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Pumping Eletcrosumergible:
the basic principle of the pumping system through pumps electrocentrifugas is transmitted in the form of pressure energy ka a submersible electric motor to the well fluid. The unit is suspended from the tubing, submerged in the well fluid and connected to the surface through a cable to supply power to the motor. The motor-protective package bomb has continuoque coupling is achieved by connecting grooved axes, which aims to rotate the shield and the pump to rotate the motor shaft.
Area Team:
- Electrical Transformer Bank.
- Board of Control.
- Frequency inverter.
- Safety venting.
- Discharge head.
- Team Micelaneos.
Description of equipment sub-soil
Bank of Electric Transformation: This consists of processors which are units through which the voltage of an alternating current system be changed Oued, cons
ta of a center surrounded by iron sheets of copper wire. Usually the center and the wires are immersed in oil, which serves as an insulator and helps cool the transformer. It is necessary to obtain the correct voltage to operate the equipment. In the market can achieve different types: monophasic, biphasic and triphasic, which are designed to convert the primary voltage of the electric line voltage at the motor that would require corresponding.
CONTROL PANEL: commando is the isntalación, its function is to protect and control the operations of the well. consists of start and stop switches, voltage selector buttons, fuses, ammeter, signal lights, etc.. can bring special equipment for handling intermittent pumping by remote control.
FREQUENCY: This is a dashboard device that is capable of delivering variable frequencies and voltages to the motor. The main benefits obtained with the frequency inverter are:
- Allow starting engines at low speeds, reducing stress on the shaft of the pump and engine components. When starting the pump can operate in rank below its nominal frequency, which reduces wear and abrasion effects. The engine is reduced strictly magnetic effects in the winding.
- Protect the equipment fund electric variations.
VENT BOX: It is a junction box and serves two functions: to connect the power cord of the surface equipment to the motor connection cable, allowing the atmosphere to vent the gas to flow through the cable, preventing it arrives the panel, as this would result in expulsion.
HEAD OF DISCHARGE: The wellhead must be equipped with a probe in the tubing or packaging type hydrant closed, which will provide a positive seal around the cables and pipes.
MECELANEOS: This consists of the rest of the team is also part of what makes up the electrocentrifugo pumping unit, including:
AMMETER RECORDER: It is used in the diagnosis of BES facilities through the letter ammeter, to observe or predict anomalies. Shows a continuous record of the amperage has been removed by the engine. recorder is used as it reflects the pumping conditions, reporting both normal operation as any problem.
Centralized: They are used to focus the pump motor and slightly deviated wells, also prevents the cable being damaged by friction with the casing.
Cord belt. They are used to tie the power cable to the pipe, use a tape for every 15 feet apart.
STORAGE CABLE: Allows you to protect the motor connection cable or ribbon cable rubbing against the casing, for it is the connection of external diameter greater configuaración throughout the team.
GENERATORS PRESSURE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE WELL: pressure sensor into the well. This type of generators disponibilidd facilitates behavioral data pump for pressure correlations with yacimento extraction rate an operator can determine the need to change the size of the pump, change the rate of injection or consider a job reconditioning the well.
DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT OF UNDERGROUND
MOTOR: The motor used in this type of survey are three phase, bipolar, and the type of injection grid. It operates at 3500 rpm for frequency of 60 Hz and 2915 rpm for 50 Hz is enclosed in a steel jacket filled with dielectric oil to ensure proper lubrication and good heat exchange with the well fluid, hence, it is recommend placing the engine above the perforations. It is recommended that the minimum viscosity in the annular flow-resvetidor engine is approximately 1 ft / sec. Standard API. The manufacturers have a wide availability of engines in relation to the diameter of the casing.
PROTECTOR: Located between the engine and pump, and serves four basic functions, these are: 1 .- Allow connect the pump shaft to motor shaft. 2 .- Absorbs axial loads of the pump block this be reflected in the engine. 3 .- outweigh the expansion or contraction of the motor by the heating or cooling effect. 4 .- It allows the entry of well fluid to the engine.
ADMISSION OF FLUIDS SECTION: This section is the fluid inlet to the pump and can be simply slotted convencioanñ a section that serves as a filter or a gas separator.
SEPARATOR GAS: An impeller which is located between the guard and the pump and reduces the amount of free gas, which passes through the pump. There are several types of gas separators, the most common reverse flow separator (static) and centrifugal (dynamic). The gas and liquid separation occurs in a rotating camera. well fluid enters the separator and passes through an inductor to lower the stage of positive net download, guide and become fluid flow with a tangential direction with one axial direction thereby reducing flow losses, fluid passes into the separator chamber. The camera accelerates the fluid forcing the liquid toward the outer wall while the free gas remains in the center. gas and liquid come to a diffuser that directs the liquid into the pump inlet and the gas into the ventilation holes of the gas there by the ring.
PUMP: This is the fundamental part of the team of electro-centrifugal pump as she sucks and provides energy to the fluids produced by the reservoir. They pumps centrifuges composed of multiple stages. Each stage consists of a rotating impeller (mobile) with its own diffuser, made of metal alloys resistant to corrosion or plastic in case of production of area. Turning the pump shaft fluid found in drivers is ejected by action of centrifugal force at higher pressure than it had originally, hence the number of stages depends on the hydraulic load or net levaantamiento required. The diffuser is the stationary part of a stage, the radial velocity changes in elevation vertices. When a centrifugal pump shaft rotates at a certain speed (rpm) holds that: Affinity Laws valid only for low viscosity fluids. "The pumped volume (bpd), is a direct function of impeller diameter .- The hydraulic loading (lifting or height of the pump) is a direct function of the square of the diameter of the impeller. - The power output depending on the impeller hub diameter.


Mismanagement, which can cause breakage of the ceramic seals producing oil leak.
Vibration of the pump.
Excessive stops and pulled the team (fluctuations in electrical service)
Changes from cycling.
Cable: There could be damage due to:
Mishandling during installation and run into the well.
Excessive load amperage
Bad connection with the ribbon cable.


ADMISSION OF FLUIDS SECTION: This section is the fluid inlet to the pump and can be simply slotted convencioanñ a section that serves as a filter or a gas separator.
SEPARATOR GAS: An impeller which is located between the guard and the pump and reduces the amount of free gas, which passes through the pump. There are several types of gas separators, the most common reverse flow separator (static) and centrifugal (dynamic). The gas and liquid separation occurs in a rotating camera. well fluid enters the separator and passes throughan inductor to lower the stage of positive net download, guide and become fluid flow with a tangential direction with one axial direction thereby reducing flow losses, fluid passes into the separator chamber. The camera accelerates the fluid forcing the liquid toward the outer wall while the free gas remains in the center. gas and liquid come to a diffuser that directs the liquid into the pump inlet and the gas into the ventilation holes of the gas there by the ring.
PUMP: This is the fundamental part of the team of electro-centrifugal pump as she sucks and provides energy to the fluids produced by the reservoir. Centrifugal pumps are composed of multiple stages. Each stage consists of a rotating impeller (mobile) with its own diffuser, made of metal alloys resistant to corrosion or plastic in case of production of area. By rotating the axis of the fluid pump is in the drivers is ejected by action of centrifugal force at higher pressure than it had originally, hence the number of stages depends on the hydraulic load or net levaantamiento required. The diffuser is the stationary part of a stage, the radial velocity changes in elevation vertices.When a centrifugal pump shaft rotates at a certain speed (rpm) holds that: Affinity Laws valid only for low viscosity fluids. "Pumped volume (bpd), is a direct function of the diameter of the hydraulic drive .- (lifting or height of the pump) is a direct function of the square of the diameter of the impeller. - The power output depending on the impeller hub diameter. From the above it is concluded that the diameter of the casing is a very important role in the selection of the pump. regarding the characteristics of the operation, draw the graphs is typical of hydraulic (high), power and efficiency as a function of volume at the pump. Manufacturers provide these performance curves for a variety of pumps available, and Sopon pumping the liquid is water. The graphics or performance curve of centrifugal pumps submersible represent the total load on her feet against the capacity expressed in bls / day. The liquid generally used to calculate the rate of pumping water from these pumps is because lload in feet developed by a centrifugal pump is independent of specific gravity as long as the viscosity of the liquid is near the water, but the correction must be made by viscosity, the power curves shown in the water will be applied only to liquids with specific gravities of 1.0. For other liquids multiply the HP (water) for the specific gravity of the liquid pumped. There are over two valves pump that meet the following additional functions: VALVE CHECK: It is usually 2 to 3 tubes placed on the pump mounting Its function is to reduce hydrostatic pressure on the components of the pump. DRAIN VALVE: Install a pipe above the check valve is used as a safety factor for driving the well casing to tubing or vice versa.
Lead: The three-phase electric cable is responsible for transmitting the electromotive force from the power source on the surface hthe motor shaft in the well. the cable is built into a flat round configuration, and drivers of multiple hairs can be solid, the ribbon cable is manufactured with armed drivers and placed next to each other, is used preferably where there are physical space limitations (canceled). The conventional round cable is composed of several hairs (wire) individually and with a protective material placed on the three drivers. All cables meet stringent specifications, are offered in several sizes of conductors and materials for both flat and round configurations.
APPLICATIONS, ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE METHOD: electrosumergible pumping is used to handle large volumes of fluid and technically and economically than other methods of artificial lift when they meet the following conditions: - High productivity of the well. - Low background .- High pressure water-oil ratio (PAR). - Low gas-liquid ratio (RGL). When you have high pressure and low background water-oil relationship is necessaryor consider other methods such as mechanical pumps and gas lift, but do not rule the possibility of using electrosumergible pump. In case of high gas-oil relationship, you can use electrocentrifugo pumping using an efficient gas separator and placing the bomb as deep as possible. Another most important applications of this method of pumping a water injection project. The advantages and limitations of this conventional production methods can be listed:
ADVANTAGES: - You can build extremely high volumes (90000bpd in large shallow wells with casing). - Simple to operate. - It has problems with deviated holes, use of centralizers. - Applicable offshore .- The rising costs for large volumes are very low diversity in size .- .- You can easily install pressure sensors in the hole to be measured at the surface (telemetry) .- No cause destruction in urban environments. - Easy to implement treatments for corrosion and scale formation (easy injection of chemicals).
LIMITATIONS: - It is essential to have a reliable power source. - S erquieren high voltages (+ / - 1000 volts). - It is not practical in low-productivity shallow wells .- Limitations on the size of the casing .- cables cause problems in handling the pipe .- cables deteriorate when exposed to high temperatures. - The production of solid and gs is problematic. - Not recommended at depths greater than 10,000 feet of cable because of cost and difficulty of installing sufficient power downhole (placed above the dynamic level). - The analysis is not easy (for the load and Sotware).
EQUIPMENT FAILURE OF ELECTRO-CENTRIFUGAL PUMP: The parts most exposed to flaws in this system consists of: motor, pump, and cable protector. This section lists one.
Engine: It is the most susceptible to damage as the main axis of the computer, you may have: Excessive load voltage to the biker caused by poor design, pump wear, low voltage. - Filtration protective seals that lead to cause short circuit in the engine, this leak may be caused by excessive vibration of the pump, mishandling during installation or removal, manufacturing defect. - Wear the motor housing due to corrosion. - Operation of the engine due to insufficient presence of dirt or moisture in the control panel that cause voltage fluctuations.
Pump: One of the reasons why they may fail pumps have: push up or down, wear the upper and lower Randel impeller when the pump is operating in a position to push down or up respectively. - Wear of the components due to operating time (lifetime). Components wear abrasion. - Capping sediments stages. - Fold in the shaft for mishandling during shipment or assembly. - Corrosion.
Protector:Among the reasons why the shield may fail include: - Mal manjeo, which can cause breakage of the ceramic seals leak aceite.-producing vibrations of the pump. -Excessive stops and pulled the team (fluctuations in electrical service). -Changes from cycling.
Cable: Can be damaged: Mishandling during installation and run into the well. - Excessive load amperage. - Bad connection with the ribbon cable.

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