History of Physics:
Physics: Is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior throught Space and time, and the ralated entities of energy and force.Aristotele (384-322B) Tried to stablish general principles that ruled the behavior of natural bodies, Both living and inanimate, also celestial and terrestial bodies, applying Concepts like motion, change of place, change of size or number.Archimedes (287-212 BC) is considere done of the greatest mathematicians of the ancient times. He Was one of the first to apply math to physical phenomena, being the father of Hydrostatics and discovering the buoyancy principle which bears his name.Galileo Galilei(1564-1642) is considered as the father of modern phisics. His Experiments and studies of the motion of bodies were precursors of classical Mechanics, a branch of physics that we are going to study on this course.Isaac Newton (1642-1726) stablished motion laws that now they have his last name And also the universal gravitation principles, he also contributed to optics And the development of calculus.James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) Formulated the electromagnetic theory that unifies the concepts of electricity And magnetism known to that time. The equations that bear his last name are the Foundation of the radio waves and other technological achievements.Albert Einstein (1879-1955) developed the theory of relativity, discovered the Photoelectric effect and did contributions to the quantum theory.Astronomy: Is one of the physics areas, studied since ancient times. Was considered as a part Of phylosophy, becoming a modern science. Physics: nowadays one of the Interest of physics is to provide knowleadge, from basic to complex. Branches of physics classic physics(developed between XVII and XIX Centuries, deals with small velocities when compared with light speed), modern Physics(developed alomst during the XX century. It considers of the quantum and Relativity theories. It deals with velocities near light speed .measurement And unit systems: physical quantityis quantifiable or assignable property That is linked to a phenomenon body or substance. A physical quantity is Measured when comparing it with a previously known standard. Examples(weight, Mass, length, time).standard: the standard model of particle physics is The theory describing three or the four known fundamental forces( the Electromagnetic, weak and stong interactions and not including the gravitional Force. A standard is permanent physical record, or easy to determine, to the Quantity that implies a particular measurement unit. magnitude: the magnitude of a physical quantity is defined with a number and a unit of measure (example: 20 meters, 40 liters). Unit: a unit is a particular physical Quantity which is used to compare other quantities of the same kind to show Their value. Measuring: is a process that consists in comparing an Unknown magnitude with another already known in the same unit of measure. Direct measurement: means that the unknown magnitude is measured with an Instrument of the same magnitude(example: measure length with a ruler) Indirect measurement: means that the unknown magnitude is measured through Mathematical calculations, performed with quantities obteined from direct Measurements (examples: if a car runs 80 km in one hour, the speed may be Indirectly obteined through the equation v=d/r that is, 80 km/hr. In this case Direct measuring is done with the distance indicated on the road and the Time is directly measured with a clock.international sytem of units: Used as SI, is the must used unit system around the world. It is regulated by Several bodies located located in parís, France, one of those is the International comitte of weight and measurements, base don the metric system.meter: A meter is the lenght of path traveled by a light wave in a vacuum in a time interval Of 1/299, 792,458 second. Kilogram: the kilogram is the unit of mass and It is equal to the mass of the international prototype of kilogram. (this Standard is the only that requires a comparison to be valid). Second: a Second is the time needed for 9192 631 770 vibrations of a cesium atom. Derivated units: are combination of fundamental units like (volumen, pressure Speed and force).Derivated units: are combination of fundamental units Like (volume, pressure, speed and force). Scientific notation: provides A short method to show really big or really small numbers.