Provisional government of serrano. 1869

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This coalition was weak, and soon the liberals were divided into two: those who followed Sagasta more moderate and true to the partnership, and the more doctrinal, led by Ruiz Zorrilla, formed the Radical Party, which joined the Democrats Cimbri.
Given the government's failure to legislate, Sagasta called for new elections to try to get the majority. The result was favorable to sagastinos, however, a scandal of misappropriation of government property Sagasta forced to resign in May 1872. After a short-lived government of Serrano, Amadeo Ruiz put its faith in Zorilla, the leader of the Radicals. New elections gave a landslide victory to the radicals, but the comfortable majority did not translate into a stable and effective government, because of the two growing problems had raised the country: the war in Cuba and the Second Carlist War.
The colonial conflict arose from the Spanish Revolution of 1868 and was the result of laziness and lack of attention that the Liberal governments had provided to Cuba. The so-called Long War began with the cry of Yara called the October 10, 1968, and ended ten years later Zanjón peace. This peace was only a truce, because the wedges of the dispute is not resolved. The dynastic conflict began with the Carlist pretender Charles VII because the press wanted to elect a new monarch. Don Carlos sparked a series of uprisings in the northern regions, but the government defeated Carlist Orquieta and had to surrender by signing the Convention Amorebieta.
The instability created by conflicts was fatal for the regime, but not the trigger for his downfall. The trigger what caused the confrontation between the monarch and the government in general because of the appointment of Hidalgo de Quintana as Captain General of Catalonia. Hidalgo had participated in the rebellion from the barracks of St. Giles in Madrid in 1866, and his election led to rejection within the army, which challenged the government. Ruiz Zorrilla was resolved to punish the military for it and submitted a decree to that purpose Amadeo, who jumped at the difficult choice, because if you signed it indisponía with the military, and if he did, he fell out with the only politicians that still remained faithful. Took the decision to sign the decree and abdicated on 11 February.
REPUBLIC FIRST SPANISH (1873-1875).
After the abdication of Amadeo I formed an assembly to vote on the amendment of the Constitution and legalize the republican form of government in the nation. The proclamation of the First Republic was the result of an opportunistic alliance between the Republicans and the Radicals, who were left convinced by Figueras proposal that the Republican solution was the only solution to saving our country.

Figueras was named president of the Council, which formed part three Republicans (Pi y Maragall, Salmerón Castelar), and five militants.
GOP leaders found a two-headed opposition: on one hand the radicals who wanted a republic not federal but unitary, and second, the extreme Federalists, who wanted the Federal Republic. This confrontation prompted the radical Republican coalition was replaced by a Ministry formed exclusively by Republicans, forcing elections. The election result was an overwhelming majority of federal, who named Pi y Maragall President of the Council.
The appointment as Prime Minister Margall Pi and served not only to control the excesses of the Federalists, but gave free rein to those who wanted to carry his doctrines to more radical extremes. The excesses led to the phenomenon of the cantons. Anticentralist riots spread from Andalusia to the Levant, and his triumph was accompanied by the proclamation of the relevant canton and the removal of the authorities who were still loyal to the central power. The scene shifted to a violent situation at the outbreak of insurgency in Cartagena. The proclamation of the canton of Cartagena was reinforced by the crews of Almansa and Vitoria and the regiment Iberia. To overcome gravity, Pi and Margall presented to the Assembly a draft Constitution, which the Spanish nation took the form of a federal republic consisting of different states, apart from peninsular regions included Cuba and Puerto Rico. The bill was not passed and Pi and Margall resigned.
With the support of the royalists was elected president Nicolás Salmerón, and soon disposed forceful measures to end the cantonal revolution. The use of military force by Salmerón was drawn to the attack of the Left in Parliament, forcing the resignation of the president.
Courts Council entrusted the presidency of Emilio Castelar, who protected the monarchy and covenanted with the Holy See, which meant a major change of direction for the Republic should move to the right. The Republic was conservative and that provoked the opposition of the left, which meant that the Government was defeated twice in Parliament, raising the possibility that it would restore the federal system. Faced with this threat, now Captain General of Madrid, Manuel Pavia stormed the Parliament on January 3 and ended with the Constituent Assembly Republicans.

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