How do prosthetic hands work hooks "Daniela Garcia"

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•    Transposition: in the transformation of a ST word into another grammatical category in theTT for equivalency in meaning (e.G.: from adjective to noun: the Mexican border > la frontera con Mexico). There is a long list of transpositions types, organized by grammatical categories; e.G. Verb > adverb (e.G it kept raining during our vacation > llovia de continuo durante las vacaciones), noun > verb (e.G. Without the slightest hesitation > sin vacilar en lo más minimo), adverb > verb (e.G. He was never bothered again > nadie volvio a molestarlo), possessive > pronoun > definite article (e.G. Your hands are cold > tiene las manos frias).
•    Modulation: is a change in the point of view or image due to the difference between linguistic systems or cultures. Example: health insurance > seguro de enfermedad, life imprisonment > cadena perpetua.
•    Equivalence: the strategy necessary in translating proverbs, expressions,, plays on words or jokes (e.G. Men at work > obras, llueve a cantaros > its raining cats and dogs).
•    Adaptation: can include anything from the transcription of the original, to updating a translation, omission, expansion, exoticism or situational equivalence. Many ST elements different from the target culture are easily erased following a translator’s ideology or sense of decorum.
•    Paraphrase: restatement of a text passage, or work giving the meaning in another form. Newmark call it “the loosest translation procedure which simply irons out the difficulties in any passage by generalizing (i.E versions of translations in the same language).
•    Compensation: a procedure by which a translator adds information in one part of the TT, which was lost in another part of the ST to avoid translation loss.
•    Expansion or amplification: the use of a greater number of words in the TL than in the SL. Expansion can be result of a non-correspondence between linguistic structures (e.G. La niña estrenó los zaptos en la boda de su hermana > the girl wore her new shoes for the first time at her sister’s wedding), there are cases in which text expansion results from a translator’s own personal sense of creativity.
•    Explicitation: explains in translation that which in implicit in the SL, the result is a more redundant and cohesively explicit TT. An example at the level of the text is the inclusion of a family tree “explaining” the family relationships of Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s cien años de soledad in the English version but absent in the original Spanish.

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