LITERATURE S. XIX: POSROMANTICISMO AND REALISM
GENERAL FEATURES OF REALISM:
oPositivismo: no more real than the visible facts and experimentation.
oImportante influence of evolutionism.
oDurante the second half of the century, influenced by Marxism.
oObservación and description of reality, real life as an aesthetic object.
oUbicación upcoming events, look to the everyday, against evasion of Romanticism.
oCrítica sociopolitical degradation and social ills.
oEstilo simple and sober, romantic rejection of rhetoric.
oPredilección by the novel. Typical features of the novel:
§ Actors are individuals or groups that problematic relationships with the world.
§ Likelihood, stories and fragments of reality.
§ omniscient narrator.
§ didacticism, moral and social briefing.
§ Structure of the facts in linear time.
§ detailed descriptions, predominance of the description.
§ Approach to use colloquial language, appropriateness of language the character.
oImpulsor Émile Zola.
oPretende turn literature into a social science study.
or parts of the idea of predetermination of man's social status and genetics, lack of free will.
oAmbientes miserable and sordid characters morons, alcoholics ...
oNarrador impersonal and objective.
oEMILIA Pardo Bazán
ob. Perez Galdos (The Desheredada).
oCLARÍN (The Regent).
oAbundante and varied poetry.
oPredominio moralizing poetry.
oExaltación of religious values.
oTemática scientific theme of progress.
otres main poetic trends
antirhetoric realistic or Poetry:
§ Withdraws Romanticism.
§ antirhetoric prosaic language.
§ Ramón de Campoamor:
· Prose, clear and simple language.
· Irony, skepticism, judgmental, appeal to common sense ...
· Pain, Small Poetry, Humor.
Poetry realistic or grandiloquent:
§ civic topics.
§ a strong and well built.
§ Gaspar Núñez de Arce.
or post-Romantic Poetry intimate:
§ Rosalia de Castro:
· Outcrop of subjectivity and the inner world.
· Honda emotion and expression of conflictual intimacy.
· Formal exuberance.
· Thematic unrest, consciousness repressed woman.
· Cantares Gallegos, Follas Novas, On the banks of Sar.
§ Gustavo Adolfo Becquer:
· Poetry conceived as an expression of emotions.
· Thunderous turns away from Romanticism, short poems, spontaneous and simple.
· Approach to Symbolism.
· Amor identified with women, recreated as impossible, inaccessible, little more than an ideal.
· Final result of disillusionment and disappointment.
· Careful word processing, and use of popular forms naturally in the text (stanzas classical and heroic verse heptasyllables, rhyme asonatada, enjambments ...).
· Simple language, although not devoid of metaphors and similes.
· Words abound concerning the nature and music, with lexical prosaic approach to realism.
· Poetry presymbolic meanings beyond the denotative
· Create a new genre: opera legend, with rhythmic and musical values.
· Thematic topics of love and romantic poetry.
· As a prose writer, many journalistic, Legends, a female literary Letters, History of temples of Spain.
· Legends: short stories medieval romantic characteristics.
· Create a new genre: opera legend, with rhythmic and musical values.
· Main compositions in verse collected in Rhyme, which collect all the poems of Book of Sparrows.
· Rhymes represent a love story that goes from initial enthusiasm to ultimate failure with disappointment, loneliness ...
oImportancia the rise of journalism.
oProsa direct, flexible and released from romantic bombast.
oProliferación short stories: the story.
oCostumbrismo: regional novels set in the regions of each author.
oEnte realists are two groups:
§ Conservative: idyllic peasant society, a city full of corruption.
§ Liberals: cities places of modern civilization as a means uncultivated field and backward.
oLas realistic positions are the basis of the thesis novels, defending ideological positions.
oAparece another kind of novel: the serial,
oInfluencias of romantic historical novels (like counter-model), the European idealistic writers and prose of the golden ages.
oFERNÁN Caballero (Cecilia Bohl de Faber):
§ A precursor of Spanish realism.
§ Great romantic features.
§ The Seagull, The family of Alvareda.
ANTONIO oPEDRO REPOSITORY:
§ Writer prereality close to romance and manners.
§ novels without exception high quality three-cornered hat.
§ Writer peculiar, never considered realistic.
§ Its sole purpose is to please the reader.
§ worship style and academic descriptions uncommon.
§ Construction skillful narrative, use of irony.
§ Item love interest.
§ Pepita recreation of patriarchal society.
EYES OF MARY PEREDA:
§ maximum representative of the traditional novel, also writes regional novel.
§ Patriarchal rural versus urban (conservative).
§ Works plagued with defects.
§ highlight the flavor of tierrucha, Pedro Sanchez.
oEMILIA Pardo Bazán:
§ Maximum defender of Spanish naturalism.
§ Work narrative forms.
§ Defend all novelty styles.
§ He wrote more than five hundred stories with wide variety of themes.
§ Los Pazos de Ulloa, La tribuna, Mother Nature.
oBENITO Perez Galdos
§ Author largest of its time.
§ As a playwright: adaptations (Grandfather), San Quentin.
§ complete picture of the society of the time, all social levels.
§ Reflection on the human condition.
§ Mirada sarcastic and sometimes hard, tender in others.
§ plain language, simple, fast and spontaneous appearance.
§ First novels:
- Opposition of conservative and liberal ideologies (thesis novels).
- Didactic intent.
- The fountain of gold, Miss Perfect.
- From The Desheredada, great work of natural influences, careful psychological development.
- Thorough collection of diverse environments.
- Use of dialogues, inner dialogues and plot multiple anecdotes.
- Miau, Fortunata y Jacinta, The by Waller.
- The Ruler: extensive novel about love triangles develops and theme of social life in Madrid.
Interest in finding new avenues of expression. Dialogued novels, letters, fantasy elements and spiritualism. Nazarin, Mercy, The enchanted knight Tristana </ em>. § Episodios nacionales:
> Historical reconstruction of Spain in the XIX century. Attempt to understand the conflicts that divide society. Galdós liberal ideologies. Feuilleton Resources. First-hand knowledge of certain data by d and Galdós. oLEOPOLDO ALAS CLARÍN:
§ In the first phase writes newspaper articles (Krausism).
§ Ideas Republican and spiritualist attitude.
§ writes literary criticism, the authors report poor quality and commends the outstanding.
§ wrote two novels (The regent and his only son), several fragments and multiple short stories and tales (Moral Tales, The Rooster of Socrates.)
§ In the stories Clarin shows two classes: satirical burlesque of manners air, and serious and reflective, showing personal concerns.
§ Her only son lives in a small capital of a failed marriage. § The judge's wife
- Characteristics of the novels of adultery (bourgeois woman deeply dissatisfied) and novels priest (one of the actors are).
- Provincial society satirization behavior of the dominant class (clergy, nobility, bourgeoisie ...).
- Rotten society, moral misery, dissatisfaction and frustration of the characters, dominated by boredom and lust.
- Natural environment that make the characters.
- Distancing of the characters for the narrator, free indirect style, multiple narrative resources away from the novel thesis.
- Ana lets wife just as the old ruler, Fermin de Pas, which is seeking higher office in the town hall.
- Deep dissatisfaction: Ana's mother and the son she never had, the canon without any goals except power.
- Appears Alvaro Mesia, lothario of the province, ending with Ana Conq Uist
oAdecuación to the demands of bourgeois society.
oDiferente theater depending on social class for which he is conceived.
Romantic oAlejamiento molds.
or High comedy:
§ Led a bourgeois audience.
§ Theme of the routine of domestic life.
§ Attenuation of idealism, but moralizing character.
§ Action developed in bourgeois interiors
§ Adelard LÓPEZ DE AYALA (The percentage) and MANUEL TAMAYO Y BAUS (A
§ Mixed with realism, grandstanding.
§ Patetismo superficial and exaggerated effects easily.
§ Jose de Echegaray (The Big Galeotti).
§ Consolidation of prose and dramatic language.
§ Contemporary Issues and continuing emphasis on the social question
§ Galdós, Clarín and Joaquin DICENTA.