Positions

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POSITIONS OF PLACEMENT OF PATIENTS
Supine or dorsal
In the anatomical position, the patient remains with his hands on either side of the body, arms extended, adducted thumbs and hands of pronation.
The head is held erect and the feet pointing forward. The knees and fingers in slight flexion
The patient is lying on your back with legs extended, attached to the upper and lower body together.
Uses:
· Examination of the chest, abdomen, upper and lower limbs.
· Postoperative.
And Accommodation in bed
· Position change.
· Palpation of the breasts.
Contraindications:
· Elders.
· Lung disease.
Sick of long-term ·
Prone position or ventral


Also called prone. In this position the patient lies on his abdomen and chest, his head tilted to one side.
This position is used in examinations of the back and buttocks.
Uses:
· Explorations back (though seldom used for examinations).
· Sick comatose or unconscious.
· Patients anesthetized with general anesthesia to prevent vomiting.
· Spinal operations.
And Accommodation in bed.
· Postural changes.
Lateral recumbency

The patient remains standing on the side, right or left, with limbs extended. The upper member for the side on which the patient is lying, is ahead of the body.
Uses:
· To make the bed occupied.
· To place a suppository.
· Administration intramuscular injections.
· To prevent bedsores.
· Administration of enemas.
And Accommodation in bed and to postural changes.
· Hygiene and massages.
ENGLISH POSITION OR IN SIMS, O semiprone

Also called semiprone position. It is similar to the lateral position in which the patient lies on his side, but in the Sims position, the patient's weight is loaded onto the front of the ilium, humerus and clavicle, rather than on the side of ilium and scapula. Therefore, in the Sims position the pressure points of the body are different from the pressure points of lateral positions, Fowler, lying dorsal and prone.

Sims's position is often used with patients who are unconscious, because it facilitates the drainage of the lining of the mouth. It is a comfortable position for many others including women in the last trimester of pregnancy.

In Sims's position is placed an arm behind the body and the other is flexed at the shoulder and elbow. They are also both legs bent in front of the patient. The upstairs is more flexed at the hip and knees that below.
Its principle can be stated in patients unable to swallow because it allows good drainage of mucus and provides maximum muscle relaxation, but can also be applied multiple times.

The patient is in left lateral position with the thigh flexed right arm straight ahead. The head is turned sideways.
The body weight rests on the chest.
Uses:
· Safety position, making it ideal for the transportation of casualties.
· Rectal examinations.
· Administration of enemas and rectal medications.
· Placement rectal probes.
• In unconscious patients to facilitate removal of secretions.
· Postoperative.
Facilitates muscle relaxation
· Facilitates drainage of mucus.
SITTING-POSITION POSITION OF FOWLER


Positions is one of the most widely used in bedridden patients. The patient is semierect, an angle of 45 degrees.
Uses:
· Position very used in the explorations of ENT-Laryngology.
· Patients with respiratory problems (asthma, COPD, emphysema, etc.).
· To relax the abdominal muscles.
· Patients with heart problems.
· Scans of head, eyes, neck, ear, nose, throat and chest.
If high Fowler's position, the position of the head of the bed is elevated 90 ° with your feet. And the semi-Fowler position, the elevation is 30 º.
There is also the modified Fowler position, which involves placing the patient in the same way as above but changing the position of the upper limbs (hands), which should be placed, higher than the elbows. This is done, the hands resting on a dining table, for example. It is indicated in cardiac patients to facilitate the return or venous circulation.
Trendelenburg position


The patient is positioned as supine on a bed or table that is tilted 45 degrees to the plane of the ground. The patient's head is much lower than the feet.
It is used to apply douches.

The patient lies supine on a bed or table tilted so that the head is at a lower level than the feet. A variety of this position is one in which the patient is supine with the body bent, head lower than the trunk and lower extremities flexed at the knee, so that the legs hanging from the top of the table for This requires a section adjustable down there at the foot of the table.
Uses:
Improves cerebral blood circulation.
· Lightheadedness or fainting.
· Shock or shock.
· For drainage of bronchial secretions
· Avoid the headaches after lumbar puncture.
· Bleeding.
· Surgery of the pelvic organs.
Reverse Trendelenburg position, ANTITRENDELENBURG O MORESTIN



It is as its name suggests the opposite position to the Trendelenburg, ie the patient's head rests on the highest part and feet on the lowest.
The patient is supine tilted his head to a higher level than the feet.
Uses:
· Radiographic Examination.
Facilitates blood circulation at the extremities.
• In some surgical procedures (goiter).
• In case of respiratory problems.
• In case of hiatus hernia.
Knee-chest position or Mohammedan

supported patient kneels on his chest, bringing the hips up and supporting the shoulders on the bed and head to the side.
This position is used in examinations of the rectum and colon, as well as specific healing perianal area.
The knees are slightly apart and your thighs perpendicular to the bed, the head is turned to one side and the upper limbs placed in the way you want the patient. This position is used for rectal exams, basically. In this position you must pay particular attention to the patient, be a very humbling position for him.
POSITION OR PROETZ ROSER

The patient is supine with head hanging, with the objective of maintaining the neck in hyperextension.
Uses:
· Tracheal intubation.
· Explorations pharynx.
· Cardiorespiratory resuscitation
• In certain surgeries (goiter).
Washing hair · bedridden patients.
Lithotomy position or lithotomy



The patient is lying on her back, with a small pillow under your head. Legs placed in the stirrups, the thighs are flexed slightly abducted while they are much more knee
This position is used in gynecology for a manual review of pelvis, vagina, rectum, and for exploration of the pregnant woman. It is used in surgery of the urinary and reproductive systems, is the position to adopt during delivery.
Uses:
· Gynecological exams (vaginal), rectal and bladder
· Births
· Gynecological interventions.
· Genital washing.
· Catheterization in women
Manual or instrumental · Consideration of the pelvis.
· Exploration of pregnant women.
Positions for a lumbar puncture
To perform a lumbar puncture, the patient is placed in the lateral position with your back aligned to the edge of the bed, near where the doctor goes to work. The patient's back is straight and the neck flexed so that, by flexing the knees, they are as close to the chin.
In children need a special subject. The nurse's aide faces the child (which has its back aligns with the edge of the bed or examining table) and puts his arm around the neck, holding his thighs with the other arm so that they are as close as possible to chin, with the latter arm holding the child's hands, grasp.
There are two options:
1 .- Sitting on the edge of the couch, his head bent, as close as possible to the lower extremities to get a bowing of the back and thus facilitating the visualization of the intervertebral spaces.
2 .- Lying in bed on her side, bending the head and lower limbs with the same objective as in the previous case.
Uses:
· Spinal
· Cerebrospinal fluid collection needle
In general, the basic positions that a patient can take are:
a) Positions of the patient or patient bedridden non-surgical:
· Supine, supine or anatomical
· Prone or ventral
· Lateral recumbency
· Fowler
· Sims or semiprone or English
b) surgical Positions:
· Lithotomy or gynecological
· Trendelenburg
· Mohammedan or knee-chest.
· Morestin

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