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This bloc included countries from central and eastern Europe. As of 1949, it was reinforced by the victory of the communist revolutions in China (1949) and cuba (1959). Its influence was extended to Asia (Vietnam, North Korea) and Africa (Angola and Namibia)

The soviet unions and the “people´s democracies”

The Soviet Union became a military power after WWII. After the death of Stalin in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev iniciated a “de-Stalinisation” process. But his successor, Leonid Brezhnev stalled the reforms.

Peoples democracies were implemented in Central and Eastern Europe controlled by the Soviet Union, which imposed Soviet institutions (Hungary, Czechoslovakia…). Society in this countries never reached Western living standars.

China under Mao Zedong

In 1945 a Civil War broke out in China ( nationalist/communist).The communist victory in 1949 led to the creation of two states:

  -People´s republic of China, on the continent, headed by Mao Zedong

  -Republic of China in Taiwan

The Maois regime controlled political power through the communist power and suppressed oposition.

Mao established strong egalitarianism in society and the control of private life.

The Cuban revolution

A revolution led by Fidel Castro triumphed on the island of cuba in 1959. Castro establish a pro-communist system based on single party rule, planned economy and social control. The island became a platform for the spread of communism in Latin America (Che Guevara). The US attempted to invade Cuba in 1961 but failed. Then decreed the economic blockade.



The break up of the soviet union

The reforms of Gorbachev:

 In 1982 the Soviet union was in a deep political and economic crisi . Gorbachev undertook various          reforms :Desarmament talks with the United States and “Perestroika” in his domestic policy (a set of political and economic reforms , democratisation and a certain liberalisation of the economy)

 These reforms brought oposition of two sides the radical reformers and the hardliners.

From the USSR to the CIS :

 In 1991 Gorbachev granted greater autonomy to the central and eastern european countries . Shortly after the USSR was disolved and replaced by a common wealth of independent states

The break  up of the communist bloc

The european people’s republics took advantages of the internal problems of the USSR and iniciated a reform process known as the AUTUMN OF NATIONS .

The fall of the Berlin wall began in 19890b(symbol of the division of Europe)

In 1990 German reunification was concluded.

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