Major problems related to population: 1-Rapid population growth( mainly less developed countries) 2- Ageing population (mainly developed countries), 3- Effects of large-scale migrations, 4- Coexistence in a multicultural world. Population:problems and policies: High natural population increase can lead overpopulation. It becomes difficult to produce enough food, there are too many childrens in school to work efectivily, there are less jobs, the country cannot provide basic services. Why people emigrate: economic reason (emplyement) | Social (for better quality of life, or standard of living) | Political (escape from conflicts), enviromental (escapes from natural disasters) Effects of migrations:(countries of origin) | Positive: reduces employment pressure because emigrants are usally of working age. | Emigrants usually send money home. Negative: families broken up,| fewer young adults, higher proportion of older people and children | highle skilled people tend to emigrate. (destination countries) Positive: young population growth | taxpayers number increase | cultural enrichment occurs. Negative: increased pressure on healthcare| poor living conditions | conflicts. Cultural challenges: 1- Cultural diversity and respect for each culture, 2- Dissappearance of cultures, 3- Fundamentalism.
Economic contrast: Unequal distribution of wealth, Internal inequalities and extrme poverty (poorest countries in sub-saharan africa, south asia, east asia and the pacific.) Differences in consumption, Differences in health care, Differences in education, Differences in the situation of children, differences in growth rate. Factors that cause underdevelopment: the colonial legacy, The technological gap, External debt, Population, Bad goverments and armed conflicts, Differences in world trade. Overcoming Undervelopment: foreign trade, Effective government management, Poverty and exclusion in the EU, The poor, Social exclusion.