Radio Navigation

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-108.35 MHz can only be: an ILS frequency.

-3D RNAV fixing gives you: Horizontal and vertical profile guidance

-A 2-dimensional RNAV system has a capability in the: horizontal plane.

-A 3-D RNAV system has capability in: a horizontal plane and the vertical plane

-A 3-dimensional RNAV system has capability in: the horizontal plane and in the vertical plane.

-A Cat III ILS glidepath transmitter provides reliable guidance information down to: the surface of the runway

-A Category 1 Instrument Landing System (ILS) ground installation provides accurate guidance from coverage limit down to: 200 feet above the runway threshold

-A cumulonimbus cloud in the vicinity of an aeroplane can cause certain navigation systems to give false indications. This is particularly true of the: ADF

-A DME in tracking mode subsequently experiences a reduction in signal strength will switch the equipment in the first instance to: memory mode

-A DME is located at MSL. An aircraft passing vertically above the station at flight level FL 360 will obtain a DME range of approximately: 6 NM

-A DME station is located 1000 feet above MSL. An aircraft flying at FL 370 in ISA conditions which is 15 NM away from the DME station, will have a DME reading of: 16 NM

-A fix obtained by rho-rho navigation is based on information from two: DMEs

-A FMS with only a multiple DME sensor operating shall have a position error, 95% probability, in a non precision approach equal or less than: 0.3 Nm.

-A frequency of 10 GHz is considered to be the optimum for use in an airborne weather radar system because: the larger water droplets will give good echoes

-A frequency of airborne weather radar is: 9375 MHz

-A ground radar transmitting at a PRF of 1200 pulses/second will have a maximum unambiguous range of approximately: 67 NM

-A locator beacon differs from an NDB with respect to: 1. operational use 2. transmission power 3. presentation in the cockpit 4. frequency band. From the above stated differences the following numbers are correct: 1 and 2

-A locator: 1 - is a low powered beacon 2 - is a high powered beacon 3 - has a range of 10 – 25NM 4 - has a range of 10 -200NM: 1 and 3

-A MLS without DME-P provides: An ILS-like approach

-A phantom station (as used in a 2D RNAV-system) is: A waypoint defined by a radial and a DME-distance from a VOR/DME-station.

-A pilot flying an aircraft at FL 80, tunes in a VOR which has an elevation of 313 m. Given ISA conditions, what is the maximum theoretical distance at which a pilot might expect to receive the VOR signals? 151 NM

-A pilot is flying between two waypoints defined by suitably located VOR/DMEs. Equipped with a simple 2D RNAV system, this pilot: reads cross track error and the distance to go on CDI or HSI.

-A Primary radar operates on the principle of: pulse technique

-A radar facility transmitting at a Pulse Recurrence Frequency (PRF) of 1200 pulses/second will have a maximum unambiguous range of approximately: 69 NM

-A radio altimeter employing a continuous wave signal would have: a directional aerial for transmission and another one for reception

-A radio beacon has an operational range of 10 NM. By what factor should the transmitter power be increased in order to achieve an operational range of 20 NM? Four

-A secondary radar can provide up to 4096 different codes. These 4096 codes can be used in: all modes

-A TCAS II equipped a/c will have mode S because: the datalink is required to co-ordinate evasive manoeuvres

-A VDF may be used: to provide the ATC controller with bearings of aircraft in the absence of radar.

-A VOR and a NDB are co-located. You cross the VOR radial of 240 on a heading of 360°(M). In the vicinity of the station you should read an ADF bearing of: 060

-A VOR and an NDB are co-located. An aircraft equipped with an RMI is flying away from the beacons on a radial of 090º through an area where magnetic variation is changing rapidly. Which statement is correct? The ADF needle moves, the VOR needle does not

-A VOR and an NDB are located in the same position. Both the VOR- and the ADF-readings are displayed on the RMI. The aircraft is tracking away from the beacons along the 090 radial. The magnetic variation is changing rapidly. Which of the following is correct? The direction of the ADF pointer will change, the direction of the VOR pointer will not change.

-A VOR and DME are co-located. You want to identify the DME by listening to the callsign. Having heard the same callsign 4 times in 30 seconds the: DME callsign is the one with the higher pitch that was broadcast only once

-A VOR is sited at position 58°00'N 073°00'W where the magnetic variation equals 32°W. An aircraft is located at position 56°00'N 073°00'W where the magnetic variation equals 28°W. The aircraft is on VOR radial: 212

-A VOR is sited at position A (45°00'N, 010°00'E). An aircraft is located at position B (44°00'N, 010°00'E). Assuming that the magnetic variation at A is 10°W and at B is 15°W, the aircraft is on VOR radial: 190°

-A VOR is situated at the far end of a runway on which an aircraft is making an ILS approach. Nav 1 is switched to the localiser frequency and Nav 2 to the VOR frequency. At the moment that the needle of # 1 indicator reaches the outer dot the deflection of the needle of # 2 indicator will be at: approximately a quarter of the scale.

-A weather radar, set to the 100 NM scale, shows a squall at 50NM. By changing the scale to 50 NM, the return on the radar screen should: increase in area and move to the top of the screen

-According to ICAO 8168, what is regarded as the maximum safe deviation below the glide path during ILS approach? Half scale deflection.

-According to ICAO Annex 10 a locator has a range of: 10 to 25 NM

-According to ICAO Annex 10, in which frequency band(s) does a locator normally transmit? LF/MF

-According to the ILS coverage area as defined by ICAO Annex 10, in which of the following situations will the pilot be guaranteed a reliable signal from the localiser? 20NM from touchdown inbound and 8° displaced from the localiser centreline.

-ADF is the abbreviation for: Automatic Direction Finder.

-Airborne Weather Radar has been primarily developed to detect: the kinds of precipitation which are usually accompanied by turbulence.

-Airborne weather radar systems use a wavelength of approximately 3 cm in order to: detect the larger water droplets

-Airborne weather radars are generally based on the use of: primary radar in the SHF band

-All ILS marker beacons transmit at: 75 MHz.

-Allocated frequencies for NDB are: 190 kHz to 1750 kHz.

-Almanac data stored in the receiver of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS is used for the: fast identification of received signals coming from visible satellites

-An ADF provides the aircraft with bearing information with respect to a ground station. To do this, the ground station emits a signal pattern which is: omnidirectional

-An aeroplane flies over position A which is due North of a VOR station sited at position B. The magnetic variation at A is 18°W, and at B is 10°W. What radial from B is the aircraft on? 010°

-An aircraft at 6400 FT will be able to receive a VOR groundstation at 100 FT above MSL at an approximate maximum range of: 113 NM

-An aircraft at FL 100 should be able to receive a VOR groundstation at 100 FT above MSL at an approximate maximum range of: 137 NM

-An aircraft at FL300, with a groundspeed of 300 kt, is about pass overhead a DME station at MSL. The DME receiver is capable of determining ground-speed. One minute before the overhead, DME speed and distance indications are respectively: less than 300 kt and 7 NM.

-An aircraft carrying out an ILS approach is receiving more 90 Hz than 150 Hz modulation notes from both the localiser and glidepath transmitters. The ILS indication will show: Fly right and fly down

-An aircraft DME receiver does not lock on to its own transmissions reflected from the ground because: they are not on the receiver frequency

-An aircraft has a Magnetic Heading of 290º and is on VOR radial 280. Which value has to be selected on the OBS to get a TO indication and the CDI centred? 100

-An aircraft is "homing" to a radio beacon whilst maintaining a relative bearing of zero. If the magnetic heading decreases, the aircraft is experiencing: right drift

-An aircraft is flying a 3° glidepath and experiences a reduction in groundspeed from 150 kt at the outer marker to 120 kt over the threshold. The effect of this change in groundspeed on the aircraft's rate of descent will be a decrease of approximately: 150 FT/MIN

-An aircraft is flying a heading of 245° towards a VOR at FL300. The HSI displays a "selected course" of 255º with a TO-indication. The variation at the VOR is 15ºE. Variation at the aircraft position is 16°E and the deviation is +1°. When the pilot keeps the CDI on the left inner dot on a display with two dots on either side: the VOR will be approached along radial 070.

-An aircraft is flying directly overhead a DME station at FL410. The indicated range will be approximately: 6.8 nm

-An aircraft is flying on a heading of 270°(M). The VOR OBS is also set to 270° with the full left deflection and FROM flag displayed. In which sector is the aircraft from the VOR ground station? NW

-An aircraft is flying on a MH of 010°. The magnetic variation at the VOR is 10°W and at the aircraft 12°W. Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the indications on the HSI shown on the Annex? Figure B

-An aircraft is flying on a MH of 010°. The magnetic variation at the VOR is 10°W and at the aircraft 12°W. Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the indications on the HSI shown on the Annex? Figure C

-An aircraft is flying on a MH of 010°. The magnetic variation at the VOR is 10°W and at the aircraft 12°W. Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the indications on the CDI shown on the Annex? Figure A

-An aircraft is flying on a MH of 010°. The magnetic variation at the VOR is 10°W and at the aircraft 12°W. Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the indications on the CDI shown on the Annex? Figure D

-An aircraft is flying on a MH of 210°. The magnetic variation at the VOR is 5°W and at the aircraft 10°W. According to the CDI shown at the Annex the aircraft is on radial: 025

-An aircraft is flying on a MH of 210°. The magnetic variation at the VOR is 5°W and at the aircraft 10°W. Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the indications on the CDI shown on the Annex? Figure D

-An aircraft is flying on a MH of 210°. The magnetic variation at the VOR is 5°W and at the aircraft 10°W. Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the indications on the HSI shown on the Annex? Figure B

-An aircraft is flying on the 050 radial with a MH of 250º. On the CDI the CRS is set to 060. Which CDI shows the correct indications? Figure C

-An aircraft is flying on the 050 radial with a MH of 250º. On the HSI the CRS is set to 060. Which HSI shows the correct indications? Figure B

-An aircraft is flying on the 170 radial with a MH of 315º. On the CDI the CRS is set to 180. Which CDI shows the correct indications? Figure D

-An aircraft is flying on the 170radial with a MH of 315º. On the HSI the CRS is set to 180. Which HSI shows the correct indications:Figure C

-An aircraft is flying on the 245 radial with a MH of 250º. On the HSI the CRS is set to 060. Which HSI shows the correct indications? Figure A

-An aircraft is flying on the 245 radial with a MH of 250º. On the CDI the CRS is set to 060. Which CDI shows the correct indications? Figure D

-An aircraft is flying on the true track 090° towards a VOR station located near the equator where the magnetic variation is 15°E. The variation at the aircraft position is 8°E. The aircraft is on VOR radial: 255°

-An aircraft is on radial 120 with a magnetic heading of 300°, the track selector (OBS) reads: 330. The indications on the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) are 'fly': An aircraft is on radial 120 with a magnetic heading of 300°, the track selector (OBS) reads: 330. The indications on the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) are 'fly':

-An aircraft is on the 065 radial with a heading of 090ºM. The Course Reference Selector (CRS) is set on 240. Which HSI shows the correct indications? B

-An aircraft is on the 120° radial from a VOR station. Course 340° is selected on the HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator). If the magnetic heading is 070°, the deviation bar relative to the aeroplane model, will be: behind.

-An aircraft is required to approach a VOR station via the 244° radial. In order to obtain correct sense indications the deviation indicator should be set to: 064° with the TO flag showing

-An aircraft is required to approach a VOR via the 104° radial. Which of the following settings should be made on the VOR/ILS deviation indicator? 284° with the TO flag showing

-An aircraft is situated at 30°N - 005°E with a magnetic variation of 10°W. A VOR is located at 30°N - 013°E with a magnetic variation of 15°W. The aircraft is situated on the VOR radial: 286°

-An aircraft passes overhead a DME station at 12000 feet above the station. At that time, the DME reading will be: approximately 2 NM.

-An aircraft tracking to intercept the Instrument Landing System (ILS) localiser inbound on the approach side, outside the published ILS coverage angle: may receive false course indications

-An aircraft, at FL 410 is passing overhead a DME station at mean sea level. The DME indicates approximately: 6.8 NM

-An aircraft, on a heading of 180°M is on a bearing of 270°M from a VOR. The bearing you should select on the OMNI bearing selector to centralise the VOR/ILS left/right deviation needle is: 090°

-An aircraft, on a heading of 180°M is on a bearing of 270°M from a VOR. The bearing you should select on the OMNI bearing selector to centralise the VOR/ILS left/right deviation needle with a TO indication is: 090°

-An airway 10 NM wide is to be defined by two VORs each having a resultant bearing accuracy of plus or minus 5.5°. In order to ensure accurate track guidance within the airway limits the maximum distance apart for the transmitter is approximately: 105 NM

-An apparent increase in the transmitted frequency which is proportional to the transmitter velocity will occur when: the transmitter moves towards the receiver

-An ILS marker beacon operates in the: VHF band.

-An ILS receiver: measures the difference in depth of modulation of the two transmitted signals.

-An NDB is on a relative bearing of 316° from an aircraft. Given: Compass heading 270° At aircraft deviation 2°W, Variation 30°E At station Variation 28°E, Calculate the true bearing of the NDB from the aircraft: 254°

-An NDB transmits a signal pattern in the horizontal plane which is: omnidirectional

-An OBS is set to 048 with a TO flag showing. The VOR deviation bar is showing almost full right deflection. Approximately what radial are you on? 238

-An Omni-bearing selector (OBS) shows full deflection to the left when within range of a serviceable VOR. What angular deviation are you from the selected radial? 10° or more

-An RMI indicates aircraft heading and bearing. To convert the RMI bearings of NDBs and VORs to true bearings the correct combination for the application of magnetic variation is: NDB: aircraft position VOR: beacon position

-An RMI slaved to a remote indicating compass has gone unserviceable and is locked on to a reading of 090°. The tail of the VOR pointer shows 135°. The available information from the VOR is: Radial 135°, relative bearing unknown

-Apart from radials and distances from VOR/DME stations, what information is required by the VOR/DME Area Navigation computer in order to calculate the wind? Heading from the aircraft compass system and true airspeed from the air data computer

-Area Navigation is a method of navigation that permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the limits of the capability of self contained systems. Which of the following systems is such a self contained system? Inertial Reference System

-Assuming a five dot display on either side of the CDI on the ILS localiser cockpit display, what does each of the dots represent approximately ?: 0.5 degrees

-Assuming a five dot display on either side of the ILS localiser cockpit display, what is the angular displacement of the aircraft from the localiser centreline when the CDI is deflected 2 dots to the right? 1.0° to the left.

-Assuming sufficient transmission power, the maximum range of a ground radar with a pulse repetition frequency of 450 pulses per second is: (Given: velocity of light is 300 000 km/second): 333 km

-At what approximate height above the WGS-84 ellipsoid are NAVSTAR/GPS satellites circling the earth? 20200 km

-Basic RNAV requires a track-keeping accuracy of: +/- 5NM or better for 95% of the flight time

-'Beam bends' in the ILS approach path are:  slight curves that can be followed by large aircraft.

-Benefits of Area Navigation include: 1. Shorter flight distance 2. Reduction in fuel and flight time. 3. No radio contact within RNAV airspace. 4. Reduction in the number of ground training facilities 5. Pilot choice of vertical and horizontal separations. The combination regrouping all the correct statements is: 1, 2 and 4.

-By selecting one VHF frequency, in the range of 108 to 112 MHz, on the NAV receiver:   rho-theta information from a terminal VOR/DME can be obtained.

-By which of the following flight deck equipment are the waypoints inserted into an FMS RNAV-system by the pilot? Control Display Unit

-Classify the marker from lower aural frequency to higher aural frequency : 1. Inner marker (if available) 2. Middle marker 3. Outer marker: 3 - 2 -1

-Comparing a parabolic reflector with a flat plate antenna of the same size: the flat plate antenna generates less side lobes than the parabolic reflector.

-Complete the following statement. Aircraft Surface movement Radar operates on frequencies in the (i) .......... band employing an antenna that rotates at approximately (ii) .......... revolutions per minute; it is (iii) ......... possible to determine the type of aircraft from the return on the radar screen: (i) SHF (ii) 60 (iii) sometimes

-Concerning ADF and NDB: NDB is a ground equipment, and ADF is an airbone equipment.

-Concerning FMC databases: the navigation database may be customized for the specific airline operations.

-Concerning the glidepath principle of operation in an ILS system, the needle of the indicator is centred when the difference in depth of modulation (DDM) is: null.

-Concerning the glidepath principle of operation in an ILS, the difference in depth of modulation (DDM) will: increase with displacement above or below the glidepath.

-Concerning the localiser principle of operation in an ILS system, the difference in depth of modulation (DDM): increases linearly with respect to the angular displacement from the centerline.

-Concerning the localiser principle of operation in an ILS system, the difference in depth of modulation (DDM) : 1. decreases with respect to the angular displacement from the centerline. 2. increases with right displacement from the centerline. 3. decreases with left displacement from the centerline. 4. increases linearly with displacement from the centreline. The combination regrouping all the correct statements is: 2 and 4.

-Concerning the localiser principle of operation in an ILS, the needle of the aircraft indicator is centred when the difference in depth of modulation (DDM) is: null.

-Concerning the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system, what is the meaning of the term 'Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring' (RAIM)? It is a technique by which a receiver ensures the integrity of the navigation information

-Considering a primary radar system, what kind of aerials are used? One directional antenna both for transmitting and for receiving.

-Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) operates in the: UHF band and uses two frequencies

-DME channels operate in the frequency band which includes: 1 000 MHz

-DME channels utilise frequencies of approximately: 1000 MHz

-Due to 'Doppler' effect an apparent decrease in the transmitted frequency, which is proportional to the transmitter's velocity, will occur when: the transmitter moves away from the receiver

-During a flight at FL 210, a pilot does not receive any DME distance indication from a DME station located approximately 220 NM away. The reason for this is that the: aeroplane is below the 'line of sight' altitude

-Echoes that do not change in distance from the antenna (relative speed zero) of a ground radar with a Moving Target Indicator (MTI) are dangerous for the following reason:  The moving target indicator (MTI) eliminates such echoes.

-EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System) is a form of: Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS)

-Erratic indications may be experienced when flying towards a basic VOR/DME-based Area Navigation System 'Phantom Station': when operating at low altitudes close to the limit of reception range from the reference station

-Errors caused by the effect of coastal refraction on bearings at lower altitudes are maximum when the NDB is: inland and the bearing crosses the coast at an acute angle

-Every 10 kt decrease in groundspeed, on a 3° ILS glidepath, will require an approximate: decrease in the aircraft's rate of descent of 50 FT/MIN

-Factors liable to affect most NDB/ADF system performance and reliability include: static interference - night effect - absence of failure warning system

-False beams on the ILS glidepath are: only found above the correct glideslope

-For a conventional DME facility 'Beacon Saturation' will occur whenever the number of aircraft interrogations exceeds: 100

-For any given circumstances, in order to double the effective range of a primary radar the power output must be increased by a factor of: 16

-For what reason is a mask angle set-up in a GPS-receiver? To deny the receiver the use of GPS-satellites with an elevation less than the mask angle.

-From which of the following combination of navigational sources provide enough information to the RNAV equipment to calculate the wind vector: IRS and air data computer

-Full deflection on a glide slope indicator indicates that the aircraft is: 0.7° above or below the correct glide path

-Full scale deflection of the localiser needle indicates that the aircraft is approximately: 2.5° offset from the localiser centreline.

-Garbling in mode A and C may occur: when two or more aircraft are in approximately the same direction from the interrogator with a difference in slant range of less than 1.7 NM.

-Given : Aircraft position 34°15'N 098°E, magnetic variation 28°W, FL 280. PTC VOR/DME position 36°12'N 098°E, magnetic variation 13°E. In order to read the most accurate ground speed given by the DME receiver from his present position, the pilot must fly on which PTC Radial? 167°

-Given: Aircraft heading 160°(M), Aircraft is on radial 240° from a VOR, Selected course on HSI is 250°. The HSI indications are deviation bar: behind the aeroplane symbol with the FROM flag showing

-Given: Aircraft position 52°09'S 024°E, magnetic variation 14°W, FL 310. BIT VOR/DME position 54°42'S 024°E, magnetic variation 14°E. In order to read the most accurate ground speed given by the DME receiver from his present position, the pilot must follow which BIT radial? 346°

-Given: Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) for a VOR is selected to 090°. From/To indicator indicates "TO". CDI needle is deflected halfway to the right. On what radial is the aircraft? 275

-Given: Magnetic heading 280° VOR radial 090° What bearing should be selected on the omni-bearing selector in order to centralise the VOR deviation needle with a "TO" indication? 270°

-Given: VOR station position N61° E025°, variation 13°E; Estimated position of an aircraft N59° E025°, variation 20°E. What VOR radial is the aircraft on? 167°

-Given: W/V (T) 230/ 20 kt, Var. 6E, TAS 80 kt What relative bearing from an NDB should be maintained in order to achieve an outbound course of 257°(M) from overhead the beacon? 188

-GPS satellites transmit on two L-band frequencies with different types of signals. Which of these are generally available for use by civil aviation? L1-coarse acquisition (C/A) with selected availability (S/A)

-GPS satellites transmit on two L-band frequencies with different types of signals. Which of these are generally available for use by civil aviation? L1-coarse acquisition

-GPS system satellites transmit their signals on two carrier waves 1575 MHz and 1227 MHz and supply two possible codes accessible according to user (civil or military). Commercial aviation uses: only the 1575 MHz carrier wave and one code

-How can a DME-interrogator distinguish between its own reply pulse-pairs and the reply pulse-pairs of other aircraft in the area, using the same DME-station?The Pulse Repetition Frequency of the pulse-pairs transmitted by the interrogator varies, for each interrogator, in a unique rhythm.

-How does a Mode S interrogator identify aircraft? a 24 bit identifier, giving over 16 million combinations

-How does a NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system receiver recognise which of the received signals belongs to which satellite? Each satellite transmits its signal, on common frequencies, with an individual Pseudo Random Noise code

-How does a receiver of the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system determine the elevation and azimuth data of a satellite relative to the location of the antenna? It calculates it by using Almanac data transmitted by the satellites

-How does a VOR/DME Area Navigation system selects the DME-stations to be used for positioning? The VOR/DME Area Navigation system has its own NAV tuner and the system itself tunes the DME stations providing the most accurate position.

-How does the Electronic Flight Instrument System display of a B737-400 respond to the failure of a VHF navigation (VOR) receiver? It removes the associated magenta deviation bar and/or pointer from the display

-How long does it take a NAVSTAR/GPS satellite to orbit the earth? Approximately 12 hours (1/2 of a sidereal day)

-How many clocks are installed in each NAVSTAR GPS satellite? 4

-How many operational satellites are required for Full Operational Capability (FOC) of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS? 24

-How many satellites form the nominal NAVSTAR GPS constellation? 24

-ICAO Annex 11 defines Area Navigation (RNAV) as a method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path: within the coverage of station-referenced navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these

-ICAO specifications are that range errors indicated by Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) should not exceed: + or - 0.25 NM plus 1.25% of the distance measured

-If a failed RMI rose is stuck on 090° and the ADF pointer indicates 225°, the relative bearing to the station will be: 135°.

-If an aircraft flies along a VOR radial it will follow a: great circle track

-If the (angular) displacement of an aircraft (with respect to the localiser centerline) doubles (e.g. from 1° tot 2°) the measured Difference in Depth of Modulation:  doubles.

-If the reference phase differs 30° with the variable phase the radial from the VOR station will be : 030°

-If VOR bearing information is used beyond the published protection range, errors could be caused by: interference from other transmitters

-If you are flying a back course ILS, you are flying a: non precision approach on the reciprocal runway of the precision approach runway

-Ignoring pulse length and fly-back, a radar facility designed to have a maximum unambiguous range of 50 km will have a PRF (pulses per second) of: 3000

-Ignoring pulse length, the maximum pulse repetition frequency (PRF) that can be used by a primary radar facility to detect targets unambiguously to a range of 200 NM is: (pps = pulses per second):   405 pps

-ILS is subject to false glide paths resulting from: multiple lobes of radiation patterns in the vertical plane

-ILS produces: a radiation pattern which is amplitude modulated by a 90Hz and a 150Hz signal.

-ILS transmitters use the: UHF and VHF bands.

-In a 2D RNAV system you have entered the DME and VOR data for two waypoints. What do you use to work out the cross track errors when en-route from one to the other? Use the automatically computed values on the CDI/HSI.

-In a primary pulse radar you have: a directional aerial for both transmission and reception

-In a primary radar using pulse technique, pulse length determines: minimum measurable range

-In a primary radar using pulse technique, pulse recurrence frequency (PRF)/pulse recurrence rate (PRR) determines: maximum theoretical range

-In a primary radar using pulse technique, the ability to discriminate between targets in azimuth is a factor of: beam width

-In a Satellite-Assisted Navigation system (GNSS/GPS) a position line is obtained by: timing the period that is taken for a satellite's transmission to reach the aircraft's receiver

-In a Satellite-Assisted Navigation System (GNSS/GPS), a fix is obtained by: measuring the time taken for a minimum number of satellites' transmissions, in known positions, to reach the aircraft's receiver

-In accordance with Doc 8168, a pilot flying an NDB approach must achieve a tracking accuracy within..... of the published approach track: +/-5°

-In accordance with ICAO Annex 10 the GPS NAVSTAR position accuracy in SPS should be for 95% of the time: 13 metres horizontally

-In accordance with ICAO Annex 10 the NAVSTAR/GPS global average 95% position accuracy in SPS should be : 13m horizontally

-In Airborne Weather Radar (AWR), the main factors which determine whether a cloud will be detected are: size of the water drops; wavelength/frequency used

-In an Airborne Weather Radar that has a colour cathode ray tube (CRT) increasing severity of rain and turbulence is generally shown by a change of colour from: green to yellow to red

-In an Airborne Weather Radar the areas of greatest turbulence are usually indicated on the screen by: colour zones of red and magenta

-In an Airborne Weather Radar the areas of greatest turbulence are usually indicated on the screen by: colour zones of red and magenta

-In an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) data relating primarily to navigation in the FMC is provided by: Navigation radios, GPS, Inertial Reference Systems

-In an ILS system,concerning the glidepath principle of operation, the difference in depth of modulation (DDM): 1. decrease with angular displacement below the glidepath. 2. increase with angular displacement above the glidepath. 3. decrease with angular displacement above the glidepath.4. increase with angular displacement below the glidepath.The combination regrouping all the correct statements is: 2 and 4.

-In an ILS, concerning the localiser principle of operation, the difference in depth of modulation (DDM) will: increase with displacement from the centerline.

-In civil aviation, the height value computed by the receiver of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS is the: height above the WGS-84 ellipsoid

-In flight, a pilot can improve the range of his transmission with a VDF operator by: increasing altitude.

-In general the operation of airborne weather radar equipment on the ground is: only permitted with certain precautions, to safeguard health of personnel and to protect equipment

-In ISA conditions, approximately what is the maximum theoretical range at which an aircraft at FL210 may expect to receive signals from a VOR facility sited 340 feet above mean sea level ? 204 NM

-In ISA conditions, what is the maximum theoretical range at which an aircraft at FL80 can expect to obtain bearings from a ground VDF facility sited 325 ft above MSL ? 134 NM

-In order to ascertain whether a cloud return on an Aircraft Weather Radar (AWR) is at or above the height of the aircraft, the tilt control should be set to: (Assume a beam width of 5°):  2.5° up

-In order to carry out an Independent three-dimensional fix, Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) and failure detection and exclusion of any faulty satellite, signal reception is required from a minimum number of how many satellites? 6

-In order to enter a phantom waypoint that is designated by a VOR/DME simple RNAV system, the VOR/DME: does not have to be in range when entered but must be when used

-In order to indicate an emergency situation, the aircraft Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) transponder should be set to: 7700

-In order to indicate radio failure the aircraft SSR transponder should be selected to code: 7600

-In order to indicate unlawful interference with the planned operation of the flight, the aircraft Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) transponder should be selected to: 7500

-In order to measure the radial from a VOR, the aircraft VOR receiver: measures the phase difference between the reference phase and the variable phase of the signal.

-In order to obtain an ADF bearing on a system using sense and loop aerials, the: signal must be received by both the sense and loop aerials

-In order to plot a bearing from a VOR station, a pilot needs to know the magnetic variation: at the VOR

-In relation to Area Navigation Systems (RNAV), which of the following is an Air Data input? True airspeed

-In relation to primary radar, what does the term Pulse Recurrence Frequency signify? The number of pulses transmitted per second.

-In relation to radar systems that use pulse technology, the term 'Pulse Recurrence Rate (PRR)' signifies the: number of pulses per second

-In relation to the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system, 'Search the Sky' is a: procedure that starts after switching on a receiver if there is no stored satellite data available

-In relation to the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system, what is involved in the differential technique (D-GPS)? Fixed ground stations compute position errors and transmit correction data to a suitable receiver on the aircraft

-In relation to the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS, ''All in View'' is a term used when a receiver: is tracking more than the required 4 satellites and can instantly replace any lost signal with another already being monitored

-In relation to the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS, the term 'inclination' denotes the angle between the: orbital plane and the equatorial plane

-In relation to the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS, which of the following statements correctly describes the term 'Pseudo Random Noise (PRN)' signal? PRN is a code used for the identification of the satellites and the measurement of the time taken by the signal to reach the receiver

-In the event of the re-use of Selective Availability, how does this affect, if at all, the navigation accuracy of the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system ? It degrades position accuracy by manipulating satellite signals

-In the Flight Management Computer (FMC) of the Flight Management System (FMS), data relating to waypoints is stored in the: navigation database

-In the Flight Management Computer (FMC) of the Flight Management System (FMS), data relating to aircraft flight envelope computations is stored in the: performance database

-In the Flight Management Computer (FMC) of the Flight Management System (FMS), data relating to cruising speeds is stored in the: Performance database

-In the Flight Management Computer (FMC) of the Flight Management System (FMS), data relating to V1, VR and V2 speeds is stored in the: performance database

-In the Flight Management Computer (FMC) of the Flight Management System (FMS), data relating to STARs and SIDs is stored in the: navigation database

-In the Flight Management Computer (FMC) of the Flight Management System (FMS), data relating to flight plans is stored in the: navigation database

-In the MAPPING MODE the airborne weather radar utilises a: fan shaped beam effective up to a maximum of 50 NM to 60 NM range

-In the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system, receiver clock error: is corrected by using signals from four satellites

-In the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system, re-use of Selective Availability would give the option to artificially degrade the accuracy by: dithering the satellite clock

-In the VOR receiver the radial is determined by measurement of the: phase difference between the variable signal and the reference signal.

-In weather radar the use of a cosecant beam in 'Mapping' mode enables: scanning of a large ground zone producing echos whose signals are practically independent of distance

-In what piece of FMS equipment will the pilot enter the waypoint information for the route? The Control Display Unit (CDU)

-In what type of nominal orbit are NAVSTAR GPS satellites placed? Circular

-In which frequency band do most airborne weather radars operate? SHF

-In which frequency band do Satellite-Assisted Navigation systems (GNSS/GPS) provide position information that is available to civil aircraft? UHF

-In which frequency band do VOR transmitters operate? VHF

-In which frequency band does an ILS glide slope transmit? UHF

-In which frequency band does the Microwave Landing System (MLS) operate? SHF

-In which frequency bands are the L1 and L2 frequencies used by the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS for transmission of the navigation message? UHF

-In which mode of operation does the aircraft weather radar use a cosecant radiation pattern: MAPPING

-In which navigation system does the master station transmit a continuous string of pulses on a frequency close to 100 kHz? Loran C

-In which one of the following circumstances is ground direction finding (VDF) likely to be used to fix an aircraft's position? When using the emergency VHF frequency 121.5 MHz

-In which screen modes of an Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) on a B737-400 will radar returns not be shown? FULL NAV, FULL VOR/ILS and PLAN

-In which situation will speed indications on an airborne Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) most closely represent the groundspeed of an aircraft flying at FL400? When tracking directly towards the station at a range of 100 NM or more

-Inner marker beacons of an ILS transmit at: 75 MHz.

-Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) Glide Paths provide azimuth coverage (i).... ° each side of the localiser centre-line to a distance of (ii).... NM minimum from the threshold: (i) 8 (ii) 10

-IRS is a self-contained system because: the system calculates the position of the aircraft without reference to externally generated (man-made) signals.

-Kalman filtering is used within: Navigation computer.

-Locators are: 1. High powered NDBs used for en route and airways navigation. 2. Low powered NDBs used for airfield or runway approach. 3. Beacons with a usually range of 10 to 250 NM. 4. Beacons with a usually range of 10 to 25 NM. The combination regrouping all the correct statements is: 2 and 4.

-Locators are: LF/MF NDBs used as an aid for final approach.

-Loran C coverage is: confined to certain limited areas of the world

-Middle marker beacons of an ILS transmit at: 75 MHz.

-MLS can minimise multi path errors because: the transmission can be interrupted to avoid reflection by stationary objects.

-MLS installations notified for operation, unless otherwise stated, provide azimuth coverage of: + or - 40° about the nominal courseline out to a range of 20 NM

-MLS is primarily being installed at airports where: ILS encounters difficulties because of surrounding buildings and/or the terrain or interference from local music stations.

-MLS not equipped with DME P:   provides basically the same approach capabilities as ILS.

-Mode A or C garbling may occur to: Two or more aircraft in the same direction from the interrogator with a difference in slant range of less than 1.7NM

-NDB is the abbreviation for: Non Directional Beacon.

-Night Effect in an ADF may cause: Fluctuating indications of the needle on the RMI.

-'Night Effect' which causes loss of signal and fading, resulting in bearing errors from NDB transmissions, is due to: skywave distortion of the null position and is maximum at dawn and dusk

-Of what use, if any, is a military TACAN station to civil aviation ? It can provide DME distance

-On a modern commercial aircraft, the FMS provides: lateral and vertical navigation, , and guidance and performance management.

-On an ILS approach, the glidepath needle is fully down. How much deflection does this indicate? 0.7º

-On an ILS approach, the localiser needle is fully over to the left. How much deflection does this indicate? 2.5º

-On an ILS approach, when flying overhead the inner marker (if available) the color of the flashing light will be: white.

-On an ILS approach, when flying overhead the middle marker the color of the flashing light will be: amber.

-On an ILS approach, when flying overhead the outer marker the color of the flashing light will be: blue.

-On an RMI the front end of a VOR pointer indicates the: radial plus 180º.

-On final on an ILS approach, you are flying overhead the outer marker. You can expect to be at: 4 NM from the threshold.

-On final on ILS approach, at 0,6 NM from the threshold, which marker are you likely to hear? The middle marker.

-On modern passenger aircraft, the navigation data base usually contains: airport reference data.

-On the QDR of 075° (in the vicinity of the station) with a magnetic heading of 295°, the relative bearing on the ADF indicator is: 320°

-On the RMI the tip of a VOR needle indicates 060. With the CRS set on 055 the indications on the HSI are: TO, half scale deflection to the right.

-On what carrier frequency does the inner marker transmit? 75 MHz.

-On what data is a VOR/DME Area Navigation system operating in the dead reckoning mode? TAS from the Air Data Computer; heading from the aircraft compass; the last computed W/V.

-On which of the following displays are you able to get a direct read-out (no calculation is necessary from the pilot) of the magnetic bearing from the aircraft to the NDB? Moving card ADF and RMI.

-On which of the following radar displays is it possible to get an indication of the shape, and to some extent the type, of the aircraft generating the return? Aerodrome Surface Movement Radar (ASMR)

-One of the benefits of RNAV is: RNAV allows aircraft to take a more direct flight path without requiring to fly over ground based facilities.

-One of the possible disturbances of the ILS signal is "scalloping". Which statement is correct? Scalloping causes rapid indicator changes from side to side of the intended approach path which can not be followed by the aircraft.

-One of the tasks of the control segment of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS is to: monitor the status of the satellites

-One of the tasks of the GPS control segment is: to detect the malfunctioning of satellites.

-One of the tasks of the GPS control segment is: to determine and send new ephemeris and new satellite clock error data to the GPS-satellites.

-One of the tasks of the space segment of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS is to: transmit signals which can be used, by suitable receivers, to determine time, position and velocity

-One of uses of the VDF service is providing aircraft with: homing.

-Outer marker beacons of an ILS transmit at: 75 MHz.

-Outer marker transmits on 75 MHz and has an aural frequency of: 400 Hz

-Output from which of the following combination of navigational sources provide enough information to the RNAV-equipment to calculate the wind vector? Inertial Reference System and Air Data Computer

-Performing an ILS approach, you will fly overhead the markers in an specific order. This order is: OM, MM, IM (if available).

-Precision RNAV (P-RNAV) requires a track-keeping accuracy of: ± 1.0nm for 95% of the flight time.

-Quadrantal errors associated with aircraft Automatic Direction Finding (ADF) equipment are caused by: signal bending by the aircraft metallic surfaces

-Range of VDF depends on: 1. Line of sight formula 2. Power of transmitters 3. Intervening high ground. The combination regrouping all the correct statements is: 1, 2 and 3.

-Range of VDF depends on: 1. Loudness of the voices of the pilot and the operator when transmitting. 2. Power of airborne and ground transmitters. 3. Power of pilot voice when transmitting. 4.. Aircraft altitude and ground transmitter elevation The combination regrouping all the correct statements is: 2 and 4.

-Regarding ILS which of the following is true? All markers transmit at 75 MHz.

-Regarding the DME system, which one of the following statements is true? The transponder reply carrier frequency differs by 63 MHz from that of the interrogation signal.

-Signal reception is required from a minimum number of satellites that have adequate elevation and suitable geometry in order for a Satellite-Assisted Navigation System (GPS) to carry out independent three dimensional operation without the Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) function. The number of satellites is: 4

-The "gain" control knob of an AWR adjusts: the receiver sensitivity in order to achieve optimum target acquisition.

-The addition of DME-P to MLS is necessary to: obtain three dimensional positions.

-The ADF indication in the cockpit is a:   relative bearing on a fixed card indicator

-The advantage of the use of slotted antennas in modern radar technology is to: virtually eliminate lateral lobes and as a consequence concentrate more energy in the main beam

-The aircraft DME receiver cannot lock on to interrogation signals reflected from the ground because: aircraft transmitter and DME ground station are transmitting on different frequencies

-The aircraft DME receiver is able to accept replies to its own transmissions and reject replies to other aircraft interrogations because: the time interval between pulse pairs is unique to that particular aircraft

-The antennae of modern airborne weather radars are stabilized by means of: inputs from the aircraft's attitude system.

-The ATC transponder system,excluding Mode S, contains : two modes, each of 4096 codes

-The audio frequency modulation of the inner marker (if available) shall be keyed as follows: 6 dots per second continuously.

-The audio frequency modulation of the middle marker shall be keyed as follows: a continuous series of alternate dots and dashes, the dashes keyed at the rate of 2 dashes per second, and the dots at the rate of 6 dots per second.

-The audio frequency modulation of the outer marker shall be keyed as follows: 2 dashes per second continuously.

-The audio modulation of the middle marker is keyed to give: alternating dots and dashes at a rate of 2 dashes per second and 6 dots per second

-The azimuth transmitter of a Microwave Landing System (MLS) provides a fan-shaped horizontal approach zone which is usually: + or - 40° of the runway centre-line

-The back CRS of an ILS may give: non-precision approach guidance for the reciprocal of the main approach runway.

-The basic principle of operation of the ILS is the difference in depth of modulation (DDM) between the two lobes: 1. if the aircraft strays right, the higher tone lobe will be received at a higher intensity than the lower tone lobe. 2. a DDM of zero indicates the exact runway centreline. 3. the depth of modulation increases away from the centerline. 4. a DDM of zero indicates a balance between modulations. The combination that regroups all the corrects statements is: 1, 2, 3 and 4.

-The basic principle of operation of the ILS is the difference in depth of modulation (DDM) between the 90 Hz and 150 Hz lobes. A DDM of zero indicates: 1. the higher tone lobe is received at a higher strenght than the lower tone lobe. 2. the exact runway centreline 3. the aircraft is on the glidepath. 4. a balance between modulations: 2, 3 and 4.

-The BFO selector on an ADF receiver is used to: hear the IDENT of some NDB stations radiating a continuous wave signal

-The BFO selector switch on the ADF control panel must be in the 'on' position to enable the pilot to: hear the IDENT of NDBs using NON A1A transmissions

-The captain of an aircraft flying at FL100 wishes to obtain weather information at the destination airfield from the airfield's VOR. Assuming ISA conditions, what is the approximate maximum theoretical range at which it can be expected to obtain this information? 123 NM

-The code transmitted by a SSR transponder consists of: pulses

-The Control and Display Unit (CDU) on an FMS is: used by the crew to input data into FMC.

-The design requirements for DME stipulate that, at a range of 100 NM, the maximum systematic error should not exceed: + or - 1.5 NM

-The diagram indicates that the aircraft is to the: right of the localizer and below the glidepath

-The different segments of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS are the: control, space and user

-The distance between a NAVSTAR/GPS satellite and receiver is: determined by the time taken for the signal to arrive from the satellite multiplied by the speed of light

-The DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) operates in the following frequency range: 962 to 1213 MHz

-The DME Line Of Position is a circle with radius: a the ground distance and centre the DME-station.

-The Doppler Navigation System is based on: radar principles using frequency shift

-The effect of masking the DME antenna of the aircraft from the ground installation is that Interruption of reception of DME signals results in: The Airborne installation switching to the memory mode for about 10 to 15 seconds.

-The Flight Management Computer (FMC) position is: the computed position based on a number of sources (IRS, Radio, ILS, GPS etc)

-The Flight Management System (FMS) is organised in such a way that the pilot can: insert navigation data between two database updates

-The Flight Management System (FMS) is organised in such a way that: the navigation database is read only to the pilot.

-The FMS navigation data base usually contains: 1. airport reference data. 2. ATC frequencies. 3. Company routes. 4. Nav. Aid. frequencies. The combination regrouping all the correct statements is: 1, 3 and 4.

-The frequency of an SSR ground transmission is: 1030 +/- 0.2 Mhz

-The frequency of the amplitude modulation and the colour of an outer marker (OM) light is: 400 Hz, blue

-The frequency range of a VOR receiver is: 108 to 117.95 MHz

-The geometric shape of the reference system for the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS, defined as WGS 84, is: an ellipsoid

-The Glide Path antenna is located on the side of the runway approximately: 300 m beyond the threshold

-The GPS control segment consists of: a Master Control Station, Monitor Stations and Ground Antenna's.

-The ground Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) equipment incorporates a transmitter and receiver respectively operating in the following frequencies: Transmitter Receiver:  1030 MHz 1090 MHz

-The heading rose of an HSI is frozen on 200°. Lined up on the ILS of runway 25, the localizer needle will be: centred

-The heaviest turbulence is likely to be encountered: where the area of heaviest precipitation is closest to the edge of the thunderstorm cell.

-The ident of a DME in case of collocation with a VOR is as follows: In 40 seconds the DME ident will sound once.

-The identification of a DME in combination with a collocated VOR is as follows: In a period of 40 seconds the DME ident will be heard once on an audio frequency of 1350 Hz.

-The identification of a DME in combination with a collocated VOR is as follows: In a period of 40 seconds the DME ident will be heard once on an audio frequency of 1350 Hz.

-The ILS inner marker (if available) modulation frequency is: 3000 Hz.

-The ILS marker identified audibly by a series of alternate dots and dashes is the: middle marker.

-The ILS marker identified audibly by a series of dots (6/sec.) is the: inner marker.

-The ILS marker identified audibly by a series of two dashes per second is the: outer marker.

-The ILS marker identified visually by an amber light flashing is the: middle marker.

-The ILS marker identified visually by an blue flashing light is the: outer marker.

-The ILS marker identified visually by an white light flashing is the: inner marker

-The ILS marker with an aural frequency of 1300 Hz is the: middle marker.

-The ILS marker with an aural frequency of 3000 Hz is the: inner marker (if available).

-The ILS marker with an aural frequency of 400 Hz is: outer marker.

-The ILS marker with the higher aural frequency is the: inner marker.

-The ILS marker with the lower aural frequency is the: outer marker.

-The ILS middle marker modulation frequency is: 1300 Hz.

-The ILS outer marker modulation frequency is: 400 Hz.

-The ILS receiver of an aircraft flying down the exact runway centreline will receive: 90 Hz and 150 Hz lobes at equal depth.

-The ILS receiver of an aircraft on approach and flying on the glidepath will receive: the modulation from both lobes at equal depth.

-The ILS receiver of an aircraft on approach and flying on the right of the exact runway centreline will receive: more of the 150 Hz localiser signal than the 90 Hz localiser signal.

-The inclination to the equatorial plane of the NAVSTAR/GPS orbits is: 55º

-The indicated range from a DME station is: slant range.

-The influence of the ionosphere on the accuracy of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS is: minimised by the receiver using a model of the atmosphere and comparing signals transmitted by the satellites

-The inputs of information used to achieve the RNAV required accuracy may be: 1. NDB 2. IRS 3. VOR/DME 4. G.N.S.S. The combination regrouping all the correct statements is: 2, 3 and 4.

-The IRS is a self-contained system because: it operates independently of navigational aids outside the aircraft.

-The ISO-ECHO facility of an airborne weather radar is provided in order to: detect areas of possible severe turbulence in cloud

-The letters QTX and adjacent symbol indicate a: VOR/DME/VORTAC

-The localiser transmits in: the VHF band.

-The localiser transmitters operate in a frequency band between: 108 MHz and 111.975 MHz.

-The main factor which determines the minimum range that can be measured by a pulsed radar is pulse: length

-The main task of the user segment (receiver) of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS is to calculate receiver position by: selecting appropriate satellites automatically, to track the signals and to measure the time taken by signals from the satellites to reach the receiver

-The maximum pulse repetition frequency (PRF) that can be used by a primary radar facility in order to detect targets unambiguously at a range of 50 NM is: (pps = pulses per second):  1620 pps

-The maximum range obtainable from an ATC Long Range Surveillance Radar is approximately: 200-300 NM

-The maximum range of primary radar depends on: pulse recurrence frequency

-The maximum theoretical range at which an aircraft at FL230 may receive signals from a VOR facility sited at mean sea level is: 190 NM

-The MIDDLE MARKER of an Instrument Landing System (ILS) facility is identified audibly and visually by a series of: alternate dots and dashes and an amber light flashing

-The middle marker transmits on: 75MHz

-The minimum range of a primary radar, using the pulse technique, is determined by the (i)........ ; the maximum unambiguous range by the (ii):   (i) pulse length (ii) pulse recurrence frequency

-The MLS frequencies and available channels are: in the SHF band, 300 kHz frequency separation giving 200 available channels.

-The navigational function of the horizontal situation indicator (HSI) in relation to area navigation systems is: the indication of the cross track distance (XTK).

-The 'O' followed by the letters 'KABC' indicate: an off-route airport

-The OBS is set on 048°, TO appears in the window. The needle is close to full right deflection. The VOR radial is approximately: 238°

-The OBS is set to 235°. The indications of the VOR are half scale deflection left and 'to'. The aircraft is on the radial: 050°

-The operating principle of a DME is the measurement of the: time between the transmission and reception of radio pulses

-The orbital planes of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS are: inclined 55° to the equatorial plane

-The OUTER MARKER of an Instrument Landing System (ILS) facility transmits on a frequency of: 75 MHz and is modulated by morse at two dashes per second

-The pencil shaped beam of an airborne weather radar is used in preference to the mapping mode for the determination of ground features: beyond 50 to 60 NM because more power can be concentrated in the narrower beam

-The pictures at reference are showing an aircraft's position with respect to some thunderstorm cells and the image the pilot is getting from the radar. To detect this "blind alley" the pilot should:  increase the range setting of his radar.

-The prime factor in determining the maximum unambiguous range of a primary radar is the: pulse recurrence rate

-The principle of operation of an ILS is: the difference in depth of modulation.

-The principle of operation of an ILS localiser transmitter is based on two overlapping lobes that are transmitted on (i).......... frequencies and carry different (ii):   (i) the same (ii) modulation frequencies

-The principle used in VOR bearing measurement is: phase comparison

-The quadrantal error of an ADF: is caused by the refraction from the aircraft's fuselage and is compensated for.

-The rate of descent required to maintain a 3.25° glide slope at a groundspeed of 140 kt is approximately: 760 FT/MIN

-The reading of the RMI bearing is 300° at the tip of the needle. The magnetic variation at the DR position is 24°W, the magnetic variation at the NDB is 22°W and the deviation is -2°. The compass heading is 020°. The true bearing is: 274°

-The reason for using different frequencies for the airborne and ground equipment of a DME is: to prevent that DME interrogation pulse pairs being received by the aircraft after reflection on the earth surface.

-The reason why pre take-off holding areas are sometimes further from the active runway when ILS Category 2 and 3 landing procedures are in progress than during good weather operations is: aircraft manoeuvring near the runway may disturb guidance signals

-The reason why the measured distance between a NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system satellite and a receiver is called a 'Pseudo-Range' is because the: calculated range includes receiver clock error

-The receiver aerial for a NAVSTAR/GPS system should be mounted: on the upper side of the fuselage in the vicinity of the centre of gravity

-The required 24 NAVSTAR/GPS operational satellites are located on: 6 orbital planes with 4 satellites in each plane6 orbital planes with 4 satellites in each plane

-The selection of code 7500 on an aircraft SSR transponder indicates: unlawful interference with the planned operation of the flight

-The selection of code 7600 on an aircraft SSR transponder indicates: radio communication failure

-The selection of code 7700 on an aircraft SSR transponder indicates: an emergency

-The selection of the DME frequency for a ILS/DME installation is as follows: The DME frequency is paired with the localizer frequency so only the localiser frequency is set.

-The skip distance of HF-transmission will increase with: higher frequency and higher position of the reflecting ionospheric layer.

-The theoretical maximum range for an Airborne Weather Radar is determined by the: pulse recurrence frequency

-The three different markers can be used in the ILS to determine the distance to the ILS touchdown point of the runway as follows: The middle marker indicates the position for the decision for a missed approach during a CAT I approach due too bad visibility.

-The three main components of VOR airborne equipment are: Receiver, Antenna, Display

-The time taken for the transmission of an interrogation pulse by a Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) to travel to the ground transponder and return to the airborne receiver was 2000 micro-second. The slant range from the ground transponder was: 158 NM

-The track-line on the Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) or Navigation Display of an Electronic Flight Instrument System: represents the track of the aircraft over the ground. When it co-incides with the desired track, wind influence is compensated for

-The transmission of the glide slope beacon is characterised by a: UHF frequency with a minimum range of 10 NM.

-The two main design functions of Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) Mode S are: air to ground and ground to air data link communications and improved ATC aircraft surveillance capability

-The two signals transmitted by a conventional VOR ground station are 90° out of phase on magnetic: east

-The type of modulation used for the ILS frequency carrier is: amplitude modulation.

-The UHF band is assigned to the: 1. Locator 2. Localiser 3. Outer marker 4. Glide path The combination that regroups all the corrects statements is : 4.

-The UHF band is the assigned frequency band of the: ILS glide path transmitter.

-The VOR system is limited to about 1° of accuracy. One degree at 200 NM represents a width of: 3.5 NM

-There are two NDBs, one 20 NM inland, and the other 50 NM inland from the coast. Assuming that the error caused by coastal refraction is the same for both propagations, the extent of the error in a position line plotted by an aircraft that is over wáter:   greater from the beacon that is 50 NM inland

-To improve the detection of precipitation area(s) in e.g thunderstorms, in which the top of the cloud lies at or slightly above the level of flight: the tilt setting should be lower when the aircraft climbs to a higher altitude.

-To provide a pilot with the position of the aircraft in the absence of radar, ATC must have at its disposal at least: two VDF's at different locations, able to take bearings simultaneously on the transmitted frequency.

-Transmissions from VOR facilities may be adversely affected by: uneven propagation over irregular ground surfaces

-TVOR is a: VOR with a limited range used in the terminal area.

-Two aircraft are located on (arbitrary) different radials but at equal distances from a VOR-station. Which statement is true? At a certain moment of time the phase of the reference signals is equal and the phase of variable signals is unequal for both aircraft.

-Two aircraft are located on the same radial but at (arbitrary) different distances from a VOR-station. Which statement is true? At a certain moment of time, both the phase of the reference signals and of the variable signals are equal for both aircraft.

-Under JAR-25 colour code rules features displayed in cyan/blue, on an Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS), indicate: the sky

-Under JAR-25 colour code rules for Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS), increasing intensity of precipitation are coloured in the order: green, amber/yellow, red, magenta

-Under JAR-25 colour code rules, features displayed in amber/yellow on an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), indicate: cautions, abnormal sources

-Under JAR-25 colour code rules, features displayed in red on an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), indicate: warnings; flight envelope and system limitsThe frequency which corresponds to a wavelength of 12 cm is: 2500 MHz.

-Under JAR-25 general colour code rules, features displayed in green on an Electronic Flight Information System should indicate: engaged modes

-Under which of the following circumstances does a VOR/DME Area Navigation system switch to Dead Reckoning mode? VOR/DME Area Navigation computer is receiving neither radial nor distance data information from VOR/DME stations.

-Under which of the following circumstances does a VOR/DME Area Navigation system switch to Dead Reckoning mode? The system is receiving information from only one VOR

-Unless otherwise specified a radial is: the magnetic great circle direction from the beacon.

-VDF is the abbreviation for: VHF Direction Finder.

-VDF measures the bearing of the aircraft with: reference to true or magnetic north at the station.

-What according to ICAO Annex 10 is the range of a locator? 10 - 25 NM

-What actually happens in the ADF receiver when the BFO position is selected? The BFO circuit imposes a tone onto the carrier wave to make the NDB's ident audible.

-What airborne equipment, if any, is required to be fitted in order that a VDF let-down may be flown? VHF radio

-What approximate rate of descent is required in order to maintain a 3° glide path at a groundspeed of 120 kt? 600 FT/MIN

-What approximate rate of descent is required in order to maintain a 3° glidepath at a groundspeed of 90 kt? 450 FT/MIN

-What are the effects, if any, of shadowing by parts of the aircraft (e.g. wing) on the reception of signals from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites? It may prevent the reception of signals

-What are the modulation frequencies of the two overlapping lobes that are used on an ILS approach? 90 HZ 150 HZ

-What causes the so-called night effect? A change in the direction of the plane of polarisation due to reflection in the ionosphere.

-What datum is used for the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) on a non-precision approach when using the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system? Barometric altitude

-What does ADF stand for? Automatic Direction Finder

-What drift is being experienced? 8° Left

-What information may be displayed on an ATC radar screen connected only to a primary radar system? Aircraft position only.

-What is a VDF referenced to? Magnetic north at the station

-What is cross track distance (XTK-distance) in an Area Navigation System? Distance between actual position and great circle track between active waypoints.

-What is EGNOS (European Global Navigation Overlay System)? Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS)

-What is measured in order to establish aircraft position in relation to the localizer beam on an ILS? The difference in depth between the 90Hz modulation and the 150Hz modulation.

-What is measured in order to establish aircraft position in relation to the localiser beam on an ILS? The difference in depth between the 90 Hz modulation and the 150 Hz modulation.

-What is the "Q" code for a magnetic bearing from a VDF station? "Request QDR".

-What is the aircraft track? 272°(M)

-What is the approximate angular coverage of reliable navigation information for a 3° ILS glide path out to a minimum distance of 10 NM? 1.35° above the horizontal to 5.25° above the horizontal and 8° each side of the localiser centerline

-What is the approximate maximum theoretical range at which an aircraft at FL130 could receive information from a VDF facility which is sited 1024 FT above MSL? 180 NM

-What is the audio frequency of the inner marker? 3000 Hz

-What is the colour sequence when passing over an Outer, Middle and Inner Marker beacon? blue - amber – white

-What is the cross track deviation (XTK) indicated on an RNAV system? The distance between the actual position and the great circle track between two active waypoints.

-What is the effect of FM broadcast stations that transmit on frequencies just below 108 MHz on the performance of ILS: These transmissions may interfere with the ILS localizer signal which may lead to erroneous localizer deviation indication.

-What is the effect of multipath signals (coming from the same aircraft) at the Ground VHF Direction Finder station? They may result in bearing errors.

-What is the function of a FM-immune filter? To make the ILS-localizer receiver less susceptible to interference from commercial FM-stations (radio and television).

-What is the function of the control segment in GPS NAVSTAR? To ensure the transmitted data of the satellites is controlled and updated from time to time by ground stations.

-What is the function of the Echo Protection Circuit (EPC)? The EPC has to detect if the interrogator-receiver has been locked on, by reflected pulse-pairs.

-What is the heading bug selected to? 260°(M)

-What is the inclination to the equatorial plane of the satellite's orbit in the NAVSTAR GPS constellation? 55°

-What is the maximum latitude of a GPS-satellite ground track? 55° N/S

-What is the maximum number of usable Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) transponder codes in Mode A? 4096

-What is the maximum theoretical range that an aircraft at FL150 can receive signals from a VOR situated 609 feet above MSL? 184 NM

-What is the minimum level that an aircraft, at a range of 113 NM, must fly in order to contact the tower on R/T for a VDF bearing from an airport sited 169 FT above MSL? FL60

-What is the minimum number of NAVSTAR/GPS satellites required to produce an accurate independent 3-D position fix? 4

-What is the minimum number of satellites required by a GPS in order to obtain a three dimensional fix? 4

-What is the minimum number of satellites required for the NAVSTAR/GPS to carry out two dimensional operation? 3

-What is the procedure to be followed if, on a flight under IFR conditions using the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system, the number of satellites required to maintain the RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring) function are not available? The flight may be continued using other certificated navigation systems

-What is the time taken to receive the complete Navigation Message (complete set of data) from all satellites? 12.5 minutes (= 30 seconds per data frame)

-What is the value of the selected course? 299°(M)

-What is the value of the track from TBX to YTB? 097°(T)

-What is the wavelength of an NDB transmitting on 375 kHZ? 800 m

-What is true about the FMC databases: the data includes SIDs, STARS and runway approaches.

-What type of clock is used in NAVSTAR GPS satellites? Atomic

-What type of satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS receiver is most suitable for use on board an aircraft? Multichannel

-What wind velocity is indicated? 105°(M)/20KT

-When an aircraft is operating its Secondary Surveillance Radar in Mode C an air traffic controller's presentation gives information regarding the aircraft's indicated flight level in increments of: 100 FT

-When an operator increases the range on a radar-display, in general,: the PRF becomes lower and the pulse length larger.

-When entering and using a phantom waypoint in area navigation equipment, you: you don''t need to be within range of the referenced station to enter the waypoint, but you must be to use it

-When flying at 6000 feet above ground level, the DME indicates 5 NM. What is the horizontal distance from the aircraft to overhead the DME? 4.9 NM

-When Mode C is selected on the aircraft SSR transponder the additional information transmitted is: flight level based on 1013.25 hPa

-When using airborne weather radar in the mapping mode in polar areas one runs the risk: of mistaking the edge of coastal ice off shore for the real coastline.

-Where, in relation to the runway, is the ILS localiser transmitting aerial normally situated? On the non-approach end of the runway about 300 m from the runway on the extended centerline

-Which answer states the typical distances along the centerline of the runway of the various ILS components? Localizer transmitter: 300 meter behind end of runway, Glide path transmitter: 300 meter behind threshold, Middle Marker: 1000 meter from threshold, Outer Marker: 4 NM from threshold

-Which combination of characteristics gives best screen picture in a primary search radar? short pulse length and narrow beam

-Which component of an Area Navigation System displays the Cross Track Distance? Navigation display.

-Which component of the B737-400 Electronic Flight Instrument System generates the visual displays on the EADI and EHSI? Symbol Generator

-Which facility associated with the ILS may be identified by a two-letter identification group? Locator.

-Which frequency band is used by VOR transmissions? VHF

-Which of the distances indicated will be shown on a basic VOR/DME-based Area Navigation Equipment when using a 'Phantom Station'? 12 NM

-Which of the distances indicated will be shown on a basic VOR/DME-based Area Navigation Equipment when using a 'Phantom Station' at position 'X'? 9 NM

-Which of the figures depicts an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in Expanded (EXP) VOR/ILS mode with an ILS frequency selected? Figure 1

-Which of the figures depicts an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in MAP mode? Figure 3

-Which of the figures depicts an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in Expanded (EXP) VOR/ILS mode with an ILS frequency selected? Figure 5

-Which of the figures depicts an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in Expanded (EXP) VOR/ILS mode with an ILS frequency selected? Figure 5

-Which of the figures depicts an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in Expanded (EXP) VOR/ILS mode with a VOR frequency selected? Figure 4

-Which of the figures depicts an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in FULL VOR/ILS mode with an ILS frequency selected? Figure 6

-Which of the figures depicts an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in Expanded (EXP) VOR/ILS mode with an VOR frequency selected? Figure 4

-Which of the figures depicts an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in FULL VOR/ILS mode with an VOR frequency selected? Figure 1

-Which of the figures depicts an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) display in PLAN mode? Figure 2

-Which of the following affects VDF range? The height of the transmitter and of the receiver.

-Which of the following alternatives is correct regarding audio- and visual signals in the cockpit when passing overhead a middle marker? Audio: 1300 Hz, alternating dots and dashes. Visual: Amber light flashes.

-Which of the following are stored in the navigation database of the Flight Management System (FMS)? 1 - waypoints, 2 – details of radio navigation aids,3 - optimum altitudes, 4 - company routes, 5 - landing reference speeds:    1,2,4

-Which of the following cloud types is most readily detected by airborne weather radar? Cumulus

-Which of the following combinations is likely to result in the most accurate Area Navigation (RNAV) fixes? DME/DME

-Which of the following combinations of satellite navigation systems provide the most accurate position fixes in air navigation? NAVSTAR/GPS and GLONASS

-Which of the following coordinate systems is used by the NAVSTAR/GPS receiver to calculate position (latitude, longitude and altitude)? WGS 84

-Which of the following correctly describes the Instrument Landing System (ILS) localiser radiation pattern? Two overlapping lobes on the same VHF carrier frequency

-Which of the following correctly gives the principle of operation of the Loran C navigation system? Differential range by pulse technique

-Which of the following data can be found in the navigation database? 1: SIDs and STARs 2: radio aids 3: optimum flight level 4: company routes 5: cruise speeds:   Only 1, 2 and 4.

-Which of the following data, in addition to the Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) code, forms part of the so called 'Navigation Message' transmitted by NAVSTAR/GPS satellites? almanac data; satellite status information

-Which of the following equipments uses primary radar principles? Airborne weather radar (AWR)

-Which of the following equipments works on the interrogator/transponder principle? Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)

-Which of the following errors is associated with the use of VOR? Scalloping.

-Which of the following frequencies is within the DME frequency band? 1000 MHz

-Which of the following frequency-bands is used by the Loran C navigation system? 90 - 110 kHz

-Which of the following geometric satellite constellations provides the most accurate NAVSTAR/GPS position fix? 3 satellites with a low elevation above the horizon and an azimuth of 120° from each other together with a fourth directly overhead

-Which of the following gives the best information about the progress of a flight between 2 en-route waypoints from a RNAV equipment? ETO

-Which of the following is a complete list of airborne weather radar antenna stabilisation axes? roll and pitch

-Which of the following is an advantage of Ground/DF (VDF) let-down? It only requires a VHF radio to be fitted to the aircraft

-Which of the following is an ILS localiser frequency? 109.15 MHz

-Which of the following is correct regarding false beams on a glide path? False beams will only be found above the correct glide path.

-Which of the following is correct regarding the range of an NDB? Aircraft height is not limiting for the reception of signals from the NDB.

-Which of the following is likely to have the greatest effect on ADF accuracy? Interference from other NDBs, particularly at night

-Which of the following is one of the functions of the Computer in a basic RNAV system? It transfers the information given by a VOR/DME station into tracking and distance indications to any chosen Phantom Station/waypoint

-Which of the following is the datum for altitude information when conducting flights under IFR conditions on airways using the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system? Barometric altitude

-Which of the following is the ICAO allocated frequency band for ADF receivers? 190 - 1750 kHz

-Which of the following list use the VHF band: 1. Locator 2. Localiser 3. Outer Marker 4. Glide path The combination that regroups all the corrects statements is: 2 and 3.

-Which of the following lists all the parameters that can be determined by a GPS receiver tracking signals from 4 different satellites? Latitude, longitude, altitude and time

-Which of the following lists all the stages of flight when it is possible to change the route in the active flight plan on an FMS equipped aircraft? At any time before take-off and throughout the flight

-Which of the following lists are all errors that affect the accuracy and reliability of the Satellite-Assisted Navigation system (GNSS/GPS)? Satellite clock; satellite ephemeris; atmospheric propagation

-Which of the following lists information required to input a waypoint or 'Phantom Station' into a basic VOR/DME-based Area Navigation System? Radial and distance from a VOR/DME to the waypoint or 'Phantom Station'

-Which of the following lists the phenomena least likely to be detected by radar? clear air turbulence

-Which of the following lists the phenomena least likely to be detected by radar? clear air turbulence

-Which of the following Nav Aids will provide an RNAV system with position? VOR/DME.

-Which of the following NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system codes can be processed by 'unauthorised' civil aviation receivers? C/A

-Which of the following procedures must be adopted if, on a flight under IFR conditions using a NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system receiver, the position fix obtained from the GPS receiver differs from the position of conventional navigation systems by an unacceptable amount? It may be continued using conventional navigation systems

-Which of the following radar equipments operate by means of the pulse technique? 1. Aerodrome Surface Movement Radar 2. Airborne Weather Radar 3. Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) 4. Aerodrome Surveillance (approach) Radar: 1, 2, 3 and 4

-Which of the following satellite navigation systems has Full Operational Capability (FOC) and is approved for specified flights under IFR conditions in Europe? NAVSTAR/GPS

-Which of the following statements about the accuracy that can be obtained with the differential technique (D-GPS) of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS is correct? The nearer a receiver is situated to a D-GPS ground station, the more accurate the position fix

-Which of the following statements about the accuracy that can be obtained with the LAAS (local area augmentation system) of the satellite navigation system of the satellite navigation system NAVSTAR/GPS is correct? The closer the receiver is to a LAAS ground reference station, the more accurate is the aircraft position fix.

-Which of the following statements about the scalloping (path deflection) of VOR-radials, in relation to the accuracy of navigation using a VOR/DME RNAV-system, is correct? Scalloping has a negative effect on the accuracy of navigation.

-Which of the following statements about the 'visibility' of NAVSTAR/GPS satellites is correct? It varies, depending on the time and observer's location

-Which of the following statements concerning LORAN-C is correct? It is a hyperbolic navigation system that works on the principle of differential range by pulse technique

-Which of the following statements concerning the L1 and L2 NAVSTAR/GPS transmission frequencies and codes is correct? The higher frequency is used to transmit both the C/A and P codes

-Which of the following statements concerning the variable, or directional, signal of a conventional VOR is correct? The rotation of the variable signal at a rate of 30 times per second gives it the characteristics of a 30 Hz amplitude modulation

-Which of the following statements regarding B-RNAV is correct? For 95% of the flight time, the track keeping accuracy must not exceed 5 NM.

-Which of the following will give the most accurate calculation of aircraft ground speed? A DME station sited on the flight route

-Which of the following, if any, is a prerequisite if a receiver of a NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system is to be used in combination with a multi sensor system? The prescribed IFR-equipment must be installed and operational

-Which of these markers has the highest audible frequency? Inner

-Which one is the most correct statement regarding the range of the DME system? Range within "line of sight", and maximum 200 Nm

-Which one of the following correctly lists the major ground based components of a Microwave Landing System (MLS)? Separate azimuth and elevation transmitters, DME facility

-Which one of the following disturbances is most likely to cause the greatest inaccuracy in ADF bearings? Local thunderstorm activity

-Which one of the following errors can be compensated for by a NAVSTAR/GPS receiver comparing L1 and L2 frequencies? Ionospheric

-Which one of the following inputs to an Area Navigation System (R-NAV) comes from an external, not on-board, system? VOR/DME radial/distance

-Which one of the following is an advantage of a Microwave Landing System (MLS) compared with an Instrument Landing System (ILS)?It is insensitive to geographical site and can be installed at sites where it is not possible to use an ILS

-Which one of the following is an advantage of a secondary radar system when compared to a primary radar system? The required power of transmission from the ground equipment is reduced.

-Which one of the following is an advantages of a multi-sensor system using inputs from a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and an inertial reference system (IRS)? The GNSS can be used to update the FMS position from a drifting IRS.

-Which one of the following is an advantages of a multi-sensor system using inputs from a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and an inertial reference system (INS)? The GNSS can be used to update a drifting INS

-Which one of the following lists information given by a basic VOR/DME-based Area Navigation System when tracking inbound to a phantom waypoint? Crosstrack distance; alongtrack distance

-Which one of the following methods is used by a Microwave Landing System (MLS) to indicate distance from the runway threshold? A precision facility DME

-Which one of the following sensors/systems is self-contained? Inertial Navigation System

-Which one of the statements below is correct regarding the DME? The DME operating frequencies are in the UHF frequency band.

-Which statement about RNAV-routes is correct? A method of navigation which permots aircraft operation on any desired flight path.

-Which statement about the errors and effects on NDB radio signals is correct? The mountain effect is caused by reflections onto steep slopes of mountainous terrain which may cause big errors in the bearing.

-Which statement about the interrogation by the DME-interrogator is correct? The interrogation does not start before pulse-pairs of the tuned DME-station are received.

-Which statement is correct for homing towards an NDB in an area with constant wind and constant magnetic variation? The Relative Bearing of the NDB should be kept 000°.

-Which statement is correct for tracking towards an NDB in an area with constant wind and constant magnetic variation? The Relative Bearing of the NDB should be equal (in magnitude and sign) to the experienced Drift Angle.

-Which statement is correct with respect to selections on the transponder control panel? With ALT selected a reply in the modes A, C and S can be transmitted.

-Which statement is correct with respect to the different types of VOR? A TVOR has a limited range.

-Which statement is correct with respect to the range of an NDB? With propagation over sea the range will be greater than the range with propagation over land.

-Which statement is true about the use of the Doppler effect in a Doppler VOR? The Doppler effect is used to create a signal which is received by the aircraft's VOR-receiver as a frequency modulated signal.

-Which statement is true regarding a compass when directly overhead the north magnetic pole? the compass tip will point directly down

-Which statement relating to the stabilization of airborne weather radar antennae is true? They are stabilized with respect to the pitch and rollaxis but not with respect to the yaw-axis.

-Which statement with respect to interrogation modes is correct? Mode S Broadcast will transmit information to all mode S transponders.

-Why is a secondary radar display screen free of storm clutter? The principle of 'echo' return is not used in secondary radar

-With mode-S each aircraft can be uniquely interrogated and identified by using the: 24 bits address code, giving more than 16 million possible codes.

-With regard to the range of NDB's and the accuracy of the bearings they provide can be stated that in general at night: the range increases and the accuracy decreases.

-With respect to the principle of distance measurement using DME can be stated that: 1. the interrogation signal is transmitted on the same frequency as the reply signal. 2. the DME station always has a transponder delay of 50 milliseconds. 3. the time between the pulse pairs of the interrogation signal is at random. 4. In the search mode more pulse pairs per second are transmitted than in the tracking mode. Which of the above given statements are correct? 3 and 4

-You are flying along an airway which is 10 NM wide (5 NM either side of the centreline). The distance to the VOR/DME you are using is 100 NM. If you are on the airway boundary, how many dots deviation will the VOR needle show if one dot represents 2 degrees? 1.5

-You are on a compass heading of 090° on the 255 radial from a VOR. You set the course 190° on your OBS. The deviation bar will show: Full scale deflection left with a 'from' indication

-You are on a magnetic heading of 055° and your ADF indicates a relative bearing of 325°. The QDM is: 020°

-Your aircraft is heading 075°M. The OBI is set to 025°. The VOR indications are 'TO' with the needle showing right deflection. Relative to the station, you are situated in a quadrant defined by the radials: 205° and 295°

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navigation An aircraft is flying on a MH of 010°. The magnetic variation at the VOR is 10°W and at the aircraft 12°W. Which VOR-RMI corresponds to the indications on the CDI shown on the Annex? How does the Electronic Flight Instrument System display of a B737-400 respond to the failure of a VHF navigation (VOR) receiver? Concerning the localiser principle of operation in an ILS system, the difference in depth of modulation (DDM): 1) decreases with respect to the angular displacement from the centerline 2) increases with right displacement from the centerline 3) Which one of the following disturbances is most likely to cause the greatest inaccuracy in ADF bearings? In relation to primary radar, what does the term Pulse Recurrence Frequency signify? In a primary radar using pulse technique, pulse recurrence frequency (PRF)/pulse recurrence rate (PRR) determines: On which of the following radar displays is it possible to get an indication of the shape, and to some extent the type, of the aircraft generating the return? When an aircraft is operating its Secondary Surveillance Radar in Mode C an air traffic controller's presentation gives information regarding the aircraft's indicated flight level that is accurate to within: casa de lucas What is the wavelength of an NDB transmitting on 375 kHZ echo protection circuit rnav radio navigation Considering a primary radar system, what kind of aerials are used? radio nav an aircraft is on the 065 radial correlation between hsi 1 dot and ddm At what approximate height above the WGS-84 ellipsoid are NAVSTAR/GPS satellites circling the earth? content in a satellite-assisted navigation system (gnss/gps), a fix is obtained by: