Innermost regions of the brain are responsible for the basic Involuntary functions, while outer regions of the brain are conscious and High-order thinking. The outer layer responsible for these higher functions is Called the cortex.
The brain has evolved from a simple organ surrounding the Brain stem for animals with no conscious, to independent thinking in animals.
Brain stem: base of the brain, it is attached to the spinal Cord. The brain stem controls our beating are heartbeat
Thalamus: it is above the brain stem. It receives all the Sensory information from our senses (except smell) and send it to other parts Of the brain to deal with this processing data.
Cerebellum: It is behind the brain stem. It coordinates Movement like walking and plays a role in non-verbal learning and memory
Visual cortex: located in the back of the brain. It receives And processes visual information.
Frontal lobe: It is the general area of the brain behind the Forehead. It is involved in the conscious processing of ideas and information. It involves planning and judgement.