Principles of flight

Classified in Social sciences

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1.-From a more linguistic aspect , the books evolved to treat other aspects like:

+ Correct Language: non-Discrimination , no vulgar.

+ Journalism: intimacy , professional secret , treatment of information , conduct of the journalist.

+ Separation of information from opinion/advertising.

+ Private Life or Honor rights are sometimes included.

+ Ideology , historical evolution an editorial principles of the medium.


1.Takes of the editorial board: 

-Interlocutor with the company (from the redaction)

-Convey the redaction´s point of view regarding naming of directives (not a veto, but it has to be taken into account)

-Interlocutor with the edium´s director (and two-way communication)


-Decide about the application of the Deontological Codes and protect the medium in case of transgression.


-Despite owing to the medium/company they work for journalists have bigger commitment: the right to public information. If both are in conflict , the latter prevails.

-This right is individual for all journalists , and limits what others can ask them without putting in danger their autonomy and independence.

-In Spain it appears for the first time in the Constitution (78) and later in Ley Orgánica 2/1997 of 19th June.

-Its starts in the 20th due to the professionalization of journalists (it exits in other profession).

-Cover ideological and deontological aspects of journalists:

+ Journalists can ask for termination of contract if the medium changes ideologically (and get the money)

+ Journalists can say no to participate in information that they think doesn't comply with ethical principles (and they can be sanctioned for that)

*Right to take away the signature if the medium modifies it.

*Right to not collaborate for ideological reasons.

*Change of ideology of the medium.


-These Ombudsperson are an important figure in case the medium needs to change info , or decide whether they incurred in error or not: this makes the media less “corporativist” since they recognize their errors and has a person dedicated to it.

-The post is limited in duration (so anyone can be/stop being): abuses are not well seen.

-They have no sanctioning capacity.

-Not in charge of editorial / opinion.

-Some have this figure externally.


1.Intro: a press or informational council is “an indented organization that studies the complaints about the performance of the media and , when deserving , issues a resolution judging such performance from a deontological point of view.

-It is the most complete self-regulation mechanism

-It judges publicly the rules in the code

-There is a previous self-regulating commitment from companies and media, through an economic donation and support to the council’s task

-Collaboration of the professionals in the field

-Public participation

Press councils must have a place for people not related with the media , something that distinguishes them form internal committees and journalist associations.

-But they must have a place for professionals too.

-Both must share a characteristic: be people with a recognized prestige and moral and professional credibility , representing both parts of society.

2.Functions of press council:

-Receive complaints related to the behavior of the media.

-Take them into consideration and study those that deserve attention.

-Issue a resolution (in some cases) morally condemning the responsible medium.

3.Press council in the world: Great Britain as the reference council in the world (not the oldest):

-They don't have as many laws regarding freedom of press and expression , so self-regulation is more important.

-The press has a historic importance for them , and a great influence in social life.

4.Brief History of UK´s council:

5.Spanish press councils:

-Not until 1997: Consejo de la información de Cataluña (CIC): Following the code in the 92 , in its final declaration.

-In 1994: Lorenzo Gomis is proposed.

 +Doubits is chosen , independent from the association , backed by the media and open to the public.

+Debated in the consulting committee of the association.

-In the 96 its foundation is signed by the Journalism Assciattion , faculties of Journalism , Journalist Union professionals and 48 journalist Catalan companies.

-It committed the members to support , collaborate and participate economically , as well as to accepting the moral authority of the council and its resolutions.

-After 2 years of testing , in 1999 they create the Fundación Consejo de la Indormación de Cataluña , which will control the council.

6.Catalonia information council:

-It has its own rules , applicable to all media in Cataluña.

-It has 15 members ( 8 social agents and 7 journalist)

-FAPE tries to emulate with its “Comisión de Autocontrol Deontlógico de los parodists , but they don't succeed: In 2001 they create the “Secretaría de Asuntos Profesionales”and in 2004 the Deontological council.

7.FAPE´s deontological council:

-Renamed “Comisión de Quejas y Deontología” in 2006.

-Based on art. 23 of the code. “knowing and solving deontological and ethical questions in journalism according to their own rulebook , following their own initiative , or the petition of the Federation or any citizen”

-The commission was “totally independent” and funded bu FAPE.

-Between 9 and 15 members: people of law , journalist s and representatives from Spanish society.

8.Commission´s duties:

-Inform and dictate on question of journalistic deontology.

-Issuing of reports and rulings.

-Processing and solving of documents related to possible breaches of the code.

-Developing other functions assigned by FAPE regarding Deontology.

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