Rationalism

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Rationalism
? House and House Fallet Jeanneret-Perret. Line the architecture of the place
It has an applied arts education. On his trip to Italy comes in contact with the monastic architecture. Perret in Paris working with. Work with HA and will use all his professional life. He inherited from his love of rationalist architecture. Work with Perens in Germany, where it comes into contact with the formal structure of the building. Discover the Parthenon in Greece (identified with the machine and the modern world). She is also interested in that trip to East St. Sophia and the popular architecture.
? Villa Schwob. Reference to Palladio (perfect matching parts and proportion). HA. Articulation of volumes around a central block (architecture revolutionary).
Want to solve the housing problem through the Domino system after the war. It is a system, not a house, to build a standardized way. Includes precast create the necessary spaces.
? House Citrohan. Germ to other dwellings. Two large front bearing walls and permeable. Reference to megaron (Aegean popular temple) and the double height of buildings.
? Ozenfant House. Cubical block, covered with terraces, large windows. Doubles heights.
? City Ground for 3m room. City contained. Two large rectangular main routes (Roman camp. Place 12 blocks in cross surrounding a central space, then blocks of 6 storeys and finally houses.
? Property Villa. Two great bands with a terrace street. Double height and roof gardens. Patio as a generator. It's typology, it comes into being.
? Casa La Roche-Jeanneret. The plant is of purifying plants revival (in L). It incorporates the ramp as communication elem.
? Plan Voisin de Paris. It poses major traffic problems. Pull historic center of Paris and put blocks on the cross.
? Esprit Nouveau Pavilion. Idea of purism to restore a fragment order from cubism. Standardization of elements. Show the double-height apartment Property Villa. Build a cheap housing with minimal housing.
? Pessac. Single-family housing as a united bloc. Double height, open terraces (nature). White plaster. (Perret says that hiding is lying, architecture should be timeless).
? Casa la Roche. Adaptation purist method Arts & Crafts.
? Villa Garches Steiner. Series of 5 points. Palladio's Villa Malcontenta (rectangle measures, ratios, division into three elements). Zooms in formal language and structural (HA and pta free).
? House in Weissenhofseidlung. Block of two houses joined together. Citrohan house type. It shows their 5 points. Living room-bedrooms. This exhibition (Werkbund) is important because they worry about the housing problem in Europe.
Present their work in Moscow in the OSA and oversees the Center Soyuz. Place ramps union between plants and use the correct breathing method (neutralizing wall with two glass walls separated by a vacuum). H seen.
? Villa Savoie. Take your 5 points to perfection. Want adapt classic references to perfection. Enjoy the environment. Villa closed, cubic and in contrast with nature. No longer single main facade. Integrates the machine aesthetic. Decentralized the native (no nucleus).
On his journey through South America is based in Rio to urbanize Algiers. Posed to unite two opposing areas with a large concrete viaduct under which places the residential town.
? Swiss Pavilion in University City. H Drywall and raw. On piles. Non-bearing and permeable facades.
? City Refuge. Glass seals. Common services below and then rooms. Non load-bearing facade.
? Ministry of Education. Solar narrow. Concrete gray and pink granite of the country to the pavement. Over large pilotis. Brisolei facade and recessed glass (gives formal structure), very functional.
? Villa Radieuse. Tapes building. On piles and garden areas. Horizontal Skyscraper (contribution to the housing unit). Pedestrians and cars at various levels.
? Unit room. Impacted by Russian collective housing. Housing and service cells to be stacked. Citrohan house type. Raw concrete, dry assembly. Construction (brisoleis). On piles. Use a module. Purpose: To have housing cells for normal middle class with a fantastic view and nice quality through standardization and prefabrication. Placed between floors shopping streets to give independence. No sense in Berlin.
? Chapel at Ronchamp. Change in formal structure. Linking with nature. Openings and asymmetrical towers, light very important. Bearing walls.
? Chandigard. Planning for the new capital. Seven tracks, major with orthogonal intersection. Key areas: shops, museums and universities (west), hospitals (south) and political acropolis (north). Wooded areas. Open, can be expanded.
? Courthouse. Water and sunlight enhance the work. Facades for sun screen. Entry decentered. H raw. Ramps.
? Assembly building. Combines square and circle (family throughout history. Pillared room with monolithic columns. Brisoleis. Seven modules plus two front stair. Large scale. Raw material and expressive.
? Convento de la Tourette. Rereading of traditional plant monastery. Faculty open. Cells of monks with balcony (natura). Raw concrete. Prism open space for the viewer is closed. Church closed with top lighting.



The modern movement in Italy.
Vanguard futuristic only in Italy. Before those years years 20-30 lead on a reaction? Many artists and recompose unhook other group.
"Novecento italiano? Piacentini and Muzio
-G7? Terragni
Both groups are progressive and have a common reference? The event, which will be treated differently. Novecento In order attempts to reconstruct the lost through the classical tradition, without regard to other countries because they have a glorious past.
Terragni The idea is to return to tradition with an abstraction. Many classical references, but not traditional elements or an order.
In Italy, Mussolini's fascism in the 40 allies with Hitler and the architecture is fed back.

Novecento (1923)? recovery of the bonds of tradition
Group of 7 (1926)? trained in the Polytechnic of Milan. The new architecture should be the result of close alignment with logic, rationality, the perfect coherence of the building with its aims, we are confident of achieving by style selection ...

Terragni (1904-43)
Born in Como, has been almost unknown until the '80s because he was architect of Mussolini.
He took his degree in physics and mathematics and then joined the Milan Polytechnic in architecture. In 1927 he opened his studio and was invited to the Weissenhof. In 1922 the King of Italy gave him his powers to Mussolini. After 1936, awareness is fascism. ? Mussolini tries to create the third Rome. In 1928 the first exhibition of the Group of 7.

Within the rationalist architecture, although their first points are influenced by the Novecento. In this line there are a number of monuments.
-War Memorial, Erba
Very classic. Uploads terraced into the crypt inside the monument (Reference in the gardens of Belvedere). Collect Roman technique.
-War Memorial, Piacentini
Pick a triumphal arch in a much more literal.
"Monument to the Fallen.
It is based on a draft SantElia. Grand staircase. All reinforced concrete.
-Tombs
Classic elements. In a column there. The material is expressive. Concrete structure. Plants concerning Michelangelo.
Sarfatti-Tomb (1934-35)
Symmetry, solid blocks.

In 1928 the first exhibition presented for two versions of Novocomum: a version of the Novecento and other rationalist.
It performs the rationalist who is the first building of modern architecture in Italy. There are no superfluous elements, windows cut. There is total freedom in the plant to experience the free plan. Two courtyards open to put a better light and guidance. Three entrances.

Since 1930 houses.

- House for an artist in the lake (1930-33)
Cubic blocks, flat roofs. Separation of load-bearing elements and ported. Façade curtain permeable. Double height living room.
- Casa del Fascio, 1932
Located in Como, but will get more elsewhere. For the Fascist party and the house must be like a crystal, transparent. The facade is very permeable. The house is a sacred space, which represents the most emblematic of the party. Is cubic and permeable. It has its benchmark in the Farnese Palace. Its goals are clearer and orientation lighting, perfect patency between outside and inside.
The four facades are completely different. The two axes of the house match those of the Roman route from Como takes the referent of the Italian Renaissance palace to abstract elements are not identified.
It uses the ratio, square regular module. Create a square in which the space turns into a lounge (covered patio) that is off.
Accessed by an atrium. In a series of back room office. It raises the interior so that it is organized so that the crowd can not capture the entire building. Roof lined with black marble (symbolizing important place). Non-loadbearing facades.
Front cover of marble slabs. Idea glass house (everyone has to know what's happening inside). Inside neoplasticist aesthetic decoration.
On one side is a solid following the idea Litoria Tower (bell tower of the medieval period taken to put a balcony to the representative of the party).

In 1932 there is a memorial exhibition of 10 years of fascism. Commissioned to decorate a room. Avant-garde aesthetic.

On the Via del Imperio (only made a scrap) went to place the emblematic buildings of the scheme (Litoria Palace and Danteum).
Litoria Palace for two solutions were proposed. One of them has a semicircular plaza and the other is cubic, rational, with compositions within the Neo, permeable cover, curtain walls.
The Danteum not carried out. He handles the academy of language as a tribute to Dante. Large rectangle. Deployment of columns (monolithic glass ...). Represents the passage of Hell-Purgatory-Paradise. Exterior decorated with sculptures that are identified with the poet's life. Identifies the scenes of the Divine Comedy with traditional life. In hell there is monolithic columns and closed. The corridor is very narrow (for a person because that path has to be done one at a time). Purgatory is a tight block with holes in the ceiling. The paradise has transparent glass columns.

- Casa Rustici, 1933-35, Milan
Two blocks that join in front with a terrace and patio in the middle of a U open garden. Separation of the service and noble houses. Finished with high ledge and open loggia.
- Villa Bianca, 1936
Following the idea of rational construction. Cubic form. White plaster, flat roofs. No permeability or free plants as Le Corbusier. Objective: To maintain the comfort inside.
- House of floriculture, 1936-37
On piles. Tape windows allowed by the structure.
- SantElia Asylum, 1934-37, As
Glazed Soyud links to the center. Facade permeable. U-landscaped courtyard. Galleries covered with glass architecture.
- Casa Giuliani Frigerio (1939-40), As
Block of flats, permeable facade. Work with elements of Le Corbusier, but does not use the free plan. Idea of not unify facades.

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