apusta x obstáculs enl d to2 ls intrnacional Comércio, k d capitals and so can mrcancías d movrs without locks (impustos or arancls). the way sgunda sk k to2 ls dfiendn dbn individuals enjoy my + d ls xa oxtunidads the condition d accdr owners. here are several data indicate k k enl s.XIX sa tory was mticulsa application objto d, s DCIR, there some Contradiccions sguía tory deliver it with: - a part d ls privilgios fudals prvivió. - the sclavitud remained, in ls fundamntalmnt Païssa coloniza2, 1 fnómno alive. s abía enunciadol equality principle d d oxtunidads pro in Païssa hese s not applied. - the rate used to drxo star linked with the provision prsnal d fortune, something new kd d anikilabal equality principle. - the mujrs could not vote. d half the population under d its genre, drxo d not have to vote. - oxtunidads d equal to 1 was not rsptada economy showing x scnario the dsigualdad and injustice. a and 2 rspustas a contradiction in terms of commonality of effect of practice and xl enuncia2 it bringeth them:
- The tate kl Snal Primroses dbía intrvnir activamnt in political economy socials dsarroyar xa k k mitigasn just d ls rsñar injustices.
- The interplay sgunda Snal k k ls pro existn injustices rspondn the natural ordn k d dsigualdad Oumana caractriza to sociedads ls, which has no sntido dislocate contrayas.
5. d concpto deliver him the society: FRNT to STA2 absolute ls, l bringeth them became dfndr 1 single extrmo, k d such Manra society understands k s 1 product scundario, 1a sum d mra intrss particulars, and only db kl stado TNR cm comte d protcción the librt the individual.2.6.2. division d ls ls dclaracions d podrs and drxos
political Instrumnt ls 2 ls ks lgals apoyala bringeth them in the division d sn ls dclaracions d podrs and drxos.
division d in podrs rspond Origne the purpose Podr d ls d rducirl institucions old. limitata podrs division Podr d d kien lo ostnta. Primroses in montskieu fuel dsarroyar Snal st and 2 grands concpto trips:
1. tate capital each function dl (the ejcutiva, l lgislativa and judicial) in 1 db rcaer different title.
2. sos podrs dbn rlacionars rcíprocamnt through sistma d d 1 d corrctivos VTOS.
pligros k ls ls acxarían to play inicials rglas d sn l kl Podr lgislativo ls ejcutivo rcaysn in my + hands, aunk Podr prmancis indpndientl judicial ejcutivo Podr kl l in ls rcaysn judicial Podr my + hands, aunkl lgislativo prmancis indpndient; kl l lgislativo Podr Podr ls judicial rcaysn in my + hands, aunkl Podr ejcutivo prmancis indpndient k LS 3 podrs rcaysn sobrl same owner.
vz k aparc the Primroses in principle Istorial d d division was RCOG podrs d ls x ls institucions STA2 nortamricanos ks indpndizaros d inglsa crown and also the postriormnt aparc dclaración dl d drxos the rvolución Drive D ame Francs. st incorxaron also spañola d concpto the constitution the constitution Blga 1812 and d 1831.
ls dclaracions about drxos d, ay k distinguish dclaracions d ls d ls drxos librals tables and frankicias mdievals. notif difrncias both ay 3:
1. tables and carcinogenic frankicias mdievals dl d caráctr planner and political life under critrios lgal racionals and inspires gnrals k dclaracions d ls drxos. Si Sta dimnsión sa claramnt insrta in dclaracions d ls drxos librals.
2. while ls librtads and frankicias mdievals rconocían drxos the individual member d 1 cm grmio, dclaracions d ls ls drxos cm rconocían a single individual such.
3. the frankicias mdievals s librtads and covenants or charters concrtaban in very Reduced-Flow Serie D achieve while drxos k ls dclaracions d l d s concrtaban in prtnsión 1ivrsal.l range d ls frankicias mdievals was librtads and infrior.
dclaracions d drxos
the STA2 nortamricanos Constitucions d ls d ks indpndizaron x Primroses inglatrra vz dclaracions welcomed drxos k d s asntaban in tradition, but in the doctrine ernts d ls drxos in the naturalza umana. in 1789 the former dclaración d ibiól same drxos francs prfil.
ised the 1st prcisión k ay: l dspliegue concrto d dclaracions d ls to ls drxos rspondió comúnmnt the Burgusio ncsidads prcisas d, k dl FRNT the tate intrvnción librt dfndió the economic intolrancia rligiosa FRNT the dfndió the librt d con100cia and the cnsura FRNT dfndió the librt d pnsamiento.
ls notif drxos incorxa2 to dclaracions stas ay 3 modalidads:
1. d SFRA deliver it guarantees individualistic. dntro mode sta d ay 2 types:
- Dl librt drxos isolated individual d: d librt con100cia drxo to private property.
- Dl drxos d librt rlación individual with others: librt prnsa d, d librt exprsión.
2. d dmocrática political nature drxos. ponnl acnto in the joint dmocrática society d 1A. ejmplo: equality ant the l, d drxo vote.
3. prstacions ls drxos or socials. not form part d ls d dclaracions ka ora drxos concern us, sn 1 agrgado postrior. ejmplo: drxo to work, education drxo. the ratio d sta dbid ak s inclusion was the way ncsaria dl or prstacional tate tate bnfactor, lo k xocaba withthe TATE intrvnsionismo not postulated in economic tsis librals ls.
3.1.1.-l utopian socialism.
dl socialism manifstacions the Primroses as ks s cover yama "utopian socialism". marx st term is introduced with sntido ngative, xk lo k ls dfndían Primroses corrspondía s socialists with him dfndía k, k yamo "socialism 100tífico. caractrs ls ls dl sn siguients utopian socialism:
- Pnsadors da2 d s tried to spculación and impractical. s DDIC mdida to more then dsarroyos toric k yevaron not implemented. feature excpcions a st ay, k sn Owen and Fourier. st last set in circulation 1 sistma d communes.
- St socialism we abla d d contxto ISTORICAL torizacions out. hese pnsadors staban not in intrsa2 IADO d + k ralmnt gauge what was happening place and enl enl enl k time lived. oh the 1st excpción, saint-simon, k studio was minuciosamnt cm d industry his time.
- Acomtieron rflxions intrsants sr dl on the condition umano singular. Marx criticized him sto xk + l ls intrsaban umanos groups, ls sociedads as a whole. Studio D hese early nineteenth century sn dl prmonitorios d alg1s ks dsarroyan socials movements today. saint-simon Snal the emancipation imxtancia d d ls xa mujrs society.
3.1.2.-l Marxism.
marx fayeció born in 1818 and in 1883. born in trvrs, 1st Almana crcana to Luxembourg city. marx studio in joshua, aunk inglatrra and lived in France. muxo served time in British muso bibliotca dl. enl lived neighborhood d "OS or" londrs. dstacar cab trips d ls siguients marx:
1. xa marx, not the 1st 100cia d sntido politics, policy xk emanation d s what the 1st mra ralmnt imxta k, k sn ls economic rlacions. s 1 k pnsador stá apnas socials intrsado cm x ls exos tals.
2. xa explicarl marx x dsintrés d s policy to stress k db lived in 1 century, nineteenth-l, enl the Burgusio k, d through its agreements with the old noblza betrayed librt d ls principles, equality and k abía fratrnidad embraced in 1789.
3. the marx concpto d tate preferentially. has 2 prcpcions dífrnts:
- Xasitario Stade. marx was a disciple egl d, k d was 1 ls 3 grands philosophers Idale Almansa. egl acuñól concpto d "clas 1ivrsal", k was the class ks lo mjor d rfljaba society, ls d valors + high society. xa egl, in his time, class was bureaucracy 1ivrsal in concntraban ks ls virtuds d mjors society. egl lived in joshua k st every 1ifi Staba, and missed the bureaucracy and vrtbradora clas intgradora cm dl dl axate common tate a 1a nation. bureaucracy means k marx s 1 enl tate group umano installed and occupied himself exclusively d, d such Manra acted cm 1 k k xupaba parasite dl ls tate enrgia own. marx 1ivrsal clas acptal concpto d, k pro says rcae sobrl proltariado.
- Stade cm srvicio d axate to the ruling class. marx s tate he argues kl structura always the 1st to srvicio umano k dl group leading society. in dífrnts momntos stuvo to the noblza Fudala srvicio d, d + AdLaNt the Burgusio and in prcpción d marx, proltariado dl.
ls 2 dl concpcions notif tate d marx there is 1 common trait: xa marx, l tate s always the 1st structura enfrntada ajna and society, 1as vcs x atndr exclusively intrss d ls bureaucracy (their own intrss) and other vcs x atndr exclusively intrss d ls the ruling class. s DCIR always srvicio d t is the singulars groups.
4. Cuáls sn "ls-way transformation d d k marx rivindica society? marx s very ambiguous and possibly as indifrnt to rspcta k ls d way d transformation of society. 2-way processing rconoc d d dífrnts society:
- In cases 1s, kl considra marx 1ivrsal suffrage trrno k s 1 loss rflja the Burgusio d d may, in which the possibility sntido not dscarta transformation d 1A peaceful and gradual. ks considra can change society through d ls polls.
- In other cases, marx s favor rvolucionaria via d 1A, k d Avoca in here will take part dl dl Podr x proltariado, then dbrá encargars d ka drribar his proltario tate, s DCIR, dl Podr rducirál tate, xk s the 1st ajna institution to society.
5. Marx distinguishes formal and dmocracia notif dmocracia ral. the formal dmocracia s in the 1st dmocracia k ls prvivn economic difrncias the exp1otación and dsigualdad. ral s akya the dmocracia in an economic dsigualdads k ls kdado ago. dmocracia marx rxaza drásticamnt the formal d ys firm supporter of dmocracia ral.
6. marx proposed fass considración d 4 k d procs caractrizan s social transformation. ls sn siguients fass sas:
- The bourgeois tate d clas. s the 1st dmocracia mramnt x caractriza formal, rstriccions gravs in drxos and librtads and vote cnsitario (linked to prsnas RIKZ d ls). parlamnto l rprsntativo s not, and the 1st exist tnsión active politics.
- The tate s suffrage transición.l bourgeois d 1ivrsal, ls razonablmnt rprsntativos and parlamntos sn ls ls drxos and librtads, well ill k, s rsptan.
- Proltaria domination. the 1st fas s ks d transition takes caractriza x provisionalmnt the proltariado kl dl dircción tate and ends with injustice or lslmntos d enl dsigualdad prsnts bourgeois d transition tate. sta rcibido to mnudol stage name d "dl proltariado dictatorship", k was 1 x marx rarely used term.
- Melting entrl tate and society, so kl d dsapar100do ys Primroses just introduces the 1st plna dmocracia ral.l xk s tate db dsaparcr ajna the 1st institution in society, even when directed xl s enl k marx group obsrva Mayors virtuds ls, xl proltariado. all dsaparcr dbn + d ls for political rule dsapar100do distinction ls tate-class society and socials.
3.1.3 .- The socialdmocracia.
Primroses socialdmócrata the project was formulated in 1875 with the social party cración dl dmócrata Alman (PSDA). l st d Origne party intnto fuel mix d d d dtrminadas gone hand marx x 1 + d dtrminadas modra x corrients rformistas other hand, cm ls rprsntadas x lassaye.l PSDA clbró 1 d congrso in town got to, and act dbid Marx criticized st to 3 razons:
1. kl pnsaba program approved ignored congrso st kl s 1 axate tate the ruling class srvicio d, d such luck k alg1 s mode to the 1st instance nutra srvicio dse d kien lo.
2. marx rxazabal program socialdmócratas pnsaban ingnuamnt xk kl ls tate mdiant could change the 1st gradual transformation, peaceful and dmocrática.
x other hand, Marx also critical x rcibió main part dl dl PSDA torus, k was brnstin:
1. marx brnstin criticized capitalism kl xk Est announced a 1a crisis leading cause its own dbía k 1dimiento, when capitalism ended ralidadl even gnrando RIKZ dsfavorci2 xa ls +.
2. bmstin also dic k marx s ekivoco capitalism led by announcing a 1a kl clear class bias d ls, k s in terms of commonality not vrificó.
3. ad +, he argues brnstin socialism kl s 1 d ls dl dsarroyos posibls capitalism, pro no 1 d ls dl dsarroyos invitabls capitalism.
4. x Finally, the 1st track brnstin dfiend gradualist, and peaceful rformista d d transformation of society.
ISTORICAL d ls dspliegue trips socialdmócratas
the socialdmocracia s, in the abstract, 1a combination d dmocracia political socialmnt intrvncionista tate, d oxtunidads educational equality and social justice. d sta dfinición following socialdmocracia d, s dsarroyan 2 intrprtacions:
1. the apusta x socialdmocracia mantie its socialist transformation and the 1st radical pro suprarl to rnunciado to embrace capitalist mode even when méto2 peaceful.
2. ls the exos socialdmocracia s in the 1st form dl d gstión civilized capitalism, k prtnd not stop Est, YKS contnta with Cancl suslmntos + ngative.
in 1959, PSDA l cm rnunció Marxism as sources of inspiration and enl congrso d izo godsbrg bad.
the socialdmocracia s 1 ant all dsarroyado movement in europe occidntal, cm ls atstiguan the PSDA nombrs dl, dl psf (French), dl pl (the British Labor Party) or dl psoe. hese complmnta2 x parti2 s they saw unions, cm ls trans 1ions inglsas or ugt.
3.1.4.-l anarkismo.
anarkismo s doctrine on the 1st he argues k ls k sociedads without puedn and designed in the 1st dbn coactiva.l authority dsordn anarkismo dfiendl not, but the 1st organization dlmntos d prscindiendo coercive society. ay k distinguirls adjtivos anarko (k s rglas fits) and anarchist (someone dfiendl anarkismo vinculadoy k).
2 itos dbmos dstacar chronological fundamntals in early ls dl anarkismo: l Primroses s given in 1793 with the publication dl d Primroses book wiyiam godwin, k ls rfljaba trips anarkistas.l sgundo production in momnto s kl k enl proud years on abla d "anarkista or "x Primroses vz.
the goings principals anarkismo sn ls dl siguients:
1. enl 1 Enmig idntifica tate, as dsaparición s rclama radically in the provxo d vcs 1as k d rate s the 1st communist society and other companies 1 vcs s the 1st little xi rgulada Margna anarkismo mrcado dl.
2. ls ls anarchists rxazan d coercive authority for + pro + acptan ls for non-coercive, cm sl authority if d 1 d 1 ingniero doctor.
3. ls xa anarchists, l tate s empñada in the 1st institution prsrvar their own intrss.
4. ls rxazan laslccions anarchists in mdida in entiendn k k k prmitlgir farce the 1st set of effect class members dominants d ls, k prsntan propustas extrmadamnt fates.
5. ls anarchists dfiendn the 1st company in which the sa prsnal librt maximized biens matrials sten justamnt ls and ls defects distribui2 comuns s dsarroyen x mutual agreement.
CHOOLS dífrnts existn dntro 3 dl 1 to anarkista pnsamien:
1. anarkismo individualistic. prsna tien the 1st SFRA each inviolabl d ay k k protgr action cualkier type d d d sta intrusión.l current principal torus stirnr s max, whose work + known s "the only property". the main ueya individualism the form dl ls "librtarians" nortamricanos (librals extrmos), k dsan the tate d dl dsaparición all bnficio d d rgulacions on private initiative.
2. anarkismo mutual. dk gnral dfiend the way each db poser prsna their individual production or mdios d colctivamnt being rcompnsado in terms d stricta x justice work, such Manra k kd d Cancl cualkier procdimiento od d enrikcimiento unjustified profit. s 1A D xk yama their mutual apustas CRARA consisted fundamntals mutual aid banks k d dbían DINR prstar very low rate with 1 main O-dl d intrés.l mutual anarkismo s proud on.
3. anarkismo colctivista or communist. critical mutualism x entndr ks d + k soft IADO intrss d ls rspond to groups or spcíficos cm ls ls ARTSANA pkños campsinos pro atiendn not to ncsidads d ls d most people. st ant exo, ls anarchists or communists colctivistas dl dfiendn expropriation of private capital and dircción d ls ls emprsas x trabajadors in régimn autogstionario. O-ls dl kl anarkismo colctivista sostienn them to decide rvolucionario procs will bear fruit only if s dl product rspaldo d d most people. anarkismo princip1s torizadors ls dl sn colctivista or Communist Bakunin and Kropotkin.
3.2.1 .- dl stado criticism DSDL deliver it fascism.
the goings dstacar k ay k sn ls d ls siguients fascism:
· Ls fascism Contral bringeth them involve the 1st critical, Article X ls siguientslmntos:
· FRNT bringeth them dl abstract individualism, fascism ls dl oponn the suprioridad sncial tate, dl od people race on individual db ls intrss individuals.l for kdar supditado hese d 3lmntos.
· FRNT way to deliver it INTRES d kl community can only discussion yl avriguars mdiant dialogue kl ls fascism emphasize common good stablcido db sr suprior conform to intuition or caudiyo jf d 1.
· FRNT at first d rivindicado economic self xl comptncia bringeth them, fascism dfiendn the supditación ls d ls intrss the economy to economic nacionals just intrprta2 xl cm sn caudiyo jf or even if in practice political concrtos dfndisn ls ls ls d privilgios monopolies .
· Enl bringeth them, l 1 papl nationalism dsmpña Mnor true pro, while k ls fascism in the 1st assumes imxtancia incontstabl cm 1ificación d d procdimiento population around 1 ka mnudo joint dimnsión ex IBIO some imprial.
• While enl libralismol Podr prcib cm s something a little Saludabl k ay k limit, k ls means configured fascism s 1lmnto umana life inludibl d k db sr cm such rvitalizado as possible.
• While he bringeth them enl db ds privacy intrusions ACRS d ls dl dl tate can and, in ls fascism privacy does not exist, k d that nothing db suert scapa stado dl action.
· Discipline jrarquía and lidrazgo.
· Ls prfilar órdns fascism aspired to socials and political overtones in conflict ls k ls d clas d od INTRES existisn opinion and not the 1idad k ls and 1iformidad remplazasn to pluralism and difrncias ls.
· Ls fascism dsaparición d prtndían the difrncias without prnovr Contradiccions and changes in social structura without alntar the 1st without dfndr greater equality and greater librt the 1st, which ended up kindness rivindicar d x dsigualdad while the rxazaban k sta d ls last conscuencias .
· Ls rivindicaron the 1st ferra jrarkización fascism, in which s dmandabal d ls intrss individuals sacrifice for the sake supriors d fins.
Ls · in fascism, the dome jrarquía Staba d st x 1 jf occupied or endowed d caudiyo charisma, or the same ks, ls rconocido citizens cm x xtador d k as cornflower extraordinary buffering mrcdor d obdiencia. k Imagna tnmos the itlr sobr rtrato t is linked to kd izo xaplin him in "The Great Dictator." d pro itlr was all - silly, with the 1st large capacity rtórica, and 1 large domain and intligncia xa ls silncios delicacy. mussolini was 1 dirignt also charismatic, while k d was not accompanied by frank caractrística dl the charisma.
· Ay k dk explain under sist + razons got so little out AdLaNt stimulants. ay k TNR tory account of the social atomization d formulated x. arndt, k k ls fascism Snal STRUCTURES intrmdias cm anikilar got family, friends d groups ls, ls ls Asociacións profsionals or unions, d that the dsaparición Manra k izo d stas STRUCTURES rlacionas dirct kl s tate and individuals agrsivamnt with ls concrtos ..
· Ls fascism clear ejmplo d sn 1 k idología promt 1 mjor world but the simple contnta ks d acptación the turality rclamar dl prsnt and submission to or caudiyo jf, k entndiendo umanos groups comúnmnt idntificaron Ayaba x dbajo d ks ls citizens comuns, k razonablmnt held 1st position comfortable. and s extends outward infriors dky umanos groups, cm x ejmplo ls Jews in Nazi joshua.
· Violncia, propaganda and ritual.
• The violncia occupies 1 ls papl cntral in fascism, k d aprciaban enya 1lmnto indispnsabl umana life. ls adkiernl fascism príodo d pso entrguerras enl, enl k violncia was common in the ls fascism, pro non-custodial, and k was also used in other rgímns authoritarian Soviet cml.
· Violncia dsmpñaba básicamnt 3 of funcions: the rprimir to Kiens disntían d d ls rgímns fascists, the d 1 SCAP proxcionar psychological parti2 ls ls Afilia2 to fascists, and symbolize the way d d kl Podr yegaba all parts, so d k nothing scapa their control (rlación withthe totalitarianism).
· Fascist propaganda has features violncia extrma d, ys exprsamnt links withthe rclutamiento d prsnas. k itlr said the propaganda function d Primroses rclutamiento d sl xa prsnas organization, while the Primroses function d k organization rclutamiento d sl xa prsnas propaganda.
· Fascist propaganda ls s not configured Instrumnt cm od d communication dialogue but transmit concpcions cm MDIO xa prviamnt made, Manra k d such propaganda is not seeking comprnsión but obdiencia.
• In regard to the rite, as ls rituals were 1lmnto d + d ls Stratgie dd fundamntal handling fascism dsarroyadas x ls k ls used profusamnt Oumana concntracions grands, and with y, l emplo d 1iforms, marx militars, Bandra and the fortalcían k símbols ida d community.
3.2.2.-l d concpto totalitarianism and its probl +.
totalitarianism
sistma totalitarianism s 1 + kl antidmocrático hard authoritarianism, the 1st suert mitigated d ks totalitarismo.l totalitarianism caractriza x 1s dtrmina2 s features:
1. d oblivion dl drxo authority and police cración tate d 1 k tndió to inmiscuirs in everyday life prsnas d ls.
2. dl the radical concntración hands may at d 1 olit party, in 1 clear cntralización d procs,
3. dl pntración tate in the society through technical d d divrsas cml lidrazgo charismatic manipulation, the jrarkización, l dbilitamiento d ls l 1idads socials intrmdias d intnsivo use propaganda.
4. enl tnor great confidence and the violncia,
the joshua itlriana the d italia mussolini or Frankistan spaña in inicials momntos ls were rgímns totalitarian. hese prsntan totalitarian rgímns caractriza2 cm 2 probl +:
1. prsntan 1 degree extrmo d d rclamar hese 4lmntos satisfaction, and if we go to the itlr joshua d, s sta problmática way, xk no régimn yeva 1 hese 4lmntos maximum fulfillment. if icieran, s 1 type would Idal d totalitarianism.
2. Analysts muxos ad intrprtan k +, also went 1 régimn totalitariol régimn d Stalin (USSR). l l fascism totalitarianism s overlapping s + xk gnral totalitarianism, no pus to2 ls sn rgímns were neither totalitarian fascists.
authoritarianism
s is d 1 + modra totalitarianism or diluted lack mitigated x lslmntos + d rstrictivos or hard dstacado dl + dl totalitarismo.l Toriz authoritarianism was Juan Linz, k dl frankismo studiolo political régimn and concluded yego frankismo d kl has same traits in ls ls ls 40s and 70s. Primroses ls dl in decades occurred 1 s régimn clear totalitarianism (postwar), k mutated in 1 authoritarianism in its last decades d + life spcialmnt in 60 and ls ls 70. linz k ls traits were attributed to authoritarianism siguients ls:
1. limited pluralism. dmocracia in thorium in 1a, l s unlimited pluralism, while in 1 régimn totalitarian k, l s inxistnt pluralism. in 1 régimn authoritarian right and Reduced-Flow Serie a and 1 d tndncias pluralism without reaching alg1 mode ls k posibilidads the dmocracia April.
2. ausncia d 1A idología strong consistnt in provxo d 1A idología ambiguous and débilmnt made.
3. rnuncian mobilization to the degree d d d ls caractrísticos discipline totalitarianism rclamar d ys contntan with the 1st acptación population passive and apathetic d ls dl rglas game. ls totalitarianism, however, committed to mobilizing the population. st s ncsariamnt 1ivrsal trait: enl pronismo (régimn fascist authoritarian), pron Acla concntración formulas intnsa xa d consguir the population.
4. the authoritarian party the 1st s not well-organized entity to accso k monopolicl may, but significant d k 1a part nurse to lalit dirignt s ds Margna authoritarian party and various tndncias Mustra d ls 1s ls others. dntro ds game, oh dífrnts corrients idológicas or not all lalit k dl dtntabal Podr Staba dntro authoritarian party.
5. for + d the social and political control in authoritarian rgímns sn snciyamnt ls - ls k in deep totalitarian authoritarianism while enl s rvla k 1 k drxo incipient d gnra some garantíaslmntals. and the 1st lgalidad s dsarroya - harsh and arbitrary.
Juan Linz dfinl authoritarianism cml sistma limited political pluralism enl d existn k idología dirctora clear and the 1st, enl k s not political mobilization and enl intnsa kl lídr and elite Podr ejrcnl dntro d 1s pro bastant dfini2 límits prdcibls bad. sta vision had 2 criticisms:
1. Primroses affirms the vision involves some k sta d ls dimnsión justifying authoritarian rgímns.
2. the states k sta sgunda sugr the outward vision parc PROGRAMS Linal d 1 without rtrocsos, acia the dmocracia. s d 1 procs would invitabl in sucsión d totalitarianism, authoritarianism, horn dsmbocar in 1a dmocracia however, progrsión sta istóricamnt has no fundamnto.
4.2.2 .- dl fundamntals fins social tate
1. the control dsarroyo yl sist + k d d prmitanl life dspliegue umana, puedn cm transxts sr ls, ls or ls comunicacions srvicio tatistics.
2. ensure sguridad in aspctos cm ls ls rlativos to economic ncsidads at ambient or ls rcursos MDIO naturals.
3. alisation d prstacions the socials, cm sl case d assurance d 1 minimum wage, d 1 d work pusto citizens xa to2 ls, d ls the atnción to sistma dl incapacita2 or education or health.
4.2.3 .- tate social funcions dl
1. tate distribuidora.l social function not discutl ordn d dl caractrístico property capitalism, although rcurr 1 procdimiento, ls impustos through which OBTI rcursos dl dstino a mjor k then the situation d ls económicamnt by situa2 groups, which ejrc the 1st distribution function d ls d rcursos.
2. tate dirctora.l social function t is obliged to direct economic compljos procs and also assign rcursos obtni2 ls d ls x impustos road, something the 1st ka supusto transformation under which a Djado d d sr 1 stado fundamntalmnt lgislativo xa convrtirs in 1 stado prstacions administrative od.
4.2.5 .- ls ls drxos and social stado librtads librals enl
1. ls drxos to prstacions. STA2 ls implicanl rconocimiento exprso socials drxo d ls dl rcibir dtrminadas prstacions citizens socials.
2. the first division d d podrs. toric social ls tate considran dl d kl principle podrs sa division d convrtido finished in 1 dogma ka x ignore the - 3 ralidads imxtants:
a) the appearance dcrtos d ls d ls-l ordnanzas, formula k ls 2 kl Podr ejcutivo lgisl acn.
b) the influence of public administration d R100T were applied in making ejcución d d muxas dcisions.
c) corrspond to rliev cr100t k d parti2 and organizations would intrss.
st suprar problme xa, O-dl ls tate social cren k st d ay k out and start explaining flxiblmnt ls fortal100do the rotten judicial atribucions corrspondients.
3. d lgalidad principle. enl bringeth them, st any action principle Snal k d 1 may be published and all dcisión d ls db srl juecs product d l d 1A application. tate enl tradicionay deliver it while beginning to lys rmitía d lgalidad abstract gnrals in STA2 ls mnudo socials to rmit very very spcífico lys d contnido in cuals ls rlación with both your condition imxta not lgal cm satisfacr capacity objtivos prcisos xa, thus Cuaya exprimntado principle to some lgalidad d rlajación.
4. d control the lgalidad. ls STA2 in fora dífrnts socials and / 3 control d d d guarantee the lgalidad, k sn ls siguients:
a) ls ordinary tribunals.
b) l constitutional court.
c) Figure dfnsor dl dl people.
4.2.6 .- dl tate social economic action
the social tate s 1 intnto d adaptation to the logic nocapitalismo dl, whose objtivos sn ls siguients:
1. crcimiento Bienstar dl dl and social consumption.
2. PLnO emplo.
3. crcimiento constant.
4. tate kl guarantee is provided by a large part d d tcnológica innovation.
ls tate social actors principals sn ls dl siguients:
1. Stade. agnt main economic punch, both xl volumn d his business caráctr cm xl sa d basic activity.
2. the emprsas. ay k 2 gruwpF Primroses distinguish notif sl sctor monopolistic sistma d sistma cntral or planning. sn k emprsas monopoly operating gnralmnt cm 1 cm cntral k does the 1st economy planner. Enyas exist sxación notif gstión property and with the 1st and entidads sn d autodtrminación remarkable ability. enjoy privilgios driva2 d d ls od monopolies oligopolies. s also yaman macroemprsas. Ejmplo SRIA the RNF 1.
the sgundo sríal sctor comptitivo, sistma d sistma priférico or mrcado, Suel caractrizars xl k dk exo gstión sueln property and match. emprsas sn k privilgios s bnfician d d d 1A evntual monopoly status or olive polio. capacity d d stas autodtrminación Mnor emprsas s muxo, x lo k db k stablcr Asociacións rfljn d Manra their intrss joint, or coe cpym cm.
3. parti2 ls politicians. Governments and dbn dirign ls cm tals dcisions assume economic and social.Good caráctr d d procs globalization rdu100do snsiblmnt stá atribucions d ls ls tradicionals political podrs and conyo, ls d ls parti2. ls nocorxativos stán also covenants, signed x ls organizations would emprsarials principals, unions ls + ls rprsntativos and governments.
5.1.1. dfinición d dmocracia.
concpto d dmocracia comúnmnt the Employee x root occidntal us has the 1st and appeared in the classic grcias, which does not mean k the world dl occidntal Margna ayan dsplgado s not dmocráticos projects.
sa d-leg dmocracia expanded x todol plant and a time k lo exo to the 1st progrsiva distorsión.l numro exprimntado sist d + k formalmnt political crcido snsiblmnt sn dmocráticos to 20 years in ls ls through opra2 political changes in europe mditrrána, in Eastern Europe, Latin America and other scnarios. sa sto produced thanks to the dposición d rgímns militars (South America), to the USSR dsmmbración d dl or abandonment nocolonialismo x part d ls mtrópolis.
régimn the political dmocracia s 1 k dfiend the 1st ncsaria corrspondncia acts of effect d ls ls government and DSOs d sn afcta2 xyos Kiens, the 1st or continuing ability rspusta d dl d prfrncias government to its citizens ls, considra2 políticamnt iguals.
5.1.2 .- rflxions d da l.
da l ls condicions idntificar kier SAS 2 xa k dfinicions d dmocracia s yevn implemented. Statement 2 grands postula2:
1. k 1 xa sa political régimn able to rspondr d ls d dmandas, citizens dbn TNR oxtunidads formulate their fates prfrncias xa, xa exprsarlas individual or colctivamnt, and xa san consguir k x ls considradas x equal citizens.
2. kl xa postulate antrior turality sn s aga institucionals ncsarias 8 Guarantee:
· Librt d association.
· Librt d pnsamiento.
· Drxo d vote.
· Drxo political dirignts d ls enlccions compter.
· Fuents altrnativas d d existncia information.
· Possibility xa d srlgido public office.
· Elccions librs.
· Existncia d k agan dpndr institucions policies gubrnamntals d ls d ls prfrncias citizenship (dl popular vote).
5.1.3. dl sistma features dmocrático
for now we will enunciate the lslmntos ncsarios xa existncia d 1A dmocracia (sgúnl concpto occidntal):
1. comptición political existncia k implies d ncsaria opposition.
2. existncia d dk ncsidad minorities and cuentn with drxos.
3. dl imxtancia popular vote.
5.1.4. sistma dmocrático probl + dl.
k tien sistma dmocrático the Tolra incrtidumbr d 1 degree. st d fnómno arises out what happened in the joshua k when itlr won Nazi laslccions d 1930 and also because in arglia k d laslccions won the Islamist forces, pro d ants form a government military coup occurred 1 s k k sa avoided political force s iciera withthe government.
sl sistma the political dmocracia k enl tolral greater good incrtidumbr Margna latter entndido dk enfrnta s top with 1 cm sl Drive D prciso the political project exigncia cualkier dk d s dspliegue ALTR peacefully and not gambling dmocrático ls rglas dl.
dmocracia enthrones the suprmacía d ls majorities required xallol pro rspto d ls d ls drxos minorities.
ised with studios frcuencia xa s an d efctividad d mdirl degree dmocracia. hese studios s an dífrnts taken in any 2 areas, political drxos l ld d ls drxos civils. d ls drxos enl political sphere, Tienne ls siguients factors into account:
1. elccions x comptición suffrage 1ivrsal and significant.
2. if the opposition won r100tmnt laslccions.
3. if ay parti2 different politicians.
4. if indpndients and candidates.
5. if laslccions sn librs and clean.
6. if lslgi2 tienne 1 may efctivo.
7. if ls lídrs Podr an sidolgi2 r100tmnt enl.
8. if aylccions to local nivl.
9. sil t is government control libr dl d ls militars.
10. sil t is government control libr extranjro dl.
enl field drxos civils d ls, s ls considran factors siguients:
1. if there is 1 degree gnralizado d alfabtización.
2. the existncia d prnsa indpndient.
3. if there is tradition in the 1st librt d prnsa.
4. if ls mdios communication stan d librs d cnsura and prsions.
5. if existn radios and tlvisions indpndients.
6. if s producn public open discusions.
7. sil s judicial Podr indpndient
8. if a and private organizations would indpndients civils.
5.2.1. preferentially the ejcutivo Podr entrl rlación Podr lgislativo yl.
proxciona us critrio st 3 d modls dífrnts dmocracia:
1. Prsidncialismo. + rlvant political figure's axtal prsidnt. aylccions prsidncials (the prsidnt dl poblaciónlig dirctamnt the country). lgislativo l tien parlamnto Or you could dl funcions Reduced-Flow Serie dntro political organization. existn not cnsura or mocions d d custión Contral prsidnt confidence. s parlamnto dstituya kl extrmadamnt difficult to prsidnt.l modload sistma classic d prsidncialismo political nortamricano sl.
2. Parlamntarismo. sl main political institution to parlamnto.l Klig Primroses prsidnt minister or the government dl sl parlamnto.l parlamnto availabl d mcanismos dl xa dstituir the government prsidnt being so d cnsura main motion. Usually there modls hese sk in Fig stado jf dl, d rprsntativo complexion, k d may ejcutivo carc. 1 st modload ejmplo d s span.
3. Smiprsidncialismo. there is 1 x prsidntlgido dirctamnt population (elccions prsidncials). prsidnt l d t is endowed ejcutivo.l parlamntolig would certainly his vz 1 Primroses minister also available K we can surely D has d ejcutivo. Primroses yl prsidnt minister or difficult corrspondn dífrnts po1íticas forces can probl + d April abitacion co. smiprsidncialista modload ejmplo d st and sn xtugal france.
5.2.3. majority principle difrncias entrl consnso d l principle.
1. Dmocracia majority od wstminstr. Concpto d l s majority principle coined in wstminstr. s structured to take trips siguients ls:
· The ejcutivo Podr what intgra 1 single game, with most prcaria vcs, not d existn coalition governments.
Melting the 1st ay entrl · Podr ejcutivo Podr lgislativo yl, driver d kl the formal ex enl parlamnto majority party.
· Bipartisanship. sto DCIR kier not only 2 parti2 aya k, ay k k intrprtarlo cm parti2 only a and 2 d vrdadra rlvancia. oh no limits D parti2. 1 ejmplo d sto s inglatrra.
· The sistma d parti2 s can be explained with the 1st single dimnsión (izkierda drxa).
· Sistmalctoral majority existncia d 1. sto bnficia clearly to the political force + votes, to2 ls xk s yeva scan. proxcionalidad oh no.
· The government has 1 caráctr cntralizado and 1itario.
• The institution rfréndum dl or not you use rarely exist vz.
2.sistma d dmocracia asntada in consnso. siguients ls prsnta features:
· S dk stablc the possibility exists d coalition governments, forma2 x parti2 several politicians.
· Sxación notif Podr ejcutivo and Podr lgislativo.
· Multiparty system. sistma enl s 1 k and / 3 o + parti2 imxtants.
· The sistma d parti2 ex ib + d 1A dimnsión, xa ncsitan to dscribirlo s - 2 exs (izkierda-drxa, not nationalism-nationalism). If x ejmplo dl sl Basque country.
· The sistmalctoral s proxcional, atndiendo to numro d d votes each force.
· Ls sn 1itarios governments and enl ejrcicio tienne dl caráctr dscntralizado podr.
· Exist dl Figure rfréndum.
to view it expusto d, l dmocrático spañol sistma parc basars in 1 d consnso principle, aunk cabn certain matizacions.
Propiciadors d 5.3.lmntos the dmocracia.
there is 1 d intrrogant acrca the stoslmntos d existncia or not. to sta PrGunTa, ay which the 1st rspusta preferentially podm not find crtzalmntos k propi100 the dmocracia. ay pro also says the 1st sgunda rspusta k k stoslmntos existn and puedn idntificars, provided analysis corrspondients ls ocupn d s d prcisos logographic momntos spacios dtrmina2 Istor. preferentially sta sgunda rspusta, stoslmntos puedn take 3 for + dífrnts:
1. Prsncia d dtrmina2 valors. Primroses rflxión the SRIA the d max Webre, he argues k k sn ls ls valors dmocráticos d early judo-Christian civilization. the rflxión s sgunda the montskieu d, k dstaca the crencia in librt, willingness to participate and existncia d actituds open to ngociación, the tolrancia and rspto d ls lys. trcra rflxión the SRIA the d da l, hese links valors kien dmocráticos institucions lgitimidad d ls d cooprar and their ability and their effectiveness. tien k k dfiend be notif the 1st trust to2 ls rcíproca political actors. Last rflxión k dstacar s intrsa us the almond and vrba d, k sn ls dl rsponsabls wedging d the "civic culture", the 1st ks x akya caractrizada living political activity, civil commitment modra x 1, x the confidence enl ausncia own ambient social authority rspto xl, xl and x sntido d indpndncia actituds the ls institucions favorabls to policies.
2. Socials and economic factors. tory gnral stablc the ayi k 1 high level where there alfabtización d, where d ls mdios stan dsarroya2 communication and where not to and economic dsigualdads extr +, s + k aya 1 sistma easy political dmocrático, enl good rlación notif the entndido dk fno-1s and s Linal others. DCIR kier k ay sto CITIES hese factors in ls k no k exists prsnts stan dmocracia (Saudi Arabia), while k ay k ls Païssa in ausnts sn hese factors and there dmocracia (India). aunk lo + sk both normal fno-match.
3. Istor factors in concrto logographic 1 frame s 1 Primroses analysis based on factors Istor k ls took place in europe occidntal d ls sigls eighteenth and nineteenth k gave rise to the dmocracia d. k 1 EKILIBRIO there prevented the monarchy prsncia d 1A fuert IADO d d + d + the 1st IADO indpndient aristocracy. the aristocracy took in good mdidal dl mrcado game, abandoning their traditional inertia. there was no aristocracy and the 1st Coalition of effect Burgusio, k activamnt notif competed together. x Finally, s gave rvolucionaria break prsncia d 1A, cm rgistrada in the STA2 1Ì2 and inglatrra ls.
5.4. ls policies to dmocracia transicions.
political transition s 1 d procs political change driving a 1 k sistma different initial dl. common s ks d abl dmocracia cm transicions the political transition, neglecting k ls transicions dsmbocar in puedn policies for + dmocráticas not.
the dsarroyo d la istoria R100T were applied in certain areas prmit dstacar ks ls produjron transicions to dmocracia:
1. Primroses d ls studios political transition had x objto joshua, Italy and Austria to the Terms sgunda World War.
2. postriormnt in 1970 transicions d ls grcias, xtugal and span.
3. in 1980-1990, ls studios s cntran in Latin America (argntina, Brazil, Uruguay, xil).
4. in 1990, and Eastern Europe cntral. transicions driva2 d 2 d Païssa dsintgracions (USSR and Yugoslavia) and other Païssa cm poland, rpública xeca, 1gría and Romania.
5. in different world trcr s scnarios dl the 1st transition gave the dmocracia acia. 1 ejmplo s south africa, eid par withthe dsmantlamiento dl.
5.4.2. procs dmocratizadors
a and 2 grands visions k rlativas what leads to dmocracia transicions ls. Primroses says the xa k ks vrifik the 1st transition to dmocracia s ks dn prciso condicions objtivas, fit, x ejmplo, d dsarroyo economic dmocrática enl alfabtización or country tradition. sgunda says the ralmnt k lo d ls comxtamiento ImxtanT agnts sl politicians if they form k d s at the height d ayan circumstances imxtará ls k ls dn s objtivas condicions.
the states k ls convnción transicions to dmocracia s vn d given x the existncia condicions objtivas, enl comxtamiento good entndido d kl d ls s political agnts ImxtanT vrificación d x to the transition.
ls studios comx policy an d intntado extract procs lccions d d dtrmina2 xa aplicarls transition and other non parc rspcto kl ls given procdimiento aya aptci2 fruits.
ls transicions studies about the dmocracia s vn oy imprgna2 k d 1A critical condition rcla d plnamnt muxos dmocrática d + d ls rsultants sist. sto afcta to muxos Païssa d d europe latin america st dl.
6.1 .- tate 1itario, tate fdral and confdración.
· 1itario tate.
s tate d 1 k is the - no ex ib no spacial dscntralización enl d dl ejrcicio podr. 1 spaña d ejmplo SRIA the franc.

· Fdral tate.
tate the way d fdral aparció x Primroses vz in 1787 in the constitution d STA2 1Ì2, sought to find the 1st formula k k iciera softw STA2 the existncia d 1 may cntral individuals endowed with certain atribucions d (d 1A framework enl common political structure). dl formula fdral s tate enl extndió xxi century several Païssa d Latin America (Mexico, argntina, Brazil and vnzuela; to2yos Païssa with the 1st great suprficie trritorial), xa DSPU reach in half sgunda dl STA2 twentieth-century Swiss EUROPOS cm or joshua. enl twentieth century were very divrsos muxos Païssa scnarios where s expandiól stado fdral, s DCIR, type d st s trritorial organization extndió x LS 5 continnts. fdrals puedn NACR STA2 ls d 2 for + dífrnts:
1. STA2 several ants indpndients s 1EN of effect each other and lead to 1 common fdral tate. 1 ejmplo s STA2 1Ì2.
2. tate and one indpndient dcid 1itario Rform ys constitution gives itself the form d 1 stado fdral.
tate common fdral one product d sl d to2 ls the sum STA2 k it up. 1 ejmplo s STA2 1Ì2. x other hand, STA2 ls ls fdra2 Païssa sn 1 k d part dl fdral tate. 1 ejmplo s california, Tjasa ...
objtivos ls dl fdral s tate puedn rsumir in siguients ls:
1. acr possible rational polity spacing d grands bas d on the equality of effect rlacions d ls intgrants parts.
2. intgrar common in 1 all related parts Nacions culturals whose existncia s is d prsrvando xayas safeguard maximum independence possible.
3. dsarroyar formulas Podr dl d k trritorial organization accompanying formulas tradicionals d ls dl functional organization podr.
regarding the legal existncia stado fdral dl, ay xa k k k DCIR 1 stado fdral there rkisito indispnsabl k s 1 there the 1st constitution fdral. sta s tate the main difrncia notif fdral and confdración. when several STA2 indpndients sn ls tate form 1 k fdral, its the 1st pass Primroses objtivo s constitution. where s 1 ks Stadol only gives itself the 1st policy organization fdral, s k prciso Rform its constitution.
ACOG fdral one to2 ls tate features stado vrtbradots d 1, or the same ks, s lies in 1 village or nation, has trritorio own d 1 d 1 may Sobrano enjoy.
tate rlacions intrnas enl fdral:
1. Rlacions coordination d: s is d 1 d rparto entrl atribucions common fdral ls tate STA2 fdra2. fdral Stade common sueln corrspondr l ls siguients atribucions: extrior policy (excpción: the USSR; kl ls Nacions 1idas dífrnts tnía 3 seats: 1 x to the USSR, Belarus and other xa xa another Ukrainian), the organization d dfnsa and forces ls military (excpción: Yugoslavia), the peeling yl sistma d PSOs and mdidas, circles and comunicacions, lalgislación on fdral constitution ejcución d, l d ls government colonies, l dl yamado district government fdral (pkño enl trritorio ks is the capital fdral , cm was ington DC or Mexico City), and conflicts evntuals sobr dcisions ls ls STA2 fdra2 notif.
2. rlacions d suprmacía and subordination. stas rlacions affirm the common fdral Podr dl ls entidads or Païssa fdra2. ls aunk STA2 fdra2 puedn Rform 1ilatralmnt their Constitucions, dbn condicions acrlo low ls stablcidas x fdral common constitution. in place sgundo ay k kl dstacar common drxo fdral overrides issued sobrl drxo x entidads fdrals, if k d is in contradiction withthe est Primroses, sl ks drxo fdral comúnl imposes. trcr in place, to2 ls STA2 fdrals tienne fdral court charge d 1 ls consider litigation entrl common fdral Podr STA2 fdra2 ls.
3. rlacions d inordinación. STA2 ls dk Snal form fdra2 influence dtrminación Podr fdral dl d dcisions common. tienne s xayo condicions give 2 k k ls STA2 in the 1st chamber fdrals there lgislativa d k rprsntación trritorial in acuer2 take rprsntantsd ls ls ls STA2 fdra2 k STA2 fdra2 participn in 1a Rform d evntual common fdral the constitution or through the d mncionada camera, either through ratification d d rfor + x part d ls d ls parlamntos ox STA2 fdra2 poblacions part d ls d n the past in rfréndum.
· Confdración
one link of effect confdración s 1 k STA2 YKS consrvan its cra indpndncia under intrnacional pact with d 1 d intnción results prptuidad k 1 may sobr ejrc ks ls STA2 members and not so dirct d ciudadanos.l on their common objtivo d ls sr Suel confdracions the extrna d sguridad intrna and its members.
confdración s one yugoslavia ejmplo d, k was 1 stado fdral horn 1991, pro fdrado country allocation almost exclusively d tnía their armed forces. when comnzó to fragmntars, alg1s analysts suggested its convrsión in 1a confdración d STA2 indpndients, k intrnacional treaty dbrían signature 1. another ejmp1o d s confdración the 1ión europe, k d dfinición complies with confdración pro sntido not stricto, and evolves parc acia k 1 stado fdral future.
tate fdral equivocal term dl
no reason confdral tate d sr 1 and k t is the Compustar confdración x STA2 can only indpndients 1 stado 1itario or fdral sr. Legal naturalza d the confdración. the confdración s the 1st instance to the 1st half d way of effect of effect STA2 alliance mra fdral l tate d way enya convrgnl drxo intrnacional k l drxo constitutional aunk especially drxo intrnacional s objto dl.
fundamntal body d 1A confdración s 1 congrso or diet, enl k x dsigna2 leaders took seats each TATE, and ls dfndr posicions obliga2 to their STA2 d rspctivos. st rkisito s 1ión given in Europe (Europol mandate parlamnto enl s free, and ls x eurodiputa2 own and operate on their own behalf).
tate difrncias entrl fdral and confdración
1. the confdración s intrnacional treaty based on 1, while kl fdral s tate constitution based in 1a.
2. in 1a confdración, the Sobranie follows rcayendo in each 1 d ls STA2 members, while in 1 k fdral rcae sobrl tate tate fdral own.
3. tate the lys in 1 to fdral force ls dirctamnt citizens while in 1a confdración k ls STA2 force members, k dbn lgislación translate them into their own intrna.
4. the constitutional drxo s intrsa x ls STA2 fdrals while drxo intrnacional s kl d ls confdracions deals.
tate 1itario dscntralizado
s 1 k enl akl 1itario tate some or all parts trritorio enjoy your d d atribucions, puedn k + sr administrative mramnt ambitious and reach 1 gnuine Podr lgislativo and ejcutivo. 1 ejmplo clear the spaña s tate d ls autonomías.l spañol s 1itario dscntralizado imposes on its trritorio and lgislación d d 1A dscntralización enjoys very ambitious, since k dl ay dscntralización bastant ejcutivo and lgislativo dl. actualmnt, todol Somtas to trritorio spañol stá tate d ls ls dl principles autonomy.
there are 2 alternatives:
1. The Primroses s administration. s very ambitious in the appearance matrializa ys d ls podrs fundamntals (lgislativo, ejcutivo and judicial).
2. afctar to the dscntralización pued trritorio or dtrmina2 sgmntos todol trritorio dl. x ejmplo, enl case d spaña 1931 constitution rpublicana d d contmplaba STATUTES autonomy only galicia xa, l Basque Country and Catalonia. the constitution d xa STATUTES 1978, gives all autonomous comunidads ls +.
difrncias entrl 1itario dscntralizado l tate tate fdral
1. fdral tate in 1, ls entidads Rform x fdradas puedn their Constitucions your account (if not contradijsn ls rfor + fdral constitution), something does not happen with ls k comunidads autonomous + in span, and k Rform x puedn they do not own their statutes d autonomy.
2. in 1 chamber the 1st exist fdral stado fdral d rprsntación trritorial k ls not exist in STA2 1itarios dscntraliza2. sto s enl discutibl spañol case, as in thorium sto k rspondl Snader, k thing does not happen in practice.
6.2. nation, nationalism and tate
nationalisms dmandas trritorials d ls
ls nationalism always make some dmanda d caráctr trritorial. x therefore rlacions notif ls tate and nation sr puedn quite complicated, Surge 3 scnarios dífrnts d rlación:
1. tate coincidn nation. oh the 1st nation tate in 1 viv k, l tate sv insrto in 1a nation. sa nation does not exist at dl Margna tate. Ejmplo dyo xtugal s 1.
2. sparc nation in several STA2. sn case inch Ungaro population, Kurdish, Catalan (rosyón) or Basque (French Basque country).
3. tate k sno hosts on its various Nacions. sl spaña case d the current, and thus in the constitution rconocido stá d 1978, aunk this abla d d rather Nacions nacionalidads.
nation features vrtbradors d 1A
1. logographic singularity.
2. spcífica or singled istoria (may April led to the formation tate d 1 itself or not).
3. existncia d 1A lngua own. st d existncia feature justifies the LS 3 nacionalidads Istora in Spanair.
4. the ausncia d prsncia or equal tienne efcto foreign populations.
5. d for + culturals existncia own (cultural dynamism singled).
6. d prsncia political and economic forces dfiendan k 1 national discourse.
7. existncia d d oprsión extrna some sort.
puedn nationalist discourses dtrmina2 save olmntos d rlación complexion with natural factors (items 1, 3 and 4, cm enl case gayego) od caráctr + artificial or political (points 5 and 6 cm enl case of Catalonia).
nationalism and rgionales difrncia notif
ls d dtrás nationalists often speeches on April 1 apusta the provxo d d 1 stado cración own. st trait prsnta s speeches instead on rgionales ls, ks contntan with dmandas + k comúnmnt Modstar obdcn a 1a prsncia - solid 7lmntos antriormnt rsña2 d ls. the often stated convnción k ls rgionales sueln dars in akyos CITIES carcn d k lngua own dfnsa k conducn to simpls mdidas d d dscntralización.
7.1. d concpto political party
concpto d the political party has its world enl occidntal Origne pro to finish x extndrs to todol plant in parc extndrs k mdida in the way political parti2 ls dk sn 1 Instrumnt fundamntal d modrnización. sist + to2 ls politicians, even ls dictatorships, political disponn d parti2 (aunk in case st san d caráctr sole and exclusive). entndrl Solmes term "political party" in 2 snti2:
1. sntido gnral and in very vague, there is 1 party politics when there is 1 group umano + or - k compart homogeneity principles or cosmovisions comuns. Snader enl parti2 abía Roman politicians in ciudads ls-tate mdievals and in France d 1789, enl good entndido d kl d carc them to decide meaning rigor in terms d 100cia policy.
2. in 1 sntido + prciso in 100cia kl term party political entndrmos used exclusively db xa k idntificar political forces involved withthe purpose enlccions comptitivas d place its candidates to public office. staslccions date, very tmprano cm, dl from d mdia2 nineteenth century, and in most cases d ls, dl from the twentieth century. ad +, enl stamos framework occidntal world dl, x sr where s clbranlccions comptitivas.
7.2. political class d parti2
classification to the Primroses k ay k Webre atndr sa la d, k d 3 class of effect distinguished political parti2:
1. Parti2 d patronage. parti2 sn ks proponn consguir 1st position D may xa its jf, and administrative positions ls xa sguidors d Est. Ejmplo sn ls 1 d parti2 the nineteenth century spaña dl, d the rstauración (Cacike).
2. Parti2 d class or social group. ls prtndn rprsntar social group intrss d 1 od prciso social 1st class. Ls sn 1 ejmplo whose dnominación s parti2 include it adjtivo "obrro" cml psoe.
3. Parti2 inspira2 world dl intuition in 1a. parti2 vincula2 a 1a sn idología concrta, cml pc. sn distinguish very difícils d d d ls parti2 class or social group in most cases d ls.
other classification duvrgr s the d, k distinguishes notif parti2 ls siguients political class d:
1. Parti2 d Origne intrno. enl surgn sn sno akyos k d 1 k DSDL parlamnto same extndrs seek to society. Ls sn ejmplo VRDS 1.
2. Parti2 d Origne extrno. enl surgn sn sno akyos k d k dsdya society to intntan Yegar parlamnto. sto s + kl common antrior procs.
d duvrgr podm dstacar other classification, working in tniendo tell for critrio d + d ls d ls intrna organization parti2. critrio following st, ay ls parti2 d siguients political types:
1. In cells. Ls formulas d sn cells in 1 critrio organization asntadas labor, favoring Stratgie jrárkicas k k k orizontals difficult rlacions ls an d ls parti2 been communists themselves.
2. In sccions. the formula d the 1st s scción organization asntada in 1 critrio trritorial. was the organization itself parti2 d ls socialist, even though the formula d oy s own organization parti2 d almost to2 ls, ls inclui2 Communists.
3. In committees. L committee s scción d the 1st mode, the areas trritorials ls axtan ls circunscripcionslctorals. 1 ejmplo sn ls parti2 nortamricanos grands.
4. The militia. Private organizations would d sn military complexion or acne xamilitar extrmadamnt jrarkizadas k d numrosos símbols extrnos use. sn caractrísticas d ls d príodo fascist movements entrguerras enl.
x Finally, other d ay party game yamado l "atrapalotodo (CATx-ay). s 1 game ka exprimntado 1 progrsivo dscafinamiento idológico pusta in the view to maximize your numro dlctors through d mnsajs little prcisos.
7.3. funcions political parti2 d ls
1. structurarl vote, sn k k main political body attends primary yl Instrumnt d laslccions political participation (also existn candidates indpndients pro rlvancia s prácticamnt its zero).
2. intgración, mobilizing and involving people d political sistma enl. ls sn aunk not only instances with stas funcions, and also k ls ls tienne socials movements.
3. rclutamiento d prsnal dl 1a part political. the other part rstant political prsnal dl through d s rcluta bureaucracy (civil cml).
4. intrss and agrgación d ls d dmandas population (rfljan in its programs intrss d ls + population). 7.4. sist + d ls political parti2: enfoks and typologies
The following morphological modload sl, k d serves to numro Opran in parti2 k + d ls parti2 sist. en bas a st critrio distinguirmos:
1. Bipartisanship. Opran 2 parti2 imxtants or principals. parti2 hese d ay para alg1s minority. The 1st dtrminada vision d ls kl exos considra political bipartisanship turality Saludabl the 1st s under d 2 razons: STABILITY guarantees and the 1st Imagna ofrc clear and easy entndr d lo k occurs in 1 sistma d parti2. in vrdad, l s extrmadamnt rare bipartisanship, and when there antsl product s d dl sistmalctoral k distorsions drives the ad sions conscuencia d ls d als population. 1 ejmplo s inglatrra, where the abolition 1 sistma dmocrático majority, únicamnt s takes into account the strength + voted. ad + l enl parlamnto bipartisanship rflja not the situation ral d society.
2. Multiparty system. enl sistma Opran + d 2 d multi parti2 políticos.l concpto IADO d + s broad as dífrnts cm ACOG ralidads the sistma enl d 1 k 3 parti2 Opran imxtants and political sistma where d 1 Opran 8 parti2 imxtants. Primroses regarding ralidads ls, s asmjan turality itself well to the bipartisanship dl, while the sgunda d k s sas Alja visiblmnt dl ralidads bipartisanship.
analysis of effect differs duvrgr d posibilidads d 4 ls papls asigna2 to political parti2:
1. D majority vocation match. S k akl obtnr can claim an absolute majority d ls the 1st scan at stake. d dpndrá no other political forces.
2. Grand party. x to reach the absolute majority support ncsital d other d Mnor parti2 pso.
3. MDIO party. s proxciona their scan akl k xa k 1 grand obtnga majority party.
4. Mnor party. akl k s 1 papl significant dsmpña in dtrminación d ls majorities.
Sartori distinguishes 2 types of effect d multiparty multiparty multiparty Modra and multi polarizado.l modra prsnta under d 1 numro parti2 rlvants (5 or -), with the 1st Scase difrncia idológica entryos.l polarized multiparty akl k s 1 numro prsnta high d parti2 imxtants (+ d 5) with multi notabls distances idológicas entryos.l modra s muxo asmja to bipartisanship, ys ls probablmnt dxk modls explanation or were multi-sn notablmnt stabls.
Sartori to acuñadol concpto d "sistma d parti2 prdominant" akl enl ks which 1 single party majority d scan the 1st mantie durant 1 ks príodo prolonged lying - a 4 or 5 lgislaturas.
critrio sl trcr critrio the comptncia d, k k ls considra sist + d sn parti2 cm mrca2 in cuals compitn emprsas ls k ls k sn parti2 own political, withthe objtivo d shaped vntas maximize votes emiti2 x lslctors d, k act consumidors cm. st modload Suel rspondr to parti2 atrapalotodo ls.
parti2 atrapalotodo with ls, s dks corrl RISG produce 1 vote d enl idológico shift the population, d Manra tradicionals votants k ls d 1 drop s match your party x girolctoral.
Situacions notif parti2:
1. Altrnancia. 2 grands parti2 (ls always same) s dl ejrcicio enl turns podr. 1 ejmplo dyo s the rstauración. dsd 1982 when ucd laslccions lost only 2 grands parti2 (PP and PSOE) s an enl turned over podr.
2. Smialtrnancia. s 1 k 1 game modload enl d t is always imxtancia Reduced-Flow Serie government enl, enl ks turn 2 more political rlvancia d muxa. Occidntal almania ejmplo s 1, t is always dondl deliver him enl party government, 1as ls vcs with Christian and other dmócratas with ls vcs socialdmócratas acting hinge cm match.
3. Rcambio priférico. s the 1st position in the k 1 game or 1 blok d t is always parti2 imxtants ac ys government enl roll x other parti2 - imxtants, k accdn or not the government, preferentially Situacions ls. x ejmplo in Italy always Staba dmocracia government enl Christian, pro d was changing in every lgislatura ally.
4. Indistinct or egalitarian coalition. s 1 d sistma enl parti2 kd ls Manra interchangeably all political forces without exclusions imxtants puedn participate in the configuration d coalicions. Belgium ejmplo s 1.
5. Grand coalition. the 1st d s coalition parti2 muxo k excd with absolute majority and k d ls Suel scan Situacions d formalizars in serious crisis. 1 ejmplo dyo s given in postwar Italy d, when s 1ieron to2 ls parti2.
6. Majority party. there is 1 single match available K d 1 d numro high scan, so k d sr above can only coalition d x d + to2 ls parti2.
8.2. ks funcions attributed to laslccions
1. proxcionar the oxtunidad d 1A sucsión d d positions the 1st transfrncia peaceful. laslccions no single method existnt snl satisfacr s objtivo xa, k can logrars through, x ejmplo, dl appointment erditarias dirct d formulas.
2. ls rfljar changes in public opinion.
3. 1 sntimiento d gnrar political community and political sistma enl intgrar opcions + dispars ls.
4. accions prmit k ls d ls xl gobrnants s van critrio influenced gobrna2 d ls, d 3 for + different:
· Proxcionar ls gobrna2 their own candidates.
• The possibility kjas acia d prsntar Kiens ejrcrl aspire to government.
* K ls gobrnants own, close d laslccions, DCID adaptars to dmandas d ls ls gobrna2.
8.4. drxo d rstriccions to vote
1. The Drive critrio d dl d edadlctoral majority. s the age at which s enjoy d d d drxo vote. x usually dtrmina s to ls d 18 or 21 years old. the tndncia Istora rbajars has been a most d edadlctoral.
2. Voting mujrs d ls. In muxos CITIES, till well entradol twentieth century mujrs Carcia d ls d drxo vote. actualmnt, apnas exist in rstricción sta ls dmocráticos Païssa or clear sikiera d akyos extraction in Islamist Iran cm. in span, the Primroses vz k ls mujrs voted was in 1932 with the sgunda rpública.
3. Nivl intlctual. sist + enl political past k ubo ngaronl drxo d ls analfabtos vote.
4. Concpto d moral unworthiness. s the 1st legal notion imprcisa bastant drxo kl d k Snal rtirars to vote db k akyas prsnas an crímns or Dlitos comte.
5. Critrios d political marginalization. 4 ejmpls dyo podm ponr:
· Enl lctorals past dtrmina2 sist + l ngaronl drxo d ls militars vote, to Mr. srvidors dl k dbían tate d Nutral mantnr 1st position. sto s gave x ejmplo, in Europe occidntal dl early twentieth century.
· Marginalization critrios bas a rligiosos. x ejmplo, Ireland dl nortl sistmalctoral to bnficiado istóricamnt community dtrimnto d protstant in the Catholic community.
· D caráctr ethnic marginalization. Ls sn 1 ejmplo dyo Jews in itlriana almania or ls dl ngros in south africa eid par. umanos groups ENTRES s priva2 they saw their drxo d d x razons ethnic vote.
· Ay sist + k aunk formalmnt political nieganl not drxo d vote d dtrminadas comunidads, marginalize them in the mdida in acn k k xa little participn in laslccions.
Sist 8.6.lmntos d ls + lctorals
1. Dirct suffrage and suffrage indircto. Dirct s suffrage poblaciónlig dirctamnt given when their rprsntants. 1 ejmplo dyo diputa2 sn laslccions d ls dl indircto suffrage congrso.l occurs when your rprsntants ka poblaciónlig its other rprsntants dsign vz. 1 ejmplo s lalcción dl dl prsidnt spañol government. 2. Constituency.
sl-space constituency logographic enl vrifical rcuento ks xa d votes dsigner 1 or more candidates. enl case d span, s obsrvan dífrnts modalidads: laslccions europas in the constituency the whole punch dl dl trritorio spañol tate; in laslccions gnrals or lgislativas, the district applied ks s the province in laslccions regional, constituency ks s also applied the province; x Finally, laslccions municipals or locals, the district municipality sl ks applies. in Spanair aylccions not prsidncials.
justice, l numro rprsntantslgi2 in each district d db sr strictamnt numro d proxcional to this abitants d, d such Manra each rprsntant l ka corrspondal numro dlctors same. yena d sta stá excpcions rule, cm LS 4 siguients:
Ay galicia · in 4 provinces: La Coruña, pontvdra, lugo and orns. Primroses stan ls 2 + k ls 2 sgundas populated, and yet when s laslccions dmocráticas instituted, the dominant force entoncs, 1ión d cntro dmocrático (UCD), k k knew most votes procdían d d ls lugo orns and proposed the 1st ls votes sobrprmiar formula d xa stas 2 provinces.
· S otherwise the Basque autonomous community, in the k and / 3 provinces: Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa and Alava. vizcaya tienl dobl d k alava population, however pro, l numro votes ncsario d xa sl consguir 1 seat itself.
· Fuertvntura s 1A D k intgran ls ls islands canary islands. 1 rprsntant office fuertvnturalig enl congrso d d ls diputa2, aunk its population xcntaj d sa l attributed faculty.
· X Finally, dl nort ireland, half abitants sn d protstants and half Catholic. s dividl trritorio in 4 circunscripcions pro with 1 trick: 3 trritorio protstant and only trritorio Catholic 1a, with LS 100 diputa2 kd, and 5 sránlgi2 x stnta community vinti5 x protstant and the Catholic community.
3. Rfréndum and plbiscito.
s the 1st one consultation rfréndum d under which the population dmanda s your opinion with some rlación s custión imxtant.l rfréndum common political dtrmina2 sist + ys very rare in others. Swiss sl + s country where used, while in spaña k, x ejmplo, not abusing d s use it, either pro s dscarta. only to Abydos 2: 1 on the Constitution in 1978, and another on prmanncia d spaña NATO in 1986.
1 TNR rfréndum pued the complexion mramnt advisory or otherwise xl, xal obligacions gnrar government, s DCIR can sr binding. x ejmplo in span, l rfréndum obligacions gnró on the constitution, while on NATO kl rfréndum was only advisory.
1a Figure l ks rfréndum s muxo prsta to handling governments dsd ls (x ejmplo, only in Situacions sueln convocarls in ks ls evidnt ratification rfréndum dl) s the 1st xadoja, and k if the initiative Saludabl s, l s not procdimiento both.
plbiscito s the 1st one singular form in which rfréndum d sl pid not the people their opinion on the 1st custión rlvant, but his opinion rspcto 1 dirignt political prsnalizado. in Spanair to custión d ekivaldría confidence. the 1st s not very dmocrática political formula, and evaluate the form d k sto sn laslccions. s in sist + da muxo dmocráticos with authoritarian features. in Spanair propiamnt plbiscito not to Abydos, intntó acrlo s pro in 1986, with NATO dl rfréndum d, where the government entoncs prsidnt dl (flip gonzálz) k said if they voted against it, s going.
4. Dsarroyo dl drxo d vote.
normalmnt s voluntary voting, pro no shortage of political sist + s ls cuals mandatory exo d kl d such luck not going to vote sancions causes economic or voting morals.l s scrto and rspcto s an dsarroyado procdimientos cm cabins, l use d ks ls sobrs in the paplta mt, ol exo k dk propiolctorl salt mtal ballot in the box.
prsions sobr lslctors the zero or minimum dbn + sr. Reduced-Flow Serie several mdidas xa ay:
· Pro ibición d ls propagandalctoral in Colgi
· Pro ibición d encustas in days post antriors to lalcción
Enl límits volumn · ls k ls d DINR puedn spend on political laslccions
× l stablcimiento d 1a d rflxión day, day to ls prvi comicioslctorals, enl dsarroyar which acts puedn s not d campañalctoral
the 1st jurisdiction exist (part judicial Podr dl) vlar x indpndient charge d d laslccions cleaning. in Spanair to Abydos probl + x run withthe andwiththe vote vote d ls Emigrants.
8.7.1. sistmalctoral majority
s one majority sistmalctoral akl k to2 ls concd to scan the political game + voted, k d is not rprsntación dja d + ls all political forces.
the majority sistmalctoral pued aplicars in circunscripcions 1inominals or through lists d d 1inominal constituency: Sligo 1 solo rprsntant (x lo ks ks yev logical force the policy + rprsntación voted).
the majority sistmalctoral pued modulacions dífrnts ajustars 2:
5. Sistma majority a 1a round. sl k + s dfinición fits the given antriormnt. xa simple majority would be worth consguir victory.
6. Sistma majority at 2 laps. s caractriza Primroses XKS clbra the 1st round k d way if any political force enya the 1st gets absolute majority votes d ls, s ls ac scan with game d sa dars no circumstance, s clbra in the 1st round sgunda k ls 2 political concurrn + Primroses voted in the back, the + k d Manra voted in sgunda dryas back with ls s ac scan at stake.
Païssa in ejmpls d 2 ls ks sn majority sistmalctoral Current usage and STA2 1Ì2 great brtaña.
prsntal sistmalctoral the majority vntajas k sn ls siguients:
1. Simplicity. prmitn ofrcr 1 political landscape very clear and easy d entndr.
2. Ensures the 1st more stabile, all vz k sueln foster clear majorities.
3. when the district s 1inominal (akya k sólolig 1 rprsntant), facilitates knowledge mjor d 1 x part d ls lslctors candidates.
xl contrary, too prsnta inconvnients:
1. s 1 sistma unfair as k to force political otorgarl + votadal game total scan marginalizes d d ls Manra radical minorities. 1 ejmplo were laslccions d Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad), where the political power + fuel voted Communist Party got Solol k ls 16% d votes, however pro s izo d ls with full scan. k t is the explanation in the city circunscripcions t is divided into 25 very pkñas, l the Communist Party was the political force in 23 dryas, and was 1 cm sistma majority 1inominal, she has reached psar xcntaj d dl under votes, most d ls scan.
2. in 1inominals facilitanl asntamiento d circunscripcions authentic fu2 under tradicionalmntlgido deputy cualsl d ls ls exos dsign in his sucsor, when k t is the population prácticamnt "forced" to support. yama fnómno sl st to cooptation.
8.7.2. sistmalctoral proxcional
s plans to distribute akl ks ls scan withthe game proxcionalidad stricta rcibido x xcntaj d votes each political force understands rsultas YKD ke] s the 1st SPCI d parlamnto microcosm rproduc litralmnt k ls d ad sions population policies.
k in one 1aslccionsl SRIA ejmplo pp obtuvieral votes 60% d ls, l IUL psoel 33% and 7%. k if s were to allocate 10 scan, at pp l corrspondrían 6, the PSOE 3 and scan your 1. ls pro scan does rpartir d s sueln Manra strictamnt Matmata, but sueln ks acr 2 corrccions:
1. applying the l d d 'ondt. 1 bit distorted sta ls l rsulta2 at parti2 grands bnficiar to ls and ls prjudicar to pkños. the ribbon or dtrminación d 1 d xcntaj minimum votes prciso ks xa consguir rprsntación reach. sto prjudica also a political pkñas ls.
vntajas dl sistmalctoral proxcional:
1. s + kl sistmalctoral fair majority.
2. rprsntación proxcional the asu prsncia facilitates the d k prsnas ants. rmit sto ak when we apply the 1st rprsntación proxcional never starman 1inominal ant the 1st district, but each political db k prsntar the 1st list with many members diputa2 stan d cm numro involved.
3. sgundas around the ausncia d k ngociacions not always avoid sn muyedificants. when in 1 sistmalctoral Acud a 1a majority sgunda s lap, political ls ls k 2 + san mrcadan voted with their votes xa prsuntos seek alliances with any political forces d ls 2 + voted.
st sistmalctoral proxcional also prsnta alg1s inconvnients:
1. puedn facilitate gstación d parlamntos excsivamnt fragmnta2. RISG exist d + d 1A IADO plural composition and the consequent difficulty to acuer2 Yegar xa.
2. most d ls ls vcs formulas applied proxcionals lists crradas s, k d Manra very good mdida domes d sn ls ls ls parti2 and not citizens candidatoslctos Kiens dtrminan ls. asil Margna dlcción kda d ls very Reduced-Flow Serie citizens. Ls lists the 1st altrnativa srían open, k d Manra every citizen to vote rprsntants k ls he considrara + convnients, not xl lslgi2 prviamnt party.
3.7.3. sistmalctoral mixed
the mixed s sistmalctoral akl k combinalmntos majority ylmntos proxcionals. Sistmalctoral mixed ejmplo d 1 sl French sistma d 1951 d k ls granted full scan in the political game + dk if it voted Ubiera obtnido d ls absolute majority votes. d otherwise distributed according to 1 ls scan critrio proxcional.
3.8. Intrrlacions entrl constituency size d l Employee sistmalctoral.

9.1. prsión d ls od groups influence
difrncias notif parti2 ls ls politicians and groups d prsión
1. ls proponn gobrnar s political parti2 while k ls d prsión s form groups with influence gobrnants ls.
2. ls parti2 s proponn place their militants in public office, while k ls d groups prsión not proponn obtnr s office xa their militants, al - in Primroses instance.
to vcs so snciyo s not distinguish parti2 d ls d ls prsión groups, 4 cm stas atstiguan circumstances:
1. prsión d ay k groups withthe time parti2 s an convrtido in politics. 1 ejmplo some unions in inglatrra sn, k fundandol ended British Labor Party.
2. s t is not in it k sn ls ls pkños exos parti2 rsiduals ks prsntan to laslccions still will not knowingly obtnr dk alg1 scan. formalmnt aunk parti2 sn, cm Opran well if d + d prsión s tratasn groups.
3. prsión d ay muxos strxamnt vincula2 groups with prcisos political parti2. Ls sn 1 ejmplo dyo unions brtaña d the great current, placed in orbit ks dl Labor Party.
4. + d ls sist in one-party (not dmocráticos), s party only place to acogr in numrosos sno groups to prsión d ls ls k no kda + rmdio k vinculars with the only political force lgal existnt.
dfinición d group d INTRES
a group the 1st Partnership d d s prsión individuals, k s 1 YKS political party aims to influence government enl favorabl xa d dtrmina2 intrss way.
prsión d group, srlo xa, k star tend formalized cm such. x ejmplo, ls mujrs not make prsión d 1 group, the 1st aunk association mujrs yes s 1 d d prsión group.
ls d groups show prsión sueln Modstar objtivos bastant + k ls ls ex ibi2 x + parti2 in its programs.
imxtants groups k d + prsión Opran in sist + ls occidntals
1. Grands organizations would emprsarials. in Spanair s yama emprsarials organizations would confdración spañola d (coe). sueln grands corxacions transnacionals sr ls ls ls rules dictate k + dl game.
2. Unions. TATE funding Reduced-Flow Serie dpndn k d the d prsión capacity, its indpndncia and influence.
3. Organizations would d consumidors. in Spanair adkirido not so much an imxtancia cm in france, joshua ol 1ido rhino.
4. Ong (gubrnamntals organizations would not). 1 large dsarroyo an exprimntado in recent years.The ls ong term as Solmes rlacions with ls dsarroyo aid organizations would be d, sr pro xk no as well. d procdn back as the founding dsd d concrto the Red Cross in 1873. probl + prsntan also in his rfier ks indpndncia, dbid TATE their funding.
9.2.l nocorxativismo
the corxativismo s caractrístico d rgímns authoritarian, while nocorxativismo s caractrístico d kl ls rgímns dmocráticos.l corxativismo s political and social doctrine the 1st k sgunda nac in half through the nineteenth century dl d dl encyclical pope xiii lon "rrum Novarum", k k Snal FRNT deliver it to the vision and vrsion Marxist rivindican sociedads k prmanntmnt enfrntadas extinct and through the dislocation d d class, corrspond dfndr the 1st and intgrada harmonious society in which s impose harmonization d ls d ls dífrnts intrss opustos socials class .
istóricamnt, dspliegue d l ls s corxativas trips asntó in conglación d ls dsigualdads socials, k with all class evidncia bnficiaba to pudients.l corxativismo ls in ls practices influenced socials podrosamnt Italian Fascism dl, dl and dl frankismo in primovrismo span, dl Salazarism d xtugal several dictatorships in latinoamricanas, the d x ejmplo in argntina pron.
s dstacar ImxtanT atnción k yama on the harmonica aparnt concrtación d ls intrss socials, when the scond turality intrss ization d ls d ls high class.
k explicanl step changes to corxativismo dl nocorxativismo
1. d numro appearance and new public and private organizations would draw 1 Panorama k d + intrss muxo compljo.
2. in the traditional d concpción the dmocracia deliver it s citizens entndía k ls s Ayaba razonablmnt rprsnta2 x ls x parti2 influence alg1s pkños d groups. o and s muxo + rprsntación complicated Compit all k 1 vz + h d muxo numro intrlocutors dbn stablcr rglas d ys k clarifiknl game scenario.
3. the gobrnabilidad. objtivo cntral sug k 1 + d ls sist occidntals political gobrnabilidad d s guarantee to corrsponsabilizando Païssa ls ls ls trabajadors and d emprsarios in making dcisions.
4. d influence the socialdmocracia, leaving the dislocated Estal principle d d class or on dfcto, by making the class a dislocated d intrss nacionals ls.
5. ls intrss nacionals imprgnan good part d ls oficials policies through, x ejmplo, dmanda constant d d 1A mjores in productivity and comptitividad, withthe purpose d put the country on custión in 1st position in the economy + Saludabl intrnacional.
6. tate to the funcions rsrvado yes imxtants d xa notif mdiación economic agnts ls, ks matrialización reflected in yamado nocorxativismo dl.
hese 6 gears rsña2 s reflected in 1 concpto yamado nocorxativismo.
nocorxativo pact
a covenant agreement nocorxativo s 1 matria rlvants economic and socials, signed under signed dmocráticos d procdimientos xl d 1 country government, organizations would patronals + x ls x ls imxtants + rprsntativos unions. s question, pus, d 1 Tripartite Pact. ay k dstacar 3 discusions about surgn k k concpto d just explain:
1. ls to d muxos studiosos eyes and ps lo k emos said, ls covenants nocorxativos probl + gravs planted in dmocrática motherland, entire enyosl parlamnto vz k dsmpña not only papl alg1 stá prsntl party or government ejrcnl k parti2 ls.
2. the exo dk sistmáticamnt margin in making the dcisions d mdiana emprsa pkña and to non-majority unions ls ls and dsmpla2. under marginacions stas d ay d dfi100cias in motherland in rprsntación dmocrática ls nocorxativos covenants.
ls covenants nocorxativos an aroused 2 Grands intrprtacions:
1. Primroses Snal the set k 1 procdimiento very Saludabl rsolución ekilibrada d d tnsions ls, d kl way government takes 1st position and ekilibradora notif Nutral intrss d ls ls ls unions and organizations would intrss d ls emprsarials.
2. the sgunda d ls k ls intrprtacions Snal críticamnt an nocorxativos covenants set domsticación gnral 1 procdimiento d d d ls unions hand d mdidas governments and supported dsd ls ls bnficiosas fundamntalmnt xa emprsarios. ProCD critical sta d la izkierda.
ls d la Moncloa Pacts, signed a finals d 1970, were 1 ejmplo d ks joined the pact nocorxativo either s true that most political parlamntarias d ls dl momnto. sl pact nocorxativo + ka tnido ImxtanT spaña place.
10.1. dfinición d bureaucracy
the word bureaucracy cultured k s the 1st floor has several significa2 different cults and other alg1s Dyos vulgars. ls dstacar podm siguients:
1. Cm government bureaucracy. L st d concpto main problme parc entndr sk kl concpto d the word bureaucracy can only aplicars to public bodies, and ignores rsultas k d existn also bureaucracies framework enl d entidads private.
2. Bureaucracy cm inficaz administration. sl st popular or vulgar d concpto bureaucracy comúnmnt idntifica k rigidz enya the absurd fragmntación d and 1a in the cntros D may dcisión autonomous. TXT d s larra rlaciona withthe "risk anything back tomorrow."
3. Organizational bureaucracy cm 1 sistma the maximum ac k efi100cia. s litralmnt opusto to sgundo concpto under the carncia d in egl d d almania such a group. ls bureaucracy own features ex ib d dl rational division work, the jrarquía d d ls prstacions continuity.
4. Bureaucracy cm d ls government officials. Sl d etymological meaning the word bureaucracy ( "d ls government officials). comúnmnt s understood in dtrmina2 Païssa k, cm russia or xine, ejrcidol government bureaucracy in a momnto d la istoria.
5. Bureaucracy cm x ejrcida administration officials asalaria2. sta administration may be embodied in both public organizations would be private organizations would be cm. Public bureaucracy ejmplo d 1 ls sn MINISTRY officials asalaria2 d 1 or d 1 ls asalaria2 party officials, distinguished ks ls ds party militants and cadres. Private ejmplo d 1 sl sctor administrative bureaucracy to defects DDIC prsnal d d d 1A accounting emprsa, dífrnts to ls vntas defects d and d production.
10.2. analysis of bureaucracy d d Webre
Idal type d d bureaucracy sgúnl Webre s analysis yamado lgal rational bureaucracy. Webre s rfier bureaucracy d ls dl points heading trcro Primroses and antrior. dtrminadas Occasions in his work, uses the word bureaucracy Webre xa d acr rfrncia governments officials, pro x lo gnral dspliegal aforementioned rational bureaucracy concpto lgal d, k prsnta ls siguients features:
1. existncia d 1 d rglas gnrals k sistma force x equals dtntadors ls dl may, at ls ls intgrants d citizens and the bureaucracy.
2. existncia d 1A in jrárkica organization divrsas posicions k ls in command sn CADNA occupied d x and not x prsnas prcisas Structured abstract.
3. formalized prsncia dl d 1st division working with procdimientos standariza2, rclutamiento d ls d ls officials under librs contests and administrative functions as dsarroyo d ls on Basso continued.
4. db bureaucracy act d Manra dsprsnalizada and nurture, oprando "without ira et studio", s DCIR, without wrath and studio.
10.3. condicions Istora k an d appearance ls prmitido public bureaucracies (rational bureaucracy lgal) preferentially Webre
1. Montaria consolidation d the economy. dl implantation capitalism prmitió statalizar administrative ls + sist under the replacement d d ls x SPCI payments DINR payments.
2. Crcimiento qualitative and quantitative d ls d ls STA2 administrative flaws. In absolute STA2 ls multiplication in the 1st s vrificó numro and administrative STRUCTURES dimnsions d ls d ls d hand or dl prmannts armies dsarroyo sist + d ls d ls d transxt comunicacions.
3. Enlargement buffering d ls d ls d dcisión dl dtntadors may rclaman dl k ls d sctors administrative support corrspondients.
4. The dmocratización d procs. LS 3 procs antriors s occurred in STA2 modrnos ls, while k + est tard procs held enl time. prmitió the dissemination policy dmocracia modload dl bureaucratic, by formalizing the legal equality d to2 ls the l FRNT citizens and open the administration to accso cualkiera comptnt k fus.
5. The technical suprioridad bureaucracy over d ls d + d formulas administration, bureaucracy formula s + d gstión effective management.
10.4. bureaucracy and rlación notif dmocracia (may politician) preferentially Webre
Primroses rlación
means t is always subordinate bureaucracy a 1a authority unbureaucratically dirignts ks ls rvla in political (public bureaucracy) and owners and dirctors d ls emprsas (private bureaucracies).
sgunda rlación: l exo aya s dk convrtido bureaucracy in indispnsabl xa modrna life sufi100t condition xa s not say the bureaucracy enjoys d k 1 may be autonomous.
trcra rlación: existncia d 1A rlación the ambiguous and contradictory and bureaucracy of effect dmocracia s plasma x 1 dk side the dmocratización enl exo muxo k tien withthe asntamiento d vr bureaucracy, and x other, enl exo d dks contrary to this and gnra Podr enya raccions ostils.
cm conclusion, Webre bureaucracy dic k s is x what gnral in 1st position about the ls d vntaja political podrs tradicionals, driver d d expertise opacity used to operate the k d k such Manra with frcuencia, dtntadors ls dl Podr comxtan cm s aficiona2 dlant d 1 spcialista.
10.6. sist + d ls classification bureaucratic
going to plant 2 d critrios classification:
1. The Primroses critrio afcta to bureaucratic cm ls sist + set.
· Cntralización dscntralización. sist + s ls bureaucratic organizations, - in principle, d fdrals differently in STA2 (STA2 cm almania or 1Ì2) and STA2 1itarios (cm france, or italy 1ido rhino). dntro d ls fdrals, bureaucracy organizes dl s akyos same way STA2 k tienne the administrative and dscntralización mramnt ls + k Mustra the 1st dscntralización ambitious. d allocation officials ls nivls cntral, intrmdio and also keep priférico condition rlación with 1itaria d ls fdral or STA2, being usually STA2 1itarios ls k in the greater accumulation d s rgistr officials nivl cntral enl.
-* -* cntral ministries tate officials 1itario
intrmdio - -* comunidads tate officials fdral
priférico - Local - ÷ tate officials fdral
· Type d dl division work. s can formalize various preferentially critrios:
1. functional (d defects dspliegue dífrnts)
2. trritorial (1st division trritorial d existncia dl may) or d sgúnl type clientla.
3. sgundo holds the exclusive critrio d s laslits bureaucratic. different types dlits corrspondn different types d sist + tape. look below 4 d critrios dífrnts dlits classification:
· Social background and status d lalit. in most bureaucracies d ls d ls d Païssa ProCD occidntals lalit ls high class, even social or difficult prstigio dl them to decide s work high in cases ol alman cml French, or low, in cases cml Italian nortamricano ol l spañol. ls r100ts sueln bureaucracies + TNR - prstigio.
· Rclutamiento d d carrr mode. a and 2 grands posibilidads: the cro d 1A mobility under the Cuaya official dsarroya d whole carrr dntro d 1 single bureaucratic body, or the d 1A broad mobility with changes frcuents d 1 body to another.
· Caráctr crrado or open d laslits. ay 3 orizonts difrnts.l sl d 1 Primroses crrado bureaucratic body, without significant intrcambios ls d + lits with political, economic and socials.l sgundo sl d 1alit pro crrada at its entrance open at its output. Member accdr aya d puedn not laslits political, economic and socials, it pro lalit k proxciona tables on politicians or private emprsas ls. alman sgundo modload sl st ol sl d lalit francés.l trcro open both at its entrance cm at its output. s can otraslits and accdr dsd dsdya s can also accdr to otraslits. nortamricano modload sl st. in the 1st mzcla spaña s da d to2, divrsaslits xk existn very bureaucratic.
· Gnralidad and spcialización. Compustar aylits only as k x gnralistas Compustar aylits also únicamnt x spcialistas. s can also Compustar x 1alit d both the 1st combination.
11.1. d the dmocracia crisis, crisis and crisis in dmocracia ls dificultads Driver d d d expansion of dmocracia
crisis of the 1st exist dmocracia cuandolmntos sustancials d d s this gravmnt afcta2 ayan, d such lawful prguntars Manra sil ks sistma rsultant s ralmnt dmocrático. 1 ejmplo dyo SRIA the canclación d drxos and librtads.
exist in the 1st crisis dmocracia cuandolmntos imxtants dl sistma dmocrático prsntan probl + k dl afctan the SNCI sistma. x ejmplo, 1st bad rlación notif podrs ejcutivo and lgislativo ls, ls ol notif aljamiento institucions and citizenship.
Driver d the 1st crisis exist difficulty expansion d d s producl the exo dmocracia when dmocracia sa 1 dk sistma the political dtrminadas limited to land parts d, x I kx db logic procupación produce.
11.2. polarization and radicalization
stá sistma polarized political one when ls opcions tiendn policies to accruing in 2 grands pols. s tndncia radicalization to the distance d acrcntamiento notif idológica pols SOS 2.
Polarization can rgistrars without radicalization, k d the same crisis Manra d dmocracia rclama the polarization and radicalization. dsd 1982 till oy in spaña producl fnómno d s polarization (PP-PSOE), pro t is not marked x radicalization.
K "if PROGRAMS radicalization and polarization give the vz ys?. if the political class gets rcomponr 1 consnso sobr lslmntos fundamntals d discussion supra s crisis d otherwise sueln aparcr indicadors d 3 d the dmocracia crisis: the political cntro dsaparición dl, the xamilitars groups prolifración d d d acts policy violncia k rfljan k considran ilgítimo political opinions to the government, and x Finally, the polarization d podrs nutrals, cm tate the jfatura dl, ls ol Podr military courts.
11.3.lmntos k puedn frnar procs d 1 d the dmocracia crisis
1. tate dl linking them to decide to suprastatals k prmitan organizations would consolidate dntro dmocracia dl it.
2. the economic prospridad. alfabtización high índics d d d srvicio rnta socials pr capita parcn save the 1st strxa rlación withthe asntamiento d 1A dmocracia stable.
3. the funcions dsarroyo dl d ls tate. dl expansion with rlacions tate in their society also been stabilized d 1lmnto the dmocracia.
4. the political existncia d parti2 tradition and pso, ad + dk tngan prspctiva d future.
5. existncia d dsarroya2 the unions and also asnta2 easy ac k sa + d the dmocracia continuity.
6. the rcuerdo d vrifica2 enl dmocráticos past failures. st sa rcuerdo dxk convrtido in explaining not to Abydos in occidnt + dmocráticas crisis to what happened in ilo d ls d ls AUGs and Italian fascism ls alman years l920 and 1930.
7. socials movements assets.
11.4. sist in r100ts transformacions ls + dmocráticos
1. Idntidad d ls actors. L sl Primroses individual actor (xk ls sist + dmocráticos 1DN their pnsamiento enl raícs deliver it), l ls parti2 sn sgundo political trcro l ls prsión groups d, l ls quarter socials movements (environmentalism, pacifism, anti-globalization ) l ls kinto nationalist movements, k dsarroyo an exprimntado 1 good.
2. Divrsificación in mcanismos d ls rprsntación dmocrática. ls we find siguients mcanismos: lccions, d trritorial complexion; prsión groups d, d complexion functional plbiscito l, d plbiscitario complexion.
ls 2 Primroses mcanismos acr100tan, to - in principle, dmocracia in rduc.l chicas are highly sweetened trcro the main problme d dmocracias modrnas s ls ls ls institucions and distances of effect and of effect parti2 ls ls institucions and citizenship.
11.5. d diagnoses the crisis in the dmocracia
1. Diagnosis nomarxista.
sk starting point studia d ls dl condicions own late capitalism, the alliance of effect caractrizado x 1 oligopolistic capitalism and 1 late capitalism intrvncionista.l tate ac k to end forever the logic dl prvalzca capital, in 1 kl stado enl scnario stá Prso prev 1 Dilma. x 1 side, atndr to intrss gnrals xa ls garantizarl d support d the majority population, while other side kx db logic abide d d mrcado economy, rspond to intrss particulars k, k sn ls ultimately imponn ks.
Stade db ls rsolvr control probl + sin 1 d ls mdios dirct economic encararls.l concpto d k prmitn fiscal crisis tndncia invokes public spending aumntar dl rápidamnt k + k ls yegan x ingrsos road impustos d ls, ks tndncia c + grav in economic rcsión d ls momntos in logic s ls cuals x rcaudan - impustos, while k ay k atndr Mayors prstacions socials.
2. Diagnosis noconsrvador.
x 1 side ablamos d 1A enl mrcado unlimited confidence, and x other dl mantnr EMPNO in rlacionadas institucions valors and family, with rligión and enl work ethics. STA2 socials Snal k ls d ls acr100tan the dpndncia individuals with ls xa institucions, with k ls drxos attack individuals.
favorcidol asntamiento a new class d 1A civil service in intrsada exclusivamnt stado prsrvar their social privilgios.l eroded mdios d ls d rsolución tradicionals conflicts and entryos ls vincula2 with family, with ls ls groups iglsias and final étnicos.l been rsultado d 1A appearance cornered moral hedonist ethics ka dl d the rsponsabilidad work.
st k ls ignores diagnosis STA2 socials dsmpñado 1 good papl an appeasement d ls d tnsions, ka k prmitido logic capitalism prvivis dl, d such lawful suert prguntars k ks s dsvancisn dtrminadas happen if conkistas socials.
vrsion one - he argues radical socials STA2 k sn ls propnsos to acrcntar without limiting their prstacions in good mdida, cm rsultado proms k ls d ls parti2 made in laslccions. stablcr rglas d ay k k limitn exprsamntl incrmnto game dl spending, such Manra k d prvivan srvicio muxos socials YKS ensure the institution dl k consrv his plna lgitimidad tate.

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