Wto It is an organisation for trade opening Which works as a forum for governments to negotiate trade agreements, settle Trade disputes, etc. It acts as a system of trade rules.Manages trade Agreements ● Acts as a forum for trade negotiations ● Settles trade disputes ● Reviews national trade policies
Comunication barriers: physical, Language,cross cultural, socio pshycological, organizational
Exporting Usually low investment, low risk, Poor control of foreign operation, poor customisation to foreign market. Licensing Home country leases the right of intellectual properties, low Investment for licensor, los investment in R&D by licensee, risk of Misunderstanding, poor alignment, trade secrets leakage. Franchising Low Investment/risk for franchiser, mutual learning from foreign market operation, Quality/brand/governance Turnkey project The originating firm is in charge of Designing, create and equip the foreign production facility and shifts the project Over when the operational to the purchaser for operation, good control over Certain variables depending on contracting conditions. Merges & Acquisitions The originating firm could either merge or buy a foreign company, Immediate ownership and operation, good local knowledge at the international Operation, risk of integration process. Joint Venture Shared ownership among Two or more firms, funding capacity, governance and competitors reactions Risks. 20 International Marketing - 1st Midterm - Ignacio Pascale- April 2019 Foreign direct investment Owned subsidiary, strong international commitment, Potential taxes advantages, strong localisation.
Segmentation: measurable, substancial, Accessible, differentiable, actionable.
Brand: A name, term, sign, symbol, or Design or a combination of these, intended to identify the goods or services of One seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of Competitors. Important, distinctive, superior, preemptive, affordable, Profitable.
BRAND EQUITY ● Brand Loyalty: Encourages Customers to buy a particular brand time after time and remain insensitive as Competitors’ offerings. ● Brand awareness: Brand names attract attention and Convey images of familiarity. May be translated to how big a percentage of the Customers know the brand name. ● Perceived quality: “Perceived” means that the Customers decide upon the level of quality, not the company. ● Brand associations: The values and the personality linked to the brand. ● Other proprietary brand Assets: Include trademarks, patents and marketing channel relationships